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Pawlowski K.,University of Stockholm | Bogusz D.,Institute Of Recherche Pour Le Dveloppement | Ribeiro A.,ECO BIO Tropical Research Institute | Berry A.M.,University of California at Davis
Functional Plant Biology | Year: 2011

In recent years, our understanding of the plant side of actinorhizal symbioses has evolved rapidly. No homologues of the common nod genes from rhizobia were found in the three Frankia genomes published so far, which suggested that Nod factor-like molecules would not be used in the infection of actinorhizal plants by Frankia. However, work on chimeric transgenic plants indicated that Frankia Nod factor equivalents signal via the same transduction pathway as rhizobial Nod factors. The role of auxin in actinorhizal nodule formation differs from that in legume nodulation. Great progress has been made in the analysis of pathogenesis-related and stress-related gene expression in nodules. Research on nodule physiology has shown the structural and metabolic diversity of actinorhizal nodules from different phylogenetic branches. The onset of large-scale nodule transcriptome analysis in different actinorhizal systems will provide access to more information on the symbiosis and its evolution. © CSIRO 2011. Source


Schubert M.,University of Gottingen | Koteyeva N.K.,RAS Komarov Botanical Institute | Zdyb A.,University of Stockholm | Santos P.,University of Stockholm | And 5 more authors.
Physiologia Plantarum | Year: 2013

The oxygen protection system for the bacterial nitrogen-fixing enzyme complex nitrogenase in actinorhizal nodules of Casuarina glauca resembles that of legume nodules: infected cells contain large amounts of the oxygen-binding protein hemoglobin and are surrounded by an oxygen diffusion barrier. However, while in legume nodules infected cells are located in the central tissue, actinorhizal nodules are composed of modified lateral roots with infected cells in the expanded cortex. Since an oxygen diffusion barrier around the entire cortex would also block oxygen access to the central vascular system where it is required to provide energy for transport processes, here each individual infected cell is surrounded with an oxygen diffusion barrier. In order to assess the effect of these oxygen diffusion barriers on oxygen supply for energy production for transport processes, apoplastic and symplastic sugar transport pathways in C. glauca nodules were examined. The results support the idea that sugar transport to and within the nodule cortex relies to a large extent on the less energy-demanding symplastic mechanism. This is in line with the assumption that oxygen access to the nodule vascular system is substantially restricted. In spite of this dependence on symplastic transport processes to supply sugars to infected cells, plasmodesmal connections between infected cells, and to a lesser degree with uninfected cells, were reduced during the differentiation of infected cells. © Physiologia Plantarum 2012. Source


Ribeiro A.,ECO BIO Tropical Research Institute | Graca I.,ECO BIO Tropical Research Institute | Pawlowski K.,University of Stockholm | Santos P.,ECO BIO Tropical Research Institute | Santos P.,Michigan State University
Functional Plant Biology | Year: 2011

Actinorhizal plants have become increasingly important as climate changes threaten to remake the global landscape over the next decades. These plants are able to grow in nutrient-poor and disturbed soils, and are important elements in plant communities worldwide. Besides that, most actinorhizal plants are capable of high rates of nitrogen fixation due to their capacity to establish root nodule symbiosis with N2-fixing Frankia strains. Nodulation is a developmental process that requires a sequence of highly coordinated events. One of these mechanisms is the induction of defence-related events, whose precise role in a symbiotic interaction remains to be elucidated. This review summarises what is known about the induction of actinorhizal defence-related genes in response to symbiotic Frankia and their putative function during symbiosis. © CSIRO 2011. Source


Santos P.,ECO BIO Tropical Research Institute | Santos P.,University of Stockholm | Fortunato A.,ECO BIO Tropical Research Institute | Graca I.,ECO BIO Tropical Research Institute | And 7 more authors.
Symbiosis | Year: 2010

Actinorhizal plants are capable of high rates of nitrogen fixation, due to their capacity to establish a rootnodule symbiosis with N2-fixing actinomycetes of the genus Frankia. Nodulation is an ontogenic process which requires a sequence of highly coordinated events. One of these mechanisms is the induction of defense-related events, whose precise role during nodulation is largely unknown. In order to contribute to the clarification of the involvement of defense-related genes during actinorhizal root-nodule symbiosis, we have analysed the differential expression of several genes with putative defense-related functions in Casuarina glauca nodules versus noninoculated roots. Four genes encoding a chitinase (CgChi1), a glutathione S-transferase (CgGst), a hairpin-inducible protein (CgHin1) and a peroxidase (CgPox4) were found to be up-regulated in mature nodules compared to roots. In order to find out to which extend were the encoded proteins involved in nodule protection, development or both, gene regulation studies in response to SA and wounding as well as phylogenetic analysis of the protein sequences were performed. These were further characterized through expression studies after SA-treatment and wounding, and by phylogenetic analysis. We suggest that CgChi1 and CgGst are involved in defense or microsymbiont control and CgPox4 is involved in nodule development. For CgHin1 the question "defense, development or both" remains open. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009. Source


Ribeiro A.,ECO BIO Tropical Research Institute | Berry A.M.,University of California at Davis | Pawlowski K.,University of Stockholm | Santos P.,ECO BIO Tropical Research Institute | Santos P.,Michigan State University
Functional Plant Biology | Year: 2011

Actinorhizal plants are a group of taxonomically diverse angiosperms with remarkable economic and ecological significance. Most actinorhizal plants are able to thrive under extreme adverse environmental conditions as well as to fix atmospheric nitrogen due to their capacity to establish root nodule symbioses with Frankia bacteria. This special issue of Functional Plant Biology is dedicated to actinorhizal plant research, covering part of the work presented at the 16th International Meeting onFrankia and Actinorhizal Plants, held on 58 September 2010, in Oporto, Portugal. The papers (4 reviews and 10 original articles) give an overall picture of the status of actinorhizal plant research and the imposed challenges, covering several aspects of the symbiosis, ecology and molecular tools. © CSIRO 2011. Source

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