Nonaka-Kinoshita M.,TU Dresden |
Reillo I.,University Miguel Hernandez |
Artegiani B.,TU Dresden |
Angeles Martinez-Martinez M.,University Miguel Hernandez |
And 3 more authors.
EMBO Journal | Year: 2013
Size and folding of the cerebral cortex increased massively during mammalian evolution leading to the current diversity of brain morphologies. Various subtypes of neural stem and progenitor cells have been proposed to contribute differently in regulating thickness or folding of the cerebral cortex during development, but their specific roles have not been demonstrated. We report that the controlled expansion of unipotent basal progenitors in mouse embryos led to megalencephaly, with increased surface area of the cerebral cortex, but not to cortical folding. In contrast, expansion of multipotent basal progenitors in the naturally gyrencephalic ferret was sufficient to drive the formation of additional folds and fissures. In both models, changes occurred while preserving a structurally normal, six-layered cortex. Our results are the first experimental demonstration of specific and distinct roles for basal progenitor subtypes in regulating cerebral cortex size and folding during development underlying the superior intellectual capability acquired by higher mammals during evolution. © 2013 European Molecular Biology Organization. Source
Echelon | Date: 2013-03-13
A method of surface marking an article, especially a building product, is provided. One described method includes the steps of laser marking a first graphic design element on a surface of an article and ink-jet printing a second graphic design element in registry with the first graphic design element on the surface of the article to create a high quality overall graphic design. Also provided are articles made according to this method, and systems for carrying out the method.
Echelon | Date: 2013-03-14
A staggered laser-etch line graphic system, method, and articles of manufacture are provided. One described method includes the steps of laser engraving a first plurality of lines associated with a first component section of a graphic on a surface of an article; laser engraving a second plurality of lines associated with a second component section of the graphic on the surface of the article; and controlling said laser engraving of the first plurality of lines and said laser engraving of second plurality of lines to reduce the visual impact of a demarcation line separating the first component section of the graphic and the second component section of the graphic.
Echelon | Date: 2013-03-15
A method implemented in a device is disclosed for networking through signals transmitted across a shared medium network. The method starts with monitoring for a first signal on a shared medium of the shared medium network. The first signal is processed after it is received and while the first signal is being processed, a set of one or more signals is received on the shared medium. Then a set of one or more amplitude increases is determined, where each amplitude increase is from an earlier received signal to a later received signal. The set of one or more amplitude increases is compared to a threshold value and at least partially in response to the comparison, the device discards one or more signals from the first signal and the set of one or more signals.
Echelon | Date: 2013-03-15
A method is disclosed for detecting packet at a receiving system in a Multi-Carrier Modulation (MCM) system. The method starts with receiving a signal at the receiving system. Then during the plurality of symbol durations, a set of phases of the signal for each symbol duration is obtained, where each phase is a phase of a carrier of the number of carriers. Then a set of phase variances for each carrier of the number of carriers is obtained, where each phase variance is a difference of phases of a carrier in different symbol durations. Then a phase variance value based on the set of phase variances is computed and it is compared with a threshold to determine whether a packet has been detected from the received signal.