Eccentricities Ltd.

Camberley, United Kingdom

Eccentricities Ltd.

Camberley, United Kingdom
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Hobbs D.A.,Hugh Sinclair Unit of Human Nutrition | Hobbs D.A.,University of Reading | Goulding M.G.,Hugh Sinclair Unit of Human Nutrition | Goulding M.G.,University of Reading | And 11 more authors.
Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2013

Dietary nitrate, from beetroot, has been reported to lower blood pressure (BP) by the sequential reduction of nitrate to nitrite and further to NO in the circulation. However, the impact of beetroot on microvascular vasodilation and arterial stiffness is unknown. In addition, beetroot is consumed by only 4.5% of the UK population, whereas bread is a staple component of the diet. Thus, we investigated the acute effects of beetroot bread (BB) on microvascular vasodilation, arterial stiffness, and BP in healthy participants. Twenty-three healthy men received 200 g bread containing 100 g beetroot (1.1 mmol nitrate) or 200 g control white bread (CB; 0 g beetroot, 0.01 mmol nitrate) in an acute, randomized, open-label, controlled crossover trial. The primary outcome was postprandial microvascular vasodilation measured by laser Doppler iontophoresis and the secondary outcomes were arterial stiffness measured by Pulse Wave Analysis and Velocity and ambulatory BP measured at regular intervals for a total period of 6 h. Plasma nitrate and nitrite were measured at regular intervals for a total period of 7 h. The incremental area under the curve (0-6 h after ingestion of bread) for endotheliumindependent vasodilation was greater (P = 0.017) and lower for diastolic BP (DBP; P = 0.032) but not systolic (P = 0.99) BP after BB comparedwith CB. These effects occurred in conjunctionwith increases in plasma and urinary nitrate (P < 0.0001) and nitrite (P < 0.001). BB acutely increased endothelium-independent vasodilation and decreased DBP. Therefore, enriching bread with beetroot may be a suitable vehicle to increase intakes of cardioprotective beetroot in the diet and may provide new therapeutic perspectives in the management of hypertension. © 2013 American Society for Nutrition.


Hobbs D.A.,University of Reading | Kaffa N.,University of Reading | George T.W.,Eccentricities Ltd | Methven L.,University of Reading | Lovegrove J.A.,University of Reading
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2012

A number of vegetables have a high nitrate content which after ingestion can be reduced to nitrite by oral bacteria, and further to vasoprotective NO endogenously. In the present study, two separate randomly controlled, single-blind, cross-over, postprandial studies were performed in normotensive volunteers. Ambulatory blood pressure (BP) was measured over a 24h period following consumption of either four doses of beetroot juice (BJ), 0, 100, 250 and 500g (n 18), or three bread products, control bread (0g beetroot), red beetroot- and white beetroot-enriched breads (n 14). Total urinary nitrate/nitrite (NO x) was measured at baseline, and at 2, 4 and 24h post-ingestion. BJ consumption significantly, and in a near dose-dependent manner, lowered systolic BP (SBP, P<0·01) and diastolic BP (DBP, P<0·001) over a period of 24h, compared with water control. Furthermore, bread products enriched with 100g red or white beetroot lowered SBP and DBP over a period of 24h (red beetroot-enriched bread, P<0·05), with no statistical differences between the varieties. Total urinary NO x significantly increased following the consumption of 100g (P<0·01), 250g (P<0·001) and 500g BJ (P<0·001) and after red beetroot-enriched bread ingestion (P<0·05), but did not reach significance for white beetroot-enriched bread compared with the no-beetroot condition. These studies demonstrated significant hypotensive effects of a low dose (100g) of beetroot which was unaffected by processing or the presence of betacyanins. These data strengthen the evidence for cardioprotective BP-lowering effects of dietary nitrate-rich vegetables. Copyright © 2012 The Authors.


Hobbs D.A.,University of Reading | Ashouri A.,University of Reading | George T.W.,Eccentricities Ltd. | Lovegrove J.A.,University of Reading | Methven L.,University of Reading
Food Research International | Year: 2014

Currently UK fruit and vegetable intakes are below recommendations. Bread is a staple food consumed by approximately 95% of adults in western countries. In addition, bread provides an ideal matrix by which functionality can be delivered to the consumer in an accepted and convenient food. Therefore, enriching bread with vegetables may be an effective strategy to increase vegetable consumption. This study evaluated bread enriched with red beetroot, carrot with coriander, red pepper with tomato or white beetroot (40. g vegetable per 100. g) compared to white control bread (0. g vegetable) for consumer acceptance. Consumers (n= 120) rated their liking of the breads overall, as well as their liking of appearance, flavour and texture using nine-point hedonic scales. Product replacement and purchase intent of the breads were rated using five-point scales. The effect of providing consumers with health information about the breads was also evaluated. There were significant differences in overall liking (P<. 0.0001), as well as liking of appearance (P<. 0.0001), flavour (P= 0.0002) and texture (P= 0.04), between the breads. However, the significant differences resulted from the red beetroot bread which was significantly (P<. 0.05) less liked compared to control bread. There were no significant differences in overall liking between any of the other vegetable-enriched breads compared with the control bread (no vegetable inclusion). The provision of health information about the breads did not increase consumer liking of the vegetable-enriched breads. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that vegetable-enriched bread appeared to be an acceptable strategy to increase vegetable intake, however, liking depended on vegetable type. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Hobbs D.A.,University of Reading | George T.W.,Eccentricities Ltd | Lovegrove J.A.,University of Reading
Journal of Human Hypertension | Year: 2014

Our objective was to investigate whether the presence of Glu298Asp polymorphism in the endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) gene differentially affects the postprandial blood pressure response to dietary nitrate-rich beetroot bread. A randomised, single-blind, controlled, crossover acute pilot study was performed in 14 healthy men (mean age: 34±9 years) who were retrospectively genotyped for Glu298Asp polymorphism (7GG; T carriers 7). Volunteers were randomised to receive 200 g beetroot-enriched bread (1.1 mmol nitrate) or control bread (no beetroot; 0.01 mmol nitrate) on two separate occasions 10 days apart. Baseline and incremental area under the curve of blood pressure and NOx (nitrate/nitrite) were measured for a 6-h postprandial period. A treatment × genotype interaction was observed for diastolic blood pressure (P<0.02), which was significantly lower in T carriers (P<0.01) after consumption of beetroot bread compared with control bread. No significant differences were observed in the GG group. The beneficial diastolic blood pressure reduction was observed only in the T carriers of the Glu298Asp polymorphism in the eNOS gene after consumption of nitrate-rich beetroot bread. These data require confirmation in a larger population group. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.

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