EAU DE PARIS

La Côte-Saint-André, France

EAU DE PARIS

La Côte-Saint-André, France
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Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: PCP | Phase: ICT-34-2016 | Award Amount: 4.44M | Year: 2017

European Water utilities environment is embedded in a context dealing with global issues such as water scarcity and technical-economic issues such as infrastructure aging. Management of drinking water supply is facing key challenges partly related to traditional water meter, such as managing capital and operational costs; water loss (also known as non-revenue water) due to leaks and other system failures; and water scarcity/conservation. The core of the solution lies in the renewed access and use of accurate data that Smart Water Metering can provide to decrease operating costs, identify performance issues, improve customer service and better prioritize infrastructure investments. SMART.MET strongly paves the way to a more efficient management providing for example automatic reading of the household meters and billing, real time assessment of water balance for leak detection, identification of abnormal behaviors and awareness-raising, ability to identify user-meters defaults. However, the lack of common European standards and lack of open technological platforms combined to the high transaction cost on the demand side create a lock-in situation in the market and determine a situation of long-term dependency of water operators on technology providers. This determines high average operating costs for water operators and users, as well as collective inefficiency related to the multiplication of different proprietary solutions on the offer side. The objective of the proposal is thus to drive the development of new technologies to manage smart metering data collection and management, driven by a group of 7 water utilities through a joint Pre Commercial Procurement (PCP). They are supported by 6 expert organizations for assessing the technologies, implement the new procurement procedures and disseminate the outcomes of the project to other utilities and solutions suppliers. The duration of the project is 48 months.


Poitelon J.-B.,EAU de PARIS | Poitelon J.-B.,University Paris - Sud | Joyeux M.,EAU de PARIS | Welte B.,EAU de PARIS | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2010

We examined the variations of bacterial populations in treated drinking water prior to and after the final chlorine disinfection step at two different surface water treatment plants. For this purpose, the bacterial communities present in treated water were sampled after granular activated carbon (GAC) filtration and chlorine disinfection from two drinking water treatment plants supplying the city of Paris (France). Samples were analyzed after genomic DNA extraction, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification, cloning, and sequencing of a number of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. The 16S rDNA sequences were clustered into operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and the OTU abundance patterns were obtained for each sample. The observed differences suggest that the chlorine disinfection step markedly affects the bacterial community structure and composition present in GAC water. Members of the Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria were found to be predominant in the GAC water samples after phylogenetic analyses of the OTUs. Following the chlorine disinfection step, numerous changes were observed, including decreased representation of Proteobacteria phylotypes. Our results indicate that the use of molecular methods to investigate changes in the abundance of certain bacterial groups following chlorine-based disinfection will aid in further understanding the bacterial ecology of drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs), particularly the disinfection step, as it constitutes the final barrier before drinking water distribution to the consumer's tap. © 2009 Society for Industrial Microbiology.


Moulin L.,EAU DE PARIS | Richard F.,EAU DE PARIS | Stefania S.,EAU DE PARIS | Goulet M.,EAU DE PARIS | And 5 more authors.
Water Research | Year: 2010

Urban part of Seine River serving as drinking water supply in Paris can be heavily contaminated by Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis. In the absence of agricultural practice in this highly urbanized area, we investigated herein the contribution of treated wastewater to the microbiological quality of this river focusing on these two parasites. Other microorganisms such as faecal bacterial indicators, enteroviruses and oocysts of Toxoplasma gondii were assessed concurrently. Raw wastewaters were heavily contaminated by Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts, whereas concentrations of both protozoa in treated wastewater were lower. Treated wastewater, flowed into Seine River, had a parasite concentration closed to the one found along the river, in particular at the entry of a drinking water plant (DWP). Even if faecal bacteria were reliable indicators of a reduction in parasite concentrations during the wastewater treatment, they were not correlated to protozoal contamination of wastewater and river water. Oocysts of T. gondii were not found in both raw and treated wastewater, or in Seine River. Parasitic contamination was shown to be constant in the Seine River up to 40. km upstream Paris. Altogether, these results strongly suggest that treated wastewater does not contribute to the main parasitic contamination of the Seine River usually observed in this urbanized area. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Birgand F.,North Carolina Stage University | Lellouche G.,Eau de Paris | Appelboom T.W.,North Carolina Stage University
Journal of Hydrology | Year: 2013

The vast majority of hydrological stations are set up such that discharge can be estimated from the sole measurement of water height or stage above a local datum. Hydraulics laws show that in the right conditions there may be a unique and stable relationship between stage and discharge, which can be described by a rating curve. For short-term projects where there may be little choice for station location and time to construct a detailed rating curve, conditions for the use of rating curves may be less than ideal, potentially yielding high uncertainties on hydrologic measurements. This article evaluates uncertainties induced on instantaneous flow rates and cumulative annual flow volumes by the use of one-segmented rating curves in small streams. Uncertainty distributions were obtained by simulating rating curves calculated from random sampling of reference flow and stage data obtained with Doppler flowmeters. Factors tested included the number of manual gauged points, the type of rating curve (power vs polynomial), the use or not of the observed stage-of-zero flow, the spread of gauged points along flow range, and the measurement errors during gauging. Results could vary widely depending on the scenarios tested and sometimes yielded very high uncertainties. The best scenario yielded significant uncertainties on annual cumulative flow volume included between -13% and +14% for the low gradient streams and between -5% and +7% for the higher gradient streams, and for 22 manual gauged points per year. Our results show that, even in the best scenario, very significant uncertainty can result from using one-segmented rating curve in non-ideal situations in the field. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Delafont V.,CNRS Ecobiological Interactions | Brouke A.,EAU DE PARIS | Bouchon D.,CNRS Ecobiological Interactions | Moulin L.,EAU DE PARIS | Hechard Y.,CNRS Ecobiological Interactions
Water Research | Year: 2013

Free-living amoebae (FLA) are protozoa that can be found in water networks where they prey on bacteria within biofilms. Most bacteria are digested rapidly by phagocytosis, however some are able to survive within amoebae and some are even able to multiply, as it is the case for Legionella pneumophila. These resisting bacteria are a potential health problem as they could also resist to macrophage phagocytosis. Several publications already reported intra-amoebal bacteria but the methods of identification did not allow metagenomic analysis and are partly based on co-culture with one selected amoebal strain. The aim of our study was to conduct a rRNA-targeted metagenomic analysis on amoebae and intra-amoebal bacteria found in drinking water network, to provide the first FLA microbiome in environmental strains. Three sites of a water network were sampled during four months. Culturable FLA were isolated and total DNA was prepared, allowing purification of both amoebal and bacterial DNA. Metagenomic studies were then conducted through 18S or 16S amplicons sequencing. Hartmannella was by far the most represented genus of FLA. Regarding intra-amoebal bacteria, 54 genera were identified, among which 21 were newly described intra-amoebal bacteria, underlying the power of our approach. There were high differences in bacterial diversity between the three sites. Several genera were highly represented and/or found at least in two sites, underlying that these bacteria could be able to multiply within FLA. Our method is therefore useful to identify FLA microbiome and could be applied to other networks to have a more comprehensive view of intra-amoebal diversity. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Radomski N.,University Paris Est Creteil | Cambau E.,AP HP | Cambau E.,Laboratory Associe Du Ctr National Of Reference Des Mycobacteries Et Of La Resistance Aux Antituberculeux | Moulin L.,Eau de Paris | And 3 more authors.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2010

The environment is the likely source of most nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) involved in human infections, especially pulmonary, skin, and soft tissue infections. In order to measure the prevalence of NTM in different aquatic ecosystems, we tried to standardize the culture methods used for surface water testing since many procedures have been described previously. Cultivation of mycobacteria requires long-term incubation in rich media and inactivation of rapidly growing microorganisms whose growth impedes observation of mycobacterial colonies. Consequently, the two criteria used for evaluation of the methods examined were (i) the rate of inhibition of nontarget microorganisms and (ii) the efficiency of recovery of mycobacteria. We compared the competitive growth of Mycobacterium chelonae and M. avium with nontarget microorganisms on rich Middlebrook 7H11-mycobactin medium after treatment by several chemical decontamination methods that included acids, bases, detergent, or cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) with and without an antibiotic cocktail, either PANTA (40 U/ml polymyxin, 4 μg/ml amphotericin B, 16 μg/ml nalidixic acid, 4 μg/ml trimethoprim, and 4 μg/ml azlocillin) or PANTAV (PANTA plus 10 μg/ml vancomycin). Our results showed that treatment for 30 min with CPC (final concentration, 0.05%) of water concentrated by centrlfugation, followed by culture on a rich medium supplemented with PANTA, significantly decreased the growth of nontarget microorganisms (the concentrations were 6.2 ± 0.4 logl0 CFU/liter on Middlebrook 7H11j medium and 4.2 ± 0.2 log10 CFU/liter on Middlebrook 7H11j medium containing PANTA [P < 0.001]), while the effect of this procedure on NTM was not as great (the concentrations of M. chelonae on the two media were 7.0 ± 0.0 log 10 CFU/liter and 6.9 ± 0.0 log10 CFU/liter, respectively, and the concentrations of M. avium were 9.1 ± 0.0 log 10 CFU/liter and 8.9 ± 0.0 log10 CFU/liter, respectively). We propose that this standardized culture procedure could be used for detection of NTM in aquatic samples. Copyright © 2010, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


Radomski N.,University Paris Est Creteil | Lucas F.S.,University Paris Est Creteil | Moilleron R.,University Paris Est Creteil | Cambau E.,AP HP | And 3 more authors.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2010

A real-time quantitative PCR method was developed for the detection and enumeration of Mycobacterium spp. from environmental samples and was compared to two other methods already described. The results showed that our method, targeting 16S rRNA, was more specific than the two previously published real-time quantitative PCR methods targeting another 16S rRNA locus and the hsp65 gene (100% versus 44% and 91%, respectively). Copyright © 2010, American Society for Microbiology.


Wurtzer S.,Eau de Paris | Prevost B.,University Paris Est Creteil | Lucas F.S.,University Paris Est Creteil | Moulin L.,Eau de Paris
Journal of Virological Methods | Year: 2014

Despite the progress in water and wastewater treatment technologies, waterborne diseases are still a major concern of public health. In the reported water-related outbreaks, viruses constitute one of the main causal agents. Enteroviruses are one of the most viruses monitored in water and are often used as an indicator of viral pollution. Isolation and identification of this virus are now regularly based on molecular tools. However published or commercial protocols for detection of these viruses in water are frequently lacking of validation processes and performance evaluation in such complex samples. A method for enterovirus detection in environmental water has been developed, its performance has been evaluated and compared with several commercial kits.The sensitivity of commercial methods in clinical samples, ranged between 89% and 100%, while the sensitivity in seeded environmental matrices fell between 16% and 91%. This method showed the best performance in environmental samples and was subsequently applied on surface and treated wastewater. The results showed the large dissemination of enteroviruses in an urbanized river. The results also emphasized the importance of good knowledge of the method's limits for its utilization in environmental samples in order to minimize false negatives and to avoid underestimating viral concentration. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Delafont V.,CNRS Ecobiological Interactions | Bouchon D.,CNRS Ecobiological Interactions | Hechard Y.,CNRS Ecobiological Interactions | Moulin L.,Eau de Paris
Water Research | Year: 2016

Free-living amoebae (FLA) constitute an important part of eukaryotic populations colonising drinking water networks. However, little is known about the factors influencing their ecology in such environments. Because of their status as reservoir of potentially pathogenic bacteria, understanding environmental factors impacting FLA populations and their associated bacterial community is crucial. Through sampling of a large drinking water network, the diversity of cultivable FLA and their bacterial community were investigated by an amplicon sequencing approach, and their correlation with physicochemical parameters was studied. While FLA ubiquitously colonised the water network all year long, significant changes in population composition were observed. These changes were partially explained by several environmental parameters, namely water origin, temperature, pH and chlorine concentration. The characterisation of FLA associated bacterial community reflected a diverse but rather stable consortium composed of nearly 1400 OTUs. The definition of a core community highlighted the predominance of only few genera, majorly dominated by Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas. Co-occurrence analysis also showed significant patterns of FLA-bacteria association, and allowed uncovering potentially new FLA - bacteria interactions. From our knowledge, this study is the first that combines a large sampling scheme with high-throughput identification of FLA together with associated bacteria, along with their influencing environmental parameters. Our results demonstrate the importance of physicochemical parameters in the ecology of FLA and their bacterial community in water networks. © 2016.


Thepot O.,EAU DE PARIS
29th International No-Dig Conference and Exhibition 2011, NO-DIG BERLIN 2011 | Year: 2011

This paper presents a new testing technique for the mechanical assessment of man entry sewers and aqueducts. The test procedure is presented and applications are illustrated with case studies. The testing apparatus consists of a mechanical loading system including a hydraulic jack which can produce cyclical loads on two diametrically opposite points via two bearing plates, a set of displacement captors mounted on rods, a data acquisition system and a trolley enabling the movement of the entire apparatus. The internal jacking test causes a small three-dimensional ovalization. Two measurements are made : the force-displacement curve along the force axis and the damping of the displacement in the longitudinal direction up to one diameter in range. From these two curves one calculates the global stiffness and the damping factor. Knowing the geometry of the sewer (shape and thickness), it is possible to back calculate the Young modulus of the structure and the Young modulus of the soil. The modulus computation technique is based upon the finite element method. Comparison of the measured modulus with corresponding modulus of material in good condition sets up the quality of the structure and the density of the soil. There are many applications for the MAC testing device : Firstly the identification of homogeneous zones and thence, the positioning of core holes in the structure and the surrounding soil. Secondly the back-calculation of the soil and structure modulus to qualify the quality of the material and the density of the soil. The third application concerns the effect of rehabilitation works : soil injections and linings.

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