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Noro M.,Toho University | Zhu X.,University of Aizu | Enomoto Y.,Toho University | Oikawa Y.,Boston Scientific Japan | And 15 more authors.
Circulation Journal

Background: To reduce myocardial damage caused by implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) shock, the left axilla was studied as an alternative pulse generator implantation site, and compared with the traditional implantation site, the left anterior chest. Methods and Results: Computer simulation was used to study the defibrillation conduction pattern and estimate the simulated defibrillation threshold (DFT) and myocardial damage when pulse generators were placed in the left axilla and left anterior chest, respectively; pulse generators were also newly implanted in the left axilla (n=30) and anterior chest (n=40) to compare the corresponding DFT. On simulation, when ICD generators were implanted in the left axilla, compared with the left anterior chest, the whole heart may be defibrillated with a lower defibrillation energy (left axilla 6.4 J vs. left anterior chest 12.0 J) and thus the proportion of cardiac myocardial damage may be reduced (2.1 vs. 4.2%). Clinically, ventricular fibrillation was successfully terminated with a defibrillation output ≤5 J in 86.7% (26/30) of the left axillary group, and in 27.5% (11/40) of the left anterior group (P<0.001). Conclusions: Clinically and theoretically, the left axilla was shown to be an improved ICD implantation site that may reduce DFT and lessen myocardial damage due to shock. Lower DFT also facilitates less myocardial damage, as a result of the lower shock required. © 2016, Japanese Circulation Society. All rights reserved. Source

Noro M.,Toho University | Kujime S.,Toho University | Ito N.,Toho University | Enomoto Y.,Toho University | And 4 more authors.
Circulation Journal

Background: Radiofrequency catheter ablation (RF) has recently become widely available for the treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF) and has broadened treatment options while confusing the selection of medication therapy or RF. Methods and Results: Two drugs for the maintenance of sinus rhythm (Ry) and 2 drugs for control of the pulse rate (Ra) were selected and the costs of medication therapy were calculated. RF procedures were grouped into 2 groups each for persistent or paroxysmal AF (RF) and for chronic AF (RFChr), according to the cost of the devices used. The calculated cost of medication therapy was 5,270-23,560 yen per month. The calculated cost of RF procedures was 1,063,200-2,029,640 yen. The costs of RF corresponded to those of Ry for 3.8-14.3 years. The costs of RFChr corresponded to those of Ra for 16.6-63.9 years. The treatment of complications ranged from 360,000 to 1,241,500 yen. Conclusions: From the aspect of medical costs and complications, RF should be considered for the treatment of patients with AF detected early or early-stage AF, whereas treatment for its complications should be given priority in patients with chronic AF associated with reduced cardiac function. Source

Noro M.,Toho University | Zhu X.,University of Aizu | Takagi T.,Toho University | Sahara N.,Toho University | And 16 more authors.
Journal of Arrhythmia

1Background The need for ways to minimize the number of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) shocks is increasing owing to the risk of its adverse effects on life expectancy. Studies have shown that a longer detection time for ventricular tachyarrhythmia reduces the safety of therapies, in terms of syncope and mortality, but not substantially in terms of the success rate. We aimed to evaluate the effects of increased number of intervals to detect (NID) VF on the safety of ICD shock therapy and on the reduction of inappropriate shocks. Methods The present study was a prospective, multicenter, randomized, crossover study. Randomized VF induction testing with NID 18/24 or 30/40 was performed to compare the success rate of defibrillation with a 25-J shock and the time to detection. Inappropriate shock episodes were simulated retrospectively to evaluate a possibility of episodes avoidable at NID 24/32 and 30/40. Results Thirty-one consecutive patients implanted with an ICD or cardiac resynchronization therapy-defibrillator (CRT-D) were enrolled in this study. The success rate of defibrillation was 100% in both NID groups at the first shock. The time from VF induction to detection showed a significant increase in the NID 30/40 group (6.16±1.29 s vs. 9.00±1.31 s, p<0.001). Among the 120 patients implanted with an ICD or CRT-D, 10 experienced 32 inappropriate shock episodes. The inappropriate shock reduction rate was 53.1% and 62.5% with NID 24/32 and 30/40, respectively. Conclusions The findings of this SANKS study suggest that VF NID 30/40 does not compromise the safety of ICD shock therapy, while decreasing the number of inappropriate shocks. © 2014 Japanese Heart Rhythm Society. Source

Noro M.,Toho University | Zhu X.,University of Aizu | Enomoto Y.,Toho University | Asami M.,Toho University | And 14 more authors.
Circulation Journal

Background: Subcutaneous implantable cardiac defibrillator (S-ICD) systems have a lower invasiveness than traditional ICD systems, and expand the indications of ICD implantations. The S-ICD standard defibrillation shock output energy, however, is approximately 4 times that of the traditional ICD system. This raises concern about the efficacy of the defibrillation and myocardial injury. In this study, we investigated the defibrillation efficacy and myocardial injury with S-ICD systems based on computer simulations. Methods and Results: First, computer simulations were performed based on the S-ICD system configurations proposed in a previous study. Furthermore, simulations were performed by placing the lead at the left or right parasternal margin and the pulse generator in the superior and inferior positions (0–10 cm) of the recommended site. The simulated defibrillation threshold (DFT) for the 4 S-ICD system configurations were 30.1, 41.6, 40.6, and 32.8 J, which were generally similar to the corresponding clinical results of 33.5, 40.4, 40.1, and 34.3 J. Conclusions: The simulated DFT were generally similar to their clinical counterparts. In the simulation, the S-ICD system had a higher DFT but relatively less severe myocardial injury compared with the traditional ICD system. Further, the lead at the right parasternal margin may correspond to a lower DFT and cause less myocardial injury. © 2016, Japanese Circulation Society. All rights reserved. Source

Murasato Y.,Cardiovascular Center | Murasato Y.,Clinical Research Institute | Kinoshita Y.,Toyohashi Heart Center | Yamawaki M.,Saiseikai Yokohama Eastern Hospital | And 8 more authors.
Cardiovascular Intervention and Therapeutics

This study aimed at comparing the mid-term clinical outcome of everolimus-eluting (EES) with sirolimus-eluting (SES) stents in the provisional bifurcation stenting guided by intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). We compared the clinical outcome up to 9-month follow-up results of the prospective J-REVERSE registry of 300 non-left main bifurcation lesions in 298 patients treated with EES (n = 240) and SES (n = 60). The SB dilation with the kissing balloon technique (KBT) was performed in 54 %. The patient and lesion characteristics of the groups were similar. The incidences of SB dissections, occlusions, stenting, and slow flow were similar. A greater luminal volume gain was achieved in the proximal MV after KBT compared in non-KBT treated lesions in the EES group (7.9 ± 2.4 versus 7.0 ± 2.0 mm3/mm, p = 0.002), though not in the SES group. The SB diameter stenosis in the non-KBT treatment at 9 months was greater than the KBT in both groups. The incidence of target lesion revascularisation (TLR) was 5.0 % in the EES versus 8.3 % in the SES group (p = 0.35), and the incidence of major adverse cardiac events, including TLR, myocardial infarction, stent thrombosis, and death was 5.4 % in the EES versus 11.7 % in the SES group (p = 0.15). IVUS-guided provisional stenting with EES achieved a greater luminal gain after than without KBT, and similar clinical outcomes as with SES up to 9-month follow-up. © 2015, Japanese Association of Cardiovascular Intervention and Therapeutics. Source

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