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Malasao R.,Tohoku University | Okamoto M.,Tohoku University | Chaimongkol N.,Tohoku University | Imamura T.,Tohoku University | And 13 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is a major cause of acute lower respiratory tract infections in infants and children worldwide. We performed molecular analysis of HRSV among infants and children with clinical diagnosis of severe pneumonia in four study sites in the Philippines, including Biliran, Leyte, Palawan, and Metro Manila from June 2012 to July 2013. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected and screened for HRSV using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Positive samples were tested by conventional PCR and sequenced for the second hypervariable region (2nd HVR) of the G gene. Among a total of 1,505 samples, 423 samples were positive for HRSV (28.1%), of which 305 (72.1%) and 118 (27.9%) were identified as HRSV-A and HRSV-B, respectively. Two genotypes of HRSV-A, NA1 and ON1, were identified during the study period. The novel ON1 genotype with a 72-nucleotide duplication in 2nd HVR of the G gene increased rapidly and finally became the predominant genotype in 2013 with an evolutionary rate higher than the NA1 genotype. Moreover, in the ON1 genotype, we found positive selection at amino acid position 274 (p<0.05) and massive O- and N-glycosylation in the 2nd HVR of the G gene. Among HRSV-B, BA9 was the predominant genotype circulating in the Philippines. However, two sporadic cases of GB2 genotype were found, which might share a common ancestor with other Asian strains. These findings suggest that HRSV is an important cause of severe acute respiratory infection among children in the Philippines and revealed the emergence and subsequent predominance of the ON1 genotype and the sporadic detection of the GB2 genotype. Both genotypes were detected for the first time in the Philippines. © 2015 Malasao et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Source

Imamura T.,Tohoku University | Fuji N.,Tohoku University | Suzuki A.,Tohoku University | Tamaki R.,Institute of Tropical Medicine | And 7 more authors.
Emerging Infectious Diseases | Year: 2011

Enterovirus 68 (EV68) is a rare enterovirus associated with respiratory illness that, unlike other enteroviruses, has been identified only from respiratory specimens. We identified EV68 from respiratory specimens of children hospitalized with a diagnosis of severe pneumonia in Leyte, Republic of the Philippines. Twenty-one samples showed high similarity with EV68 by sequencing of 5′ nontranslated region; 17 of these samples were confirmed as EV68 by sequencing of viral protein 1 capsid coding region. Most previously reported EV68 cases had been identified as sporadic cases. All 21 patients we identified had severe illness, and 2 died, possibly the first reported fatal cases associated with EV68 infection. Our study suggests that EV68 may be a possible causative agent of severe respiratory illnesses. Source

Ohno A.,Tohoku University | Suzuki A.,Tohoku University | Lupisan S.,Institute of Tropical Medicine | Galang H.,Institute of Tropical Medicine | And 14 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Virology | Year: 2013

Background: Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is the leading cause of acute lower respiratory tract infection in infants and young children. However, molecular characteristic of HRSV is still unknown in the Philippines. Objective: To describe the molecular epidemiology of circulating HRSV detected in the Philippines. Study design: From May 2008 to April 2012, nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from infants and children aged between 7 days and 14 years who were hospitalized with severe pneumonia. HRSV was detected by nested PCR targeting M2 gene, and C-terminus of the G gene was sequenced for phylogenetic analysis. Result: Out of total 2150 samples, 19.3% (n= 415) were positive for HRSV, and 65.0% of them (n= 270) were identified as HRSV-A and 35.0% (n= 145) as HRSV-B. There were two major HRSV outbreaks: between June 2008 and February 2009, and between June and March 2012. Majority of HRSV strains detected during the former outbreak were HRSV-A (97.5%, 203/208) whereas during the later outbreak, both HRSV-A (54/158, 34.2%) and HRSV-B (104/158, 65.8%) were detected. All HRSV-A strains were classified as genotype NA1 and all HRSV-B as genotype BA, which had 60-nucleotide duplication in secondary hypervariable region of the G gene. Among HRSV-B positive samples, there were 2 distinct clusters with unique amino acid changes and low homology in compared to other strains in BA, suggesting emergence of new variant of HRSV-B. Conclusion: The study provides an overview of the genetic variation in circulating HRSV viruses in the Philippines along with identification of possibly a novel variant of HRSV-B. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

Fuji N.,Tohoku University | Suzuki A.,Tohoku University | Suzuki A.,Tohoku Collaborating Research Center for Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases | Lupisan S.,Institute of Tropical Medicine | And 13 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Human rhinovirus (HRV) C was recently identified as the third species of HRV using a molecular technique. Infections caused by previously identified HRVs (A and B) are thought to be limited to the respiratory tract; however, pathogenesis of HRVC is still largely unknown. A total of 816 nasopharyngeal swabs from hospitalized children with severe respiratory infections in the Philippines (May 2008-May 2009) were tested for HRV by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and 243 samples (29.8%) were positive for HRV. Among these patients, serum samples were also tested to determine whether specific HRV species were associated with viremia. Only 30 serum samples (12.3%) were positive for HRV. However, the HRV positive rates were different among HRV species, 3% (4/135) for HRVA, 0% (0/25) for HRVB, and 31% (26/83) for HRVC, and were the highest on 2 days after the onset of symptoms. These results suggest that HRVC may have a different pathogenicity and can more commonly cause viremia than HRVA and HRVB. Serum positive rates for HRV are affected by age, i.e., higher positive rates for those aged 1 year or more. HRVC that were detected from serum exhibited the same level of sequence diversity as those positive only for nasopharyngeal samples in phylogenetic analysis. However, all HRVA which were detected from serum were clustered in a monophyletic clade based on their 5′ non-coding region (NCR) sequences, which is closely related with a certain HRVC genotype (A2) in 5′-NCR. This finding suggests that the 5′NCR region may be associated with viremia. © 2011 Fuji et al. Source

Imamura T.,Tohoku University | Suzuki A.,Tohoku University | Lupisan S.,Institute of Tropical Medicine | Okamoto M.,Tohoku University | And 15 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Background:Detection of Enterovirus 68 (EV68) has recently been increased. However, underlying evolutionary mechanism of this increasing trend is not fully understood.Methods:Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from 5,240 patients with acute respiratory infections in the Philippines from June 2009 to December 2011. EV68 was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting for 5′ untranslated region (5′UTR), viral protein 1 (VP1), and VP4/VP2. Phylogenetic trees were generated using the obtained sequences.Results:Of the 5,240 tested samples, 12 EV68 positive cases were detected between August and December in 2011 (detection rate, 0.23%). The detection rate was higher among inpatients than outpatients (p<0.0001). Among VP1 sequences detected from 7 patients in 2011, 5 in lineage 2 were diverged from those detected in the Philippines in 2008, however, 2 in lineage 3 were not diverged from strains detected in the Philippines in 2008 but closely associated with strains detected in the United States. Combined with our previous report, EV68 occurrences were observed twice in the Philippines within the last four years.Conclusions:EV68 detections might be occurring in cyclic patterns, and viruses might have been maintained in the community while some strains might have been newly introduced. © 2013 Imamura et al. Source

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