Upadhyay S.,Sambalpur University |
Sahu S.K.,Sambalpur University |
Upadhyay V.P.,Eastern Regional Office
Geo-Eco-Trop | Year: 2012
The present study was conducted in the Similipal Biosphere Reserve, Odisha, India. Three tribal villages located inside the biosphere reserve at different altitudes were selected for the agro ecosystem study. The biosphere reserve located at 210 30′ to 220 08′N latitudes and 860 05′ to 860 37′E longitudes, presents a typical example of Mahanadian bio-geographic zone. The agriculture is the main source of livelihood in these three villages. The forests across these ones vary from 25.30 to 231.59 ha, and agriculture area from 74.61 to 155 ha. The area not suitable for cultivation is highest in peripheral village Ghodabindha, and lowest in core village Jenabil. The total village area is greater in buffer village Nawana and smaller in core village Jenabil. Jenabil is highly dependent on agriculture and carrying capacity is high enough to support existing human population. For Jenabil village 73 % of energy derives from forests, whereas forests contribute to 84% of the total energy consumption in Ghodabindha village and of 92% in Nawana village. There is no much difference in pattern of energy consumption of core and buffer villages as both depend on agriculture. Agriculture in core village is much more energy efficient than buffer and periphery. Total annual consumption was much higher in periphery and buffer due to easy access to market and high population requirements. Carrying capacity of Similipal forests at present seems to be able of supporting the core village agriculture. We recommend strengthening the protection mechanism in forest blocks surrounding the buffer and peripheral villages.
Staudinger M.D.,University of Missouri |
Staudinger M.D.,U.S. Geological Survey |
Staudinger M.D.,U.S. Department of Interior |
Carter S.L.,U.S. Geological Survey |
And 13 more authors.
Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment | Year: 2013
This paper provides a synthesis of the recent literature describing how global biodiversity is being affected by climate change and is projected to respond in the future. Current studies reinforce earlier findings of major climate- change-related impacts on biological systems and document new, more subtle after-effects. For example, many species are shifting their distributions and phenologies at faster rates than were recorded just a few years ago; however, responses are not uniform across species. Shifts have been idiosyncratic and in some cases counterintuitive, promoting new community compositions and altering biotic interactions. Although genetic diversity enhances species' potential to respond to variable conditions, climate change may outpace intrinsic adaptive capacities and increase the relative vulnerabilities of many organisms. Developing effective adaptation strategies for biodiversity conservation will not only require flexible decision-making and management approaches that account for uncertainties in climate projections and ecological responses but will also necessitate coordinated monitoring efforts. © The Ecological Society of America.
Gustafson L.L.,United Health Centers |
Remmenga M.D.,United Health Centers |
Gardner I.A.,College of the Atlantic |
Hartman K.H.,Eastern Regional Office |
And 6 more authors.
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2014
The United States (U.S.) response to viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) IVb emergence in the Laurentian Great Lakes (GL) included risk-based surveillance for cost-effective decision support regarding the health of fish populations in open systems. All U.S. VHSV IVb isolations to date derive from free-ranging fish from GL States. Most originate in the region designated by US Geological Survey hydrologic unit code (HUC) 04, with the exception of two detections in neighboring Upper Mississippi (HUC 05) and Ohio (HUC 07) regions. For States outside the GL system, disease probability was assessed using multiple evidence sources. None substantiated VHSV IVb absence using surveillance alone, in part due to the limited temporal relevance of data in open systems. However, Bayesian odds risk-based analysis of surveillance and population context, coupled with exclusions where water temperatures likely preclude viral replication, achieved VHSV IVb freedom assurance for 14 non-GL States by the end of 2012, with partial evidence obtained for another 17 States. The non-GL region (defined as the aggregate of 4-digit HUCs located outside of GL States) met disease freedom targets for 2012 and is projected to maintain this status through 2016 without additional active surveillance. Projections hinge on continued basic biosecurity conditions such as movement restrictions and passive surveillance. Areas with navigable waterway connections to VHSV IVb-affected HUCs (and conducive water temperatures) should receive priority for resources in future surveillance or capacity building efforts. However, 6 years of absence of detections in non-GL States suggests that existing controls limit pathogen spread, and that even spread via natural pathways (e.g., water movement or migratory fish) appears contained to the Great Lakes system. This report exemplifies the cost-effective use of risk-based surveillance in decision support to assess and manage aquatic animal population health in open systems. © 2014.
Erdman M.M.,U.S. Department of Agriculture |
Creekmore L.H.,2150 Center Ave |
Fox P.E.,Eastern Regional Office |
Pelzel A.M.,2150 Center Ave |
And 5 more authors.
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2011
Contagious equine metritis (CEM) is a highly contagious venereal disease of horses caused by Taylorella equigenitalis. During testing for semen export purposes, a stallion in Kentucky was found to be T. equigenitalis culture positive in December of 2008. This finding triggered an extensive regulatory investigation to search for additional positive horses, determine the extent of the outbreak, identify the potential source of the outbreak, and ultimately return the United States to CEM-free status. The investigation included over 1000 horses located in 48 states. Diagnostic testing found a total of 22 stallions, 1 gelding and 5 mares culture positive for T. equigenitalis. Epidemiologic analysis indicated that all of the positive horses were linked to a single common source, most likely a Fjord stallion imported into the United States in 2000. The T. equigenitalis strain subsequently spread to other stallions via undetermined indirect mechanisms at shared breeding facilities, and to mares via artificial insemination and live breeding. This CEM outbreak and investigation represent the largest ever in the United States based on the number of exposed horses tested and their geographic distribution. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.