Eastern Oceanics Inc.

Redding, CT, United States

Eastern Oceanics Inc.

Redding, CT, United States
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Clingenpeel S.,Thermal Biology Institute | Macur R.E.,Thermal Biology Institute | Kan J.,University of Southern California | Inskeep W.P.,Thermal Biology Institute | And 9 more authors.
Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2011

Yellowstone Lake is central to the balanced functioning of the Yellowstone ecosystem, yet little is known about the microbial component of its food chain. A remotely operated vehicle provided video documentation and allowed sampling of dilute surface zone waters and enriched lake floor hydrothermal vent fluids. Vent emissions contained substantial H 2S, CH 4, CO 2 and H 2, although CH 4 and H 2 levels were also significant throughout the lake. Pyrosequencing and near full-length sequencing of Bacteria 16S rRNA gene diversity associated with two vents and two surface water environments demonstrated that this lake contains significant bacterial diversity. Biomass was size-fractionated by sequentially filtering through 20-μm-, 3.0-μm-, 0.8-μm- and 0.1-μm-pore-size filters, with the >0.1 to <0.8μm size class being the focus of this study. Major phyla included Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, α- and β-Proteobacteria and Cyanobacteria, with 21 other phyla represented at varying levels. Surface waters were dominated by two phylotypes: the Actinobacteria freshwater acI group and an α-Proteobacteria clade tightly linked with freshwater SAR11-like organisms. We also obtained evidence of novel thermophiles and recovered Prochlorococcus phylotypes (97-100% identity) in one near surface photic zone region of the lake. The combined geochemical and microbial analyses suggest that the foundation of this lake's food chain is not simple. Phototrophy presumably is an important driver of primary productivity in photic zone waters; however, chemosynthetic hydrogenotrophy and methanotrophy are likely important components of the lake's food chain. © 2011 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Konkol N.R.,Marquette University | Konkol N.R.,Harvard University | Bruckner J.C.,Marquette University | Bruckner J.C.,Desert Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
Microbial Ecology | Year: 2010

Sublacustrine hydrothermal vents, geysers, and fumaroles impart regions of Yellowstone Lake with distinctive chemical compositions that generate unique freshwater habitats and support diverse microbial life. Some microbial communities within Sedge Bay manifest themselves as accumulations of white-colored films on the surfaces of aquatic macrophytes located within the hydrothermal flow of vents. It was hypothesized that the white films were the product of microbial growth, particularly sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. An investigation of the relevant biological compounds in the vent waters was conducted. Microscopy, non-culture molecular techniques, and phylogenetic analysis were used to assay the bacterial diversity associated with the films. Microscopic analysis of the white films revealed the presence of long filaments (>200 μm) that contained sulfur granules. Filaments with these characteristics were not detected on the normal macrophyte samples. Nucleic acids were extracted from the surface of macrophyte coated with the white film (SB1, SB2) and from the surface of an uncoated macrophyte (SC). 16S ribosomal (rRNA) genes were amplified with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and cloned. Amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) was used to examine 100 clones from each library and identify unique phylotypes. SChao1 and the Shannon Index, mathematical measures of richness and heterogeneity, were employed to assess the ARDRA pattern diversity of each sample. The SC community contained 50 unique phylotypes, predominantly cyanobacteria and proteobacteria, and was the most heterogeneous. SB1 and SB2 communities were less heterogeneous and dominated by Thiothrix. Dilution to extinction PCR conducted with specific primers indicated that the relative abundance of Thiothrix 16S rRNA gene copies in all three samples were similar. However, reduced sulfur compounds from the vent resulted in a more narrow habitat that supported the sulfur-oxidizing Thiothrix in the white film to the exclusion of cyanobacteria and other proteobacteria found on the normal macrophyte. The majority of 16S rRNA gene sequences obtained in this study displayed similarities ≤98% to any known sequence in public data bases which suggests an abundance of new bacterial species in Sedge Bay. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Clingenpeel S.,U.S. Department of Energy | Kan J.,Stroud Water Research Center | Macur R.E.,Montana State University | Woyke T.,U.S. Department of Energy | And 6 more authors.
Frontiers in Microbiology | Year: 2013

Considerable Nanoarchaeota novelty and diversity were encountered in Yellowstone Lake, Yellowstone National Park (YNP), where sampling targeted lake floor hydrothermal vent fluids, streamers and sediments associated with these vents, and in planktonic photic zones in three different regions of the lake. Significant homonucleotide repeats (HR) were observed in pyrosequence reads and in near full-length Sanger sequences, averaging 112 HR per 1349 bp clone and could confound diversity estimates derived from pyrosequencing, resulting in false nucleotide insertions or deletions (indels). However, Sanger sequencing of two different sets of PCR clones (110 bp, 1349 bp) demonstrated that at least some of these indels are real. The majority of the Nanoarchaeota PCR amplicons were vent associated; however, curiously, one relatively small Nanoarchaeota OTU (71 pyrosequencing reads) was only found in photic zone water samples obtained from a region of the lake furthest removed from the hydrothermal regions of the lake. Extensive pyrosequencing failed to demonstrate the presence of an Ignicoccus lineage in this lake, suggesting the Nanoarchaeota in this environment are associated with novel Archaea hosts. Defined phylogroups based on near full-length PCR clones document the significant Nanoarchaeota 16S rRNA gene diversity in this lake and firmly establish a terrestrial clade distinct from the marine Nanoarcheota as well as from other geographical locations. © 2013 Clingenpeel, Kan, Macur, Woyke, Lovalvo, Varley, Inskeep WP, Nealson K and McDermott.

Lovalvo D.,Eastern Oceanics Inc. | Clingenpeel S.R.,Eastern Oceanics Inc. | Mcginnis S.,Montana State University | Macur R.E.,Montana State University | And 5 more authors.
Geobiology | Year: 2010

Hundreds of active and dormant geothermal vents have been located on the floor of Yellowstone Lake, although characterization of the associated biology (macro or micro) has been extremely limited. Herein, we describe an aquatic moss (Fontinalis) colony closely associated with vent emissions that considerably exceeded known temperature maxima for this plant. Vent waters were supersaturated with CO2, likely accommodating a CO2 compensation point that would be expected to be quite elevated under these conditions. The moss was colonized by metazoa, including the crustaceans Hyalella and Gammarus, a segmented worm in the Lumbriculidae family, and a flatworm specimen tentatively identified as Polycelis. The presence of these invertebrates suggest a highly localized food chain that derives from the presence of geothermal inputs and thus is analogous to the deep marine vents that support significant biodiversity. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Kan J.,University of Southern California | Clingenpeel S.,Montana State University | MacUr R.E.,Montana State University | Inskeep W.P.,Montana State University | And 6 more authors.
ISME Journal | Year: 2011

The Yellowstone geothermal complex has yielded foundational discoveries that have significantly enhanced our understanding of the Archaea. This study continues on this theme, examining Yellowstone Lake and its lake floor hydrothermal vents. Significant Archaea novelty and diversity were found associated with two near-surface photic zone environments and two vents that varied in their depth, temperature and geochemical profile. Phylogenetic diversity was assessed using 454-FLX sequencing (51 000 pyrosequencing reads; V1 and V2 regions) and Sanger sequencing of 200 near-full-length polymerase chain reaction (PCR) clones. Automated classifiers (Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) and Greengenes) were problematic for the 454-FLX reads (wrong domain or phylum), although BLAST analysis of the 454-FLX reads against the phylogenetically placed full-length Sanger sequenced PCR clones proved reliable. Most of the archaeal diversity was associated with vents, and as expected there were differences between the vents and the near-surface photic zone samples. Thaumarchaeota dominated all samples: vent-associated organisms corresponded to the largely uncharacterized Marine Group I, and in surface waters, 69-84% of the 454-FLX reads matched archaeal clones representing organisms that are Nitrosopumilus maritimus-like (96-97% identity). Importance of the lake nitrogen cycling was also suggested by 5% of the alkaline vent phylotypes being closely related to the nitrifier Candidatus Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii. The Euryarchaeota were primarily related to the uncharacterized environmental clones that make up the Deep Sea Euryarchaeal Group or Deep Sea Hydrothermal Vent Group-6. The phylogenetic parallels of Yellowstone Lake archaea to marine microorganisms provide opportunities to examine interesting evolutionary tracks between freshwater and marine lineages. © 2011 International Society for Microbial Ecology All rights reserved.

Inskeep W.P.,Montana State University | Jay Z.J.,Montana State University | Macur R.E.,Montana State University | Clingenpeel S.,U.S. Department of Energy | And 12 more authors.
Frontiers in Microbiology | Year: 2015

Yellowstone Lake (Yellowstone National Park, WY, USA) is a large high-altitude (2200 m), fresh-water lake, which straddles an extensive caldera and is the center of significant geothermal activity. The primary goal of this interdisciplinary study was to evaluate the microbial populations inhabiting thermal vent communities in Yellowstone Lake using 16S rRNA gene and random metagenome sequencing, and to determine how geochemical attributes of vent waters influence the distribution of specific microorganisms and their metabolic potential. Thermal vent waters and associated microbial biomass were sampled during two field seasons (2007-2008) using a remotely operated vehicle (ROV). Sublacustrine thermal vent waters (circa 50-90°C) contained elevated concentrations of numerous constituents associated with geothermal activity including dissolved hydrogen, sulfide, methane and carbon dioxide. Microorganisms associated with sulfur-rich filamentous "streamer" communities of Inflated Plain and West Thumb (pH range 5-6) were dominated by bacteria from the Aquificales, but also contained thermophilic archaea from the Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota. Novel groups of methanogens and members of the Korarchaeota were observed in vents from West Thumb and Elliot's Crater (pH 5-6). Conversely, metagenome sequence from Mary Bay vent sediments did not yield large assemblies, and contained diverse thermophilic and nonthermophilic bacterial relatives. Analysis of functional genes associated with the major vent populations indicated a direct linkage to high concentrations of carbon dioxide, reduced sulfur (sulfide and/or elemental S), hydrogen and methane in the deep thermal ecosystems. Our observations show that sublacustrine thermal vents in Yellowstone Lake support novel thermophilic communities, which contain microorganisms with functional attributes not found to date in terrestrial geothermal systems of YNP. © 2015 Inskeep, Jay, Macur, Clingenpeel, Tenney, Lovalvo, Beam, Kozubal, Shanks, Morgan, Kan, Gorby, Yooseph and Nealson.

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