Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Institute Hospital

Shanghai, China

Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Institute Hospital

Shanghai, China
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Fu J.,Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Institute Hospital | Chen Y.,Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Institute Hospital | Cao J.,Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Institute Hospital | Luo T.,Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Institute Hospital | And 13 more authors.
Hepatology | Year: 2011

The overall survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains poor, and the molecular mechanisms underlying HCC progression and aggressiveness are unclear. Here, we report that increased expression of p28GANK (Gankyrin, PSMD10, or p28) in human HCC predicts poor survival and disease recurrence after surgery. Patients with HCC who have large tumors, with vascular invasion and intrahepatic or distant metastasis, expressed high levels of p28GANK. Invasive tumors overexpressing p28GANK were featured by active epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and exhibited increased angiogenesis associated with vascular endothelial growth factor overexpression, whereas silencing p28GANK expression attenuated EMT and motility/invasion of tumor cells. The p28GANK activates phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-V-akt Murine Thymoma Viral Oncogene Homolog (AKT)-hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) signaling to promote TWIST1, vascular endothelial growth factor, and metalloproteinase 2 expression. Suppression of the PI3K-AKT-HIF-1α pathway interfered with p28GANK-mediated EMT and invasion. Consistently, we detected a significant correlation between p28GANK expression and p-AKT levels in a cohort of HCC biopsies, and the combination of these two parameters is a more powerful predictor of poor prognosis. Conclusion: These results present novel mechanistic insight into a critical role of p28GANK in HCC progression and metastasis. © 2010 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.


Zheng L.,Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Institute Hospital | Zheng L.,Shanghai University | Zheng L.,National Center for Liver Cancer Research | Yang W.,Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Institute Hospital | And 23 more authors.
Clinical Cancer Research | Year: 2013

Purpose: The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) serves as an energy sensor in eukaryotic cells and occupies a central role in linking metabolism and cancer development. However, the phosphorylation status of AMPK and its therapeutic value in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain unclear. Experimental Design: The phosphorylation status of AMPK (Thr172) was determined by immunoblotting and immunostaining in specimens from 273 patients with HCC (including 253 patients with hepatitis B virus -related HCC). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to determine the correlation with prognosis. The effects of therapeutic metformin/AMPK activation were assessed in cultured human HCC cell lines and primary HCC cells in vitro and in xenograft tumors model in vivo. To define the mechanisms of anticancer effects of metformin, we examined its influence on AMPK activation and NF-kB pathway. Results: AMPK is dysfunctional in patients with HCC, and low p-AMPK staining is correlated with aggressive clinicopathologic features and poor prognosis. Activation of AMPK by metformin not only inhibited HCC cells growth in vitro and in vivo, but also augmented cisplatin-induced growth inhibition in HCC cells. Knockdown of AMPKa expression can greatly decrease the inhibitory effect of metformin, indicating that AMPK activation is required for the anticancer action of metformin. Mechanistically, metformin/AMPK activation inhibited NF-kB signaling through upregulation of IkBa. Activation of NFkB signaling by ectopic expression of P65 or overexpression of an undegradable mutant form of IkBa attenuated the anticancer effects of metformin. Conclusions: These results present novel insight into a critical role of AMPK in HCC progression. Anticancer effects of therapeutic metformin/AMPK activation unravel metformin?s potential in treatment of HCC. © 2013 American Association for Cancer Research.


Cao J.,Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital | Liu J.,Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital | Long J.,Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital | Fu J.,Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Institute Hospital | And 5 more authors.
Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy | Year: 2017

Numerous microRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to play important roles in various cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the functions and mechanisms of the miRNAs involved in HCC progress and metastasis still remain unknown. We downloaded the normalized data of microRNA expression profiling of HCC comparing primary tumor with lung metastasis from GEO database (GSE26323), and gain a group of metastasis-related candidate miRNAs. Among the candidate miRNAs, we focused on miR-23b for further study. The association of metastasis-related miR-23b with survival was also explored. Furthermore, the effects of miR-23b on biological role in HCC were demonstrated by MTT proliferation assay, wound healing and migration assay and the EMT related markers was analyzed by Western blot. Potential target genes of miR-23b were predicted using TargetScan and PicTar and confirmed by luciferase activity assay. A rescue experiment was performed to verify whether the function of miR-23b was exerted via regulation of its target. Our results showed that miR-23b expression was significantly decreased in HCC tissues, which was more importantly, positively correlated to the intrahepatic metastasis of HCC. Meanwhile, patients with low miR-23b expression had significantly poorer prognosis. Overexpression of miR-23b could inhibit MHCC97L cell proliferation, migration, invasion and regulate the expression of MMPs and EMT-associated genes. Moreover, Pyk2, one of the crucial regulators of EMT, was identified as a direct target of miR-23b. In addition, the inhibitory effects of miR-23b overexpression on the metastasis could be restored by Pyk2 overexpression. This study revealed that miR-23b was a tumor suppressor which may regulate HCC migration and invasion by targeting Pyk2 via regulation of EMT, implicating a potential prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for HCC treatment. © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS


Qian Y.-W.,Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Institute Hospital | Chen Y.,Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Institute Hospital | Yang W.,Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Institute Hospital | Fu J.,Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Institute Hospital | And 14 more authors.
Gastroenterology | Year: 2012

Background & Aims: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is believed to arise from tumor-initiating cells (T-ICs), although little is known about their stem cell-like properties. Methods: We quantified levels of p28 GANK (Gankyrin), OV6, and Oct4 in 130 human HCC samples using immunohistochemistry. Magnetic-activated cell sorting was used to isolate OV6 + HCC cells. T-IC properties were evaluated by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, flow cytometry, and spheroid formation. We used a coimmunoprecipitation assay to study interactions among p28 GANK, Oct4, and WWP2. Tumorigenicity and pulmonary metastasis were examined in nonobese diabetic and severe combined immunodeficient mice. Results: In HCC samples, high levels of p28 GANK correlated with expansion of OV6 + tumor cells; the combination of high levels of p28 GANK and OV6 was associated with progression of HCC. p28 GANK was predominantly expressed in liver T-ICs, isolated by magnetic sorting, and undifferentiated primary HCC spheroids. Increased levels of p28 GANK in T-ICs increased their percentages in HCC samples, expression of stem cell genes, self-renewal potential, chemoresistance in vitro, and tumorigenicity and ability to develop into pulmonary metastases in mice. Conversely, knockdown of p28 GANK reduced their T-IC properties. p28 GANK likely activates liver T-ICs by impeding ubiquitination and degradation of the transcription factor Oct4 by WWP2. In support of this concept, levels of p28 GANK correlated with those of Oct4 in HCC samples. Conclusions: p28 GANK activates and maintains liver T-ICs in HCCs by preventing degradation of Oct4. Inhibitors of p28 GANK might therefore be developed to inactivate T-ICs and slow tumor progression. © 2012 AGA Institute.


Su B.,Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Institute Hospital | Su B.,Tongji University | Luo T.,Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Institute Hospital | Zhu J.,Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Institute Hospital | And 16 more authors.
Hepatology | Year: 2015

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a prototype of inflammation-associated cancer. Oncoprotein Gankyrin, which mostly increases in HCC, plays a critical role in HCC development and metastasis. However, the exact mechanism of Gankyrin up-regulation in HCC remains unclear. A Gankyrin luciferase reporter was developed to screen a potential regulator for Gankyrin from a list of proinflammatory cytokines, and interleukin (IL)-1β was found as one of its activators. In clinical premalignant and malignant liver disease samples, enhanced IL-1β/interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 (IRAK-1) signaling accompanied by increased Gankyrin was observed. Lower expression of Gankyrin and phospho-IRAK-1 are favorable prognostic markers for HCC. A similar correlation was observed in the diethylnitrosamine (DEN) model of rat hepatocarcinogenesis. The results from Gankyrin reporter activity, real-time polymerase chain reaction, or immunoblotting further confirmed the up-regulation of Gankyrin by IL-1β/IRAK-1 inflammatory signaling. Moreover, a series of Gankyrin's truncated reporters were constructed, and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) were performed to analyze the properties of Gankyrin promoter. Mechanistically, the core promoter of Gankyrin contains the binding site of nuclear factor Y (NF-Y) family members, which can recruit histone acetyltransferase coactivator E1A-binding protein p300 (p300) or CREB-binding protein (CBP) to promote Gankyrin transcription. Conversely, knockdown of NF-Y, p300, or CBP inhibits Gankyrin expression. IL-1β stimulation causes sequential phosphorylation of IRAK-1, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p300 and enhances recruitment of the p300/CBP/NF-Y complex to Gankyrin promoter. Inhibition of phospho-JNK impairs IL-1β/IRAK-1 signaling-mediated up-regulation of Gankyrin. Conclusion: The finding of IL-1β/IRAK-1 signaling promoting Gankyrin expression through JNK and NF-Y/p300/CBP complex provides a fresh view on inflammation-enhanced hepatocarcinogenesis. © 2014 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.


Li S.,University of California at San Diego | Hsu D.D.,University of California at San Diego | Wang H.,Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Institute Hospital | Wang H.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Feng G.-S.,University of California at San Diego
Frontiers of Medicine in China | Year: 2012

PTPN11, which encodes tyrosine phosphatase Shp2, is a critical gene mediating cellular responses to hormones and cytokines. Against original prediction as tumor suppressor for tyrosine phosphatases, PTPN11 was first identified as a proto-oncogene because activating mutations of this gene are associated with leukemogenesis. However, most recent experimental data suggest PTPN11/Shp2 acting as a tumor suppressor in hepatocarcinogenesis. This review focuses on the tumor-promoting or suppressing roles of the gene PTPN11/Shp2 in different cell types. © 2012 Higher Education Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


PubMed | Changhai Hospital and Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Institute Hospital
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Autophagy | Year: 2016

Although autophagy is most critical for survival of cancer cells, especially in fast-growing tumors, the mechanism remains to be fully characterized. Herein we report that PSMD10/gankyrin promotes autophagy in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in response to starvation or stress through 2complementary routes. PSMD10 was physically associated with ATG7 in the cytoplasm, and this association was enhanced by initial nutrient deprivation. Subsequently, PSMD10 translocated into the nucleus and bound cooperatively with nuclear HSF1 (heat shock transcription factor 1) onto the ATG7 promoter, upregulated ATG7 expression in the advanced stage of starvation. Intriguingly, the type of PSMD10-mediated autophagy was independent of the proteasome system, although PSMD10 has been believed to be an indispensable chaperone for assembly of the 26S proteasome. A significant correlation between PSMD10 expression and ATG7 levels was detected in human HCC biopsies, and the combination of these 2parameters is a powerful predictor of poor prognosis. The median survival of sorafenib-treated HCC patients with high expression of PSMD10 was much shorter than those with low expression of PSMD10. Furthermore, PSMD10 augmented autophagic flux to resist sorafenib or conventional chemotherapy, and inhibition of autophagy suppressed PSMD10-mediated resistance. We conclude that these results present a novel mechanism involving modulation of ATG7 by PSMD10 in sustaining autophagy, promoting HCC cell survival against starvation or chemotherapy. Targeting of PSMD10 might therefore be an attractive strategy in HCC treatment by suppressing autophagy and inducing HCC cell sensitivity to drugs.


Lanaya H.,Medical University of Vienna | Natarajan A.,Medical University of Vienna | Komposch K.,Medical University of Vienna | Li L.,Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Institute Hospital | And 10 more authors.
Nature Cell Biology | Year: 2014

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a frequent cancer with limited treatment options and poor prognosis. Tumorigenesis has been linked with macrophage-mediated chronic inflammation and diverse signalling pathways, including the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway. The precise role of EGFR in HCC is unknown, and EGFR inhibitors have shown disappointing clinical results. Here we discover that EGFR is expressed in liver macrophages in both human HCC and in a mouse HCC model. Mice lacking EGFR in macrophages show impaired hepatocarcinogenesis, whereas mice lacking EGFR in hepatocytes unexpectedly develop more HCC owing to increased hepatocyte damage and compensatory proliferation. Mechanistically, following interleukin-1 stimulation, EGFR is required in liver macrophages to transcriptionally induce interleukin-6, which triggers hepatocyte proliferation and HCC. Importantly, the presence of EGFR-positive liver macrophages in HCC patients is associated with poor survival. This study demonstrates a tumour-promoting mechanism for EGFR in non-tumour cells, which could lead to more effective precision medicine strategies.


Guan L.,Xiamen University | Zhang L.,Xiamen University | Gong Z.,Xiamen University | Hou X.,Xiamen University | And 4 more authors.
Hepatology | Year: 2016

FoxO transcription factors have been reported to play pivotal roles in tumorigenesis and drug resistance. The mechanisms underlying the tumor suppression function of FoxOs in human cancers remain largely unknown. Aberrant expression and activation of Nrf2 often correlate with chemoresistance and poor prognosis. Here, we report that FoxO3 directs the basal transcription of Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1), an adaptor protein that bridges Nrf2 to Cul3 for degradation. FoxO3 depletion resulted in Keap1 down-regulation, thereby activating Nrf2 signaling. We further demonstrated that inhibition of the FoxO3-Keap1 axis accounts for Nrf2 induction and activation induced by constitutively active AKT signaling or tumor necrosis factor α treatment. Unlike previous findings, FoxO3 silencing led to decreased reactive oxygen species production, therefore protecting cells from oxidative stress-induced killing in an Nrf2-dependent manner. Importantly, FoxO3 deficiency strongly potentiated tumor formation in nude mice and rendered cholangiocarcinoma xenografts resistant to cisplatin-induced cell death by activating Nrf2. Additionally, we found that clinical cholangiocarcinoma samples displayed FoxO3-Keap1 down-regulation and Nrf2 hyperactivation, underscoring the essential roles of these proteins in cholangiocarcinoma development. Conclusion: Our results unravel a unique mechanism underlying the tumor suppressor function of FoxO3 through constraining Nrf2 signaling. (Hepatology 2016;63:1914-1927). © 2016 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.


PubMed | Zhejiang University, Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Institute Hospital and Xiamen University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.) | Year: 2016

FoxO transcription factors have been reported to play pivotal roles in tumorigenesis and drug resistance. The mechanisms underlying the tumor suppression function of FoxOs in human cancers remain largely unknown. Aberrant expression and activation of Nrf2 often correlate with chemoresistance and poor prognosis. Here, we report that FoxO3 directs the basal transcription of Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1), an adaptor protein that bridges Nrf2 to Cul3 for degradation. FoxO3 depletion resulted in Keap1 down-regulation, thereby activating Nrf2 signaling. We further demonstrated that inhibition of the FoxO3-Keap1 axis accounts for Nrf2 induction and activation induced by constitutively active AKT signaling or tumor necrosis factor treatment. Unlike previous findings, FoxO3 silencing led to decreased reactive oxygen species production, therefore protecting cells from oxidative stress-induced killing in an Nrf2-dependent manner. Importantly, FoxO3 deficiency strongly potentiated tumor formation in nude mice and rendered cholangiocarcinoma xenografts resistant to cisplatin-induced cell death by activating Nrf2. Additionally, we found that clinical cholangiocarcinoma samples displayed FoxO3-Keap1 down-regulation and Nrf2 hyperactivation, underscoring the essential roles of these proteins in cholangiocarcinoma development.Our results unravel a unique mechanism underlying the tumor suppressor function of FoxO3 through constraining Nrf2 signaling. (Hepatology 2016;63:1914-1927).

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