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Freidlin B.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Korn E.L.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Gray R.,Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group
Clinical Trials | Year: 2010

Background The ultimate goal of a phase III randomized clinical trial designed to demonstrate superiority of a new versus standard therapy is to provide sufficiently compelling evidence to affect clinical practice. To balance patient interests against the need for acquiring evidence it is desirable to stop a study for inefficacy as soon as convincing evidence that the new therapy is not beneficial becomes available. Purpose To discuss potential deficiencies in some commonly used inefficacy monitoring rules and to propose a comprehensive inefficacy monitoring procedure. Methods The proposed approach is developed using clinical, logistical, and statistical considerations. The new approach is compared to the commonly used inefficacy rules in a simulation study. Results Some of the commonly used inefficacy rules are suboptimal with respect to the strength of evidence required for stopping throughout the trial: too conservative in the middle and/or too aggressive at the end. Our approach allows timely stopping (a) if the new therapy is harmful, and (b) if the interim data provides convincing evidence that the new therapy has no tangible benefit. Relative to common inefficacy rules, our procedure is shown to result in potentially fewer treated patients and shorter study duration under the null hypothesis with only a minor loss of power under the alternative hypothesis. Limitations The proposed procedure is applicable to superiority designs with well-defined clinical objectives. Conclusions The proposed inefficacy approach is attractive from statistical, clinical, and logistical standpoints. By decreasing average stopping times relative to the commonly used boundaries, our rule lessens patient exposure to inactive treatments, improves resource utilization, and accelerates dissemination of important clinical information. At the same time, the proposed rule provides a clear benchmark for providing compelling evidence that the new therapy is not beneficial. © 2010 The Author(s).


Dispenzieri A.,Mayo Medical School | Jacobus S.,Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group | Vesole D.H.,Hackensack University Medical Center | Callandar N.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | And 2 more authors.
Leukemia | Year: 2010

Single agent bortezomib results in response rates of 51% in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma and is touted to be especially effective in high-risk disease. We are the first to prospectively explore single agent bortezomib as primary therapy (induction, maintenance and re-induction) without consolidative autologous stem cell transplant in a cohort selected to have high-risk multiple myeloma. Patients received eight cycles of induction, followed by maintenance bortezomib every other week, indefinitely. Patients relapsing on maintenance had the full induction schedule resumed. On an intention-to-treat basis, the response rate (partial response) was 48%. Among seven patients who progressed on maintenance bortezomib and received re-induction, two responded to the treatment. With a median follow-up of 48.2 months, 1- and 2-year overall survival probabilities were 88% (95% confidence interval (CI) 79-98%) and 76% (95% CI 60-86%), respectively. Median progression-free survival was 7.9 months (95% CI 5.8-12.0). Twenty-three and thirty-four patients had grade 3 hematological and non-hematological toxicity, respectively, with treatment-emergent neuropathy in 7% with motor grade 1-2, 56% with sensory grade 1-2 and 2% with grade 3, and in 14% with neuropathic pain grade 1-2 and 2% with grade 3. In high-risk patients, upfront bortezomib results in response rates that are comparable to those reported for unselected cohorts, but single agent bortezomib is not sufficient as primary therapy. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.


Sinicrope F.A.,North Central Cancer Treatment Group | Foster N.R.,North Central Cancer Treatment Group | Yothers G.,National Surgery Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project | Benson A.,Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group | And 6 more authors.
Cancer | Year: 2013

BACKGROUND: Although obesity is an established risk factor for developing colon cancer, its prognostic impact and relation to patient sex in colon cancer survivors remains unclear. METHODS: The authors examined the prognostic and predictive impact of the body mass index (BMI) in patients with stage II and III colon carcinoma (N = 25,291) within the Adjuvant Colon Cancer Endpoints (ACCENT) database. BMI was measured at enrollment in randomized trials of 5-fluorouracil-based adjuvant chemotherapy. Association of BMI with the time to recurrence (TTR), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) were determined using Cox regression models. Statistical tests were 2-sided. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 7.8 years, obese and underweight patients had significantly poorer survival compared with overweight and normal-weight patients. In a multivariable analysis, the adverse prognostic impact of BMI was observed among men but not among women (Pinteraction =.0129). Men with class 2 and 3 obesity (BMI ≥35.0 kg/m2) had a statistically significant reduction in DFS (hazard ratio [HR], 1.16; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-1.33; P =.0297) compared with normal-weight patients. Underweight patients had a significantly shorter TTR and reduced DFS (HR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.09-1.28; P <.0001) that was more significant among men (HR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.15-1.50; P <.0001) than among women (HR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.01-1.23; P =.0362; Pinteraction =.0340). BMI was not predictive of a benefit from adjuvant treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Obesity and underweight status were associated independently with inferior outcomes in patients with colon cancer who received treatment in adjuvant chemotherapy trials. © 2013 American Cancer Society.


Tsao M.-S.,A+ Network | Sakurada A.,Ontario Cancer Institute | Aviel-Ronen S.,A+ Network | Ludkovski O.,Ontario Cancer Institute | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Thoracic Oncology | Year: 2011

PURPOSE: Patients with non-small cell lung carcinoma with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations may have a more favorable prognosis and greater response to chemotherapy. The effect of EGFR mutation and gene copy on patients with early-stage non-small cell lung carcinoma receiving adjuvant chemotherapy has not been reported. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Tumor samples from NCIC Clinical Trials Group JBR.10, an adjuvant trial of vinorelbine/cisplatin adjuvant chemotherapy [ACT] versus observation (OBS), were analyzed for EGFR mutation by multiple sensitive methods and copy number by fluorescent in situ hybridization. Their prognostic and predictive roles were explored in correlation with survival. RESULTS: Mutation results were available in 221 OBS and 215 ACT and fluorescent in situ hybridization results in 159 OBS and 163 ACT patients. Mutations were identified in 43 (27 OBS and 16 ACT) patients (36 sensitizing exon 19 deletions or L858R mutations). Compared with wild-type, sensitizing mutations were not significantly prognostic in OBS patients (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.79, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.38-1.63, p = 0.53). Although the presence of sensitizing mutations resulted in relatively greater benefit in ACT patients (HR: 0.44, 95% CI: 0.11-1.70, p = 0.22) compared with wild-type patients (HR: 0.78, 95% CI: 0.58-1.06, p = 0.12), this quantitative difference was not significant (interaction p = 0.50). Similarly, high EGFR copy was neither significantly prognostic nor predictive, although quantitatively it was associated with greater benefit from ACT. CONCLUSIONS: Trends toward longer survival and a greater benefit from chemotherapy were observed in patients with exon 19/21 mutations and high EGFR copy, although the differences were not statistically significant. The interpretation of the results was limited by the low EGFR mutation rate in this study of mainly white patients. Copyright © 2010 by the international Association fot the Study of lung Cancer.


Vesole D.H.,Second Street | Oken M.M.,Northwestern Hospital | Heckler C.,University of Rochester | Greipp P.R.,Mayo Medical School | And 3 more authors.
Leukemia | Year: 2012

Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignancy of clonal plasma cells, resulting in an increased production of ineffective immunoglobulins with suppression of non-involved immunoglobulins. Patients with MM are at increased risk of infectious complications, particularly streptococcal and staphylococcal infections. This study evaluated the impact of prophylactic antibiotics on the incidence of serious bacterial infections (SBIs) during the first 2 months of treatment in patients with newly diagnosed MM. Patients with MM receiving initial chemotherapy were randomized on a 1:1:1 basis to daily ciprofloxacin (C; 500mg twice daily), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (T; DS twice daily) or observation (O) and evaluated for SBI (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group ≥grade 3) for the first 2 months of treatment. From July 1998 to January 2008, 212 MM patients were randomized to C (n=69), T (n=76) or O (n=67). The incidence of SBI was comparable among groups: C=12.5%, T=6.8% and O=15.9%; P=0.218. Further, any infection during the first 2 months was also comparable (20% vs 23% vs 22%, respectively, P=0.954). We demonstrate that prophylactic antibiotics did not decrease the incidence of SBI (≥grade 3) within the first 2 months of treatment. We conclude that routine use of prophylactic antibiotics should not be mandated for patients receiving induction chemotherapy. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

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