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Greenville, NC, United States

Foltz S.L.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | Ross A.E.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | Laing B.T.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | Laing B.T.,Eastern Carolina University | And 4 more authors.
Behavioral Ecology | Year: 2015

Urban animals often show differences in aggression relative to their rural counterparts, but the ultimate and proximate origins of these differences are poorly understood. Here, we compared urban and rural song sparrows (Melospiza melodia), a species for which higher levels of aggression in urban populations have previously been reported. First, we confirmed elevated territorial aggression levels in urban birds relative to rural birds over multiple years. To begin to identify the environmental variables contributing to these differences, we related aggression to features of the social and physical environment, specifically population density and the availability of suitable nesting vegetation. Population distribution and the availability of suitable nest vegetation were not correlated with territorial aggression levels. Subsequently, we conducted a food supplementation experiment to determine whether potential differences in the relative availability of food between the 2 habitats might drive differences in aggression. Food supplementation increased territorial aggression significantly, particularly in rural birds. Thus, it appears that the availability of food could play a role in determining territorial aggression in song sparrows. The specific combination of these features found in urban areas may cause the increased levels of territorial aggression seen in these populations. © 2015 The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com. Source


Bush G.,National-Louis University | Jones J.L.,Eastern Carolina University
School Library Media Research | Year: 2010

This article reports the findings of an exploratory study to identify professional dispositions of school librarians. The authors employed the Delphi method, a qualitative research method that emphasizes expert knowledge and consensus within a particular field. The Delphi panel consisted of members of the editorial boards of nationally recognized school library journals in the United States. Panelists independently forecasted and described the identified professional dispositions, commented on eleven prominent dispositions that received the most responses, and ranked and combined categories of dispositions. The results of this study provide a foundation for further exploration of professional dispositions, leading to the design of signature pedagogies for use in school library education, appropriate assessment measures for both school library education and practicing school librarians, and thoughtful and reflective consideration of the acquisition and nurturance of these dispositions. Source


Say E.A.T.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Knupp C.L.,Eastern Carolina University | Gertsch K.R.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Chavala S.H.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Oncology Letters | Year: 2012

Intraocular lymphoma is a rare ocular malignancy that may occur in the retina or the uvea. Retina or vitreoretinal lymphoma accounts for the majority of cases and is often secondary to diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. In the present study, a 66-year-old Caucasian male with a history of Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, presented with blurred vision in the left eye one month following cycle 4 of an R-CHOP regimen. At the time of onset, the patient was being treated for bacterial pneumonia. Visual acuity was 20/25 in his right eye (OD) and 20/30 in the left (OS). Ophthalmologic examination showed intraretinal white infiltrates associated with hemorrhage in the superotemporal midperiphery of the retina and vitritis OS. Initial diagnostic considerations included infectious (cytomegalovirus retinitis, syphilis, toxoplasmosis, tuberculosis), inflammatory (retinal vasculitis associated with autoimmune disease or hypercoagulable states) or malignant (intraocular lymphoma) diseases. The patient did not respond to intravitreal injection of foscarnet and oral valgancyclovir. Systemic work-up and aqueous fluid biopsy were inconclusive. Diagnostic vitrectomy yielded inconclusive results and the patient continued to have progressive loss of vision. A repeat diagnostic vitrectomy with retinal and subretinal biopsy confirmed large B cells consistent with metastatic B-cell lymphoma. A concomitant PET/CT scan was performed that revealed bilateral new pulmonary nodules resulting in additional chemotherapy. Our case shows the diagnostic dilemmas in patients with systemic lymphoma and the possible role of concurrent systemic restaging in patients with ocular complaints, even when in systemic remission. Source


Whitson H.E.,Duke University | Steinhauser K.,Duke University | Ammarell N.,Duke University | Whitaker D.,Duke University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of the American Geriatrics Society | Year: 2011

Objectives To identify generalizable ways that comorbidity affects older adults' experiences in a health service program directed toward an index condition and to develop a framework to assist clinicians in approaching comorbidity in the design, delivery, and evaluation of such interventions. Design A qualitative data content analysis of interview transcripts to identify themes related to comorbidity. Setting An outpatient low-vision rehabilitation program for macular disease. Participants In 2007/08, 98 individuals undergoing low-vision rehabilitation and their companions provided 624 semistructured interviews that elicited perceptions about barriers and facilitators of successful program participation. Results The interviews revealed five broad themes about comorbidity: (i) "good days, bad days," reflecting participants' fluctuating health status during the program because of concurrent medical problems; (ii) "communication barriers." which were sometimes due to participant impairments and sometimes situational; (iii) "overwhelmed," which encompassed pragmatic and emotional concerns of participants and caregivers; (iv) "delays," which referred to the tendency of comorbidities to delay progress in the program and to confer added inconvenience during lengthy appointments; and (v) value of companion involvement in overcoming some barriers imposed by comorbid conditions. Conclusion This study provides a taxonomy and conceptual framework for understanding consequences of comorbidity in the experience of individuals receiving a health service. If confirmed in individuals receiving interventions for other index diseases, the framework suggests actionable items to improve care and facilitate research involving older adults. © 2011, The American Geriatrics Society. Source


Vora A.,Chesapeake Urology Assoct. | Agarwal V.,Cleveland Clinic | Singh P.,Cleveland Clinic | Patel R.,Eastern Carolina University | And 3 more authors.
Prostate International | Year: 2016

Background Although primary treatment of localized prostate cancer provides excellent oncologic control, some men who chose radiotherapy experience a recurrence of disease. There is no consensus on the most appropriate management of these patients after radiotherapy failure. In this single-institution review, we compare our oncologic outcome and toxicity between salvage prostatectomy and cryotherapy treatments. Methods From January 2004 to June 2013, a total of 23 salvage procedures were performed. Six of those patients underwent salvage prostatectomy while 17 underwent salvage cryotherapy by two high-volume fellowship-trained urologists. Patients being considered for salvage therapy had localized disease at presentation, a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) < 10 ng/mL at recurrence, life expectancy > 10 years at recurrence, and a negative metastatic workup. Patients were followed to observe cancer progression and toxicity of treatment. Results Patients who underwent salvage cryotherapy were statistically older with a higher incidence of hypertension than our salvage prostatectomy cohort. With a mean follow up of 14.1 months and 7.2 months, the incidence of disease progression was 23.5% and 16.7% after salvage cryotherapy and prostatectomy, respectively. The overall complication rate was also 23.5% versus 16.7%, with the most frequent complication after salvage cryotherapy being urethral stricture and after salvage prostatectomy being severe urinary incontinence. There were no rectal injuries with salvage prostatectomy and one rectourethral fistula in the cohort after salvage cryotherapy. Conclusion While recurrences from primary radiotherapy for prostate cancer do occur, there is no consensus on its management. In our experience, salvage procedures were generally safe and effective. Both salvage cryotherapy and salvage prostatectomy allow for adequate cancer control with minimal toxicity. Source

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