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Usta A.,Karadeniz Technical University | Yilmaz M.,Karadeniz Technical University | Kahveci E.,Gaziosmanpasa University | Yilmaz S.,Eastern Black Sea Forestry Research Institute | Ozturk H.,Karadeniz Technical University
Fresenius Environmental Bulletin | Year: 2014

The subject of this study is to research the wood properties of black alder, which is widely spread at East Black Sea Region of Turkey and being used in forest product industry, under different site conditions. For this purpose, 25 sample areas have been considered among ArtvinArhavi, Trabzon-Akçaabat and Giresun-Espiye regions. At each sample area, one tree with dominant height has been cut down. Suitable materials have been obtained from such trees in order to determine the anatomic, physical and mechanical properties of wood. Properties of alder wood, such as width of annual ring, oven-dry wood density, bending strength, modulus of elasticity, dynamic bending and compressive strength parallel to grain have been determined. Site indices of sample areas have been determined by using the age-height relation of standard age trees. Soil samples have been taken at soil profiles opened at sample areas from depths of 0-10 cm, 10-30 cm, 30-50 cm, 50-80 cm and 80-120 cm. Sand, dust, clay, available water capacity, soil organic matter and soil reaction (pH) have been determined in soil samples. Whether the wood properties differentiate as per different sites has been revealed by the variance analysis, and how they change as per significant environmental conditions, such as altitude and precipitation at the same site, has been revealed by the correlation analysis. As e result of statistical analysis, it has been determined that all the wood properties differentiate as per sites, and wood properties at different sites are related with the site factors. The relation of oven-dry wood density and width of annual ring, which affects the usage area, and technological specification of wood, with environmental factors such as altitude and precipitation, is very considerable. © by PSP.

Toksoy D.,Karadeniz Technical University | Alkan S.,Eastern Black Sea Forestry Research Institute | Hacisalihoglu S.,Karadeniz Technical University
Journal of Environmental Biology | Year: 2010

Women are responsible for procuring the food for their family in many places in the world. The usage of the non-timber forest products (NTFPs) reaches to the beginning of the humanity. NTFPs are used for food and medicine especially in the developing countries as a whole. In this research, totally 611 questionnaires were conducted with women participants by polling face to face in 68 forest villages in the research area. The main reason for studying with women is that; the gathering activities are usually done by women in that area and they also knew the used parts and how to use the NTFPs. Results showed that about 14.4% of the women in the research area are gathering the plants for food (17 species and 2-8 kg annually) and 9.2% of the women are gathering the plants for medicinal purposes (16 species and 1-4 kg annually). These plants are usually used for additional medicinal treatments. 4 species are used for livestock treatment and 2 species in the hand weaving. © Triveni Enterprises, Lucknow (India).

Toksoy D.,Karadeniz Technical University | Alkan S.,Eastern Black Sea Forestry Research Institute
African Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2010

All around the world, women are mostly responsible from nourishing their families. To perform this, women conduct respective economic activities either unpaid in their households, or paid in the public sphere. In a seemingly more agriculture-oriented country of Turkey, while women's labor force participation is higher than that of men's in rural areas, most of the agricultural and stock-breeding activities are performed by women labor. This study is based on the data from a survey in 68 forest villages of Trabzon province in Turkey, performed among 611 rural women and 237 rural men. Consequentially, it has been found out that, while nearly all of the household activities are undertaken by women, women labor is also higher than that of men's in a range of activities from stock-breeding to agricultural activities. Men take a slightly more active role in the sale of agricultural and animal products, and in forestry. It has also been understood that, agricultural and stock-breeding activities in forest villages are performed mostly for subsistence production, and that the substantial income source of forest villagers includes fees, wages, etc., being earned from activities outside the villages. The higher the household incomes rise, the lower the dependency to forestry falls. Average per capita income in these villages is $1936, namely at a level lower than its Turkish average. © 2010 Academic Journals.

Usta A.,Karadeniz Technical University | Yilmaz M.,Karadeniz Technical University | Serdar B.,Karadeniz Technical University | Yilmaz S.,Eastern Black Sea Forestry Research Institute | Bozlar T.,Eastern Black Sea Forestry Research Institute
Fresenius Environmental Bulletin | Year: 2014

Black alder (Alnus glutinosa subsp. barbata) has a wide natural distribution area in Eastern Black Sea Region of Turkey. This species is important due to its growth rate, contributions to soil reclamation, and its usage in forestry products. Anatomical characteristics of alder woods of two different sites (Trabzon and Giresun) from the Eastern Black Sea Region were compared. Nine sample areas were selected in Akçaabat region and 8 in Espiye region. A tree which had dominant height was sawn (cut down) from these sample areas. Wood samples were taken from diameter at breast height of these sawn trees to determine anatomical characteristics, such as tangential diameter of vessel, radial diameter of vessel, vessel cell length, number of vessels in 1 mm2, number of rays in 1 mm, ray height, ray width, fiber length, fiber width, lumen diameter of fiber, and thickness of fiber. On sampling sites, soil profiles were excavated and soil samples were taken from fixed depth levels (0-10 cm, 10-30 cm. 30-50 cm, 50-80 cm, and 80-120 cm). Soil particle size analysis was made on collected soil samples to determine soil type and sand, silt and clay content of soil. Soil pH, soil organic carbon content and available water capacity were also measured. SPSS statistical packet software was used to determine variances (ANOVA) in anatomical wood characteristics of alder between study sites. Analysis of variance results showed that number of vessels in 1 mm2, ray width, vessel cell length, fiber length, fiber width, and lumen width showed significant differences (p<0.001) in sample woods from different study areas. These differences in anatomical wood characteristics were caused by different micro-environmental (soil properties and rainfall) conditions. © by PSP.

Okatan A.,Karadeniz Technical University | Yilmaz M.,Karadeniz Technical University | Usta A.,Eastern Black Sea Forestry Research Institute | Yilmaz S.,Eastern Black Sea Forestry Research Institute
Fresenius Environmental Bulletin | Year: 2010

In this study, the effects of contaminant elements in the surface water of 4 rivers (Buyuk Melen, Kucuk Melen, Aksu, and Ugursuyu) within the Duzce Watershed, which provides drinking water to Istanbul in the Western Black Sea region of Turkey, were determined. The water quality parameters were measured during all 4 seasons in the months of March, June, September, and December 2001-2006 at these 4 different sites. The parameters included calcium (Ca 2+), magnesium (Mg2+), nitrite (NO2 -), nitrate (NO3 -), ammonium (NH 4 +), sulfate (SO4 2-), chloride (CI-), and phosphate (PO4 -3) ions. Seasonal changes in water quality were evaluated using analysis of variance. Ca 2+, Mg2+, Cl, NO2 -, and SO 4 2- in the Buyuk Melen river, Ca2+, NO 3 -, and PO4 in Aksu river, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, NO2 -, NH4 +, PO4 3-, and SO4 2- in Kucuk Melen river, and Mg2+ and PO4 3- in Ugursuyu river were found to vary seasonally (ANOVA, p <0.05). Furthermore, NO3 - and PO4 3- in Buyuk Melen river, Na+ in Kucuk Melen river, as well as Na+ and SO 4 2- in Ugursuyu river showed highly significant seasonal differences (ANOVA, p < 0.001). The maximum values of each chemical parameter in streams within the Duzce Watershed basin were recorded and evaluated according to Turkish Standard (TS) 266 as well as European Union (EU) and World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. © by PSP.

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