A comparative molecular study of the presence of "Candidatus arthromitus" in the digestive system of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), healthy and affected with rainbow trout gastroenteritis
Del-Pozo J.,Easter Bush Veterinary Center |
Del-Pozo J.,University of Stirling |
Turnbull J.,University of Stirling |
Ferguson H.,University of Stirling |
Crumlish M.,University of Stirling
Journal of Fish Diseases | Year: 2010
Observations were made using histopathological techniques in conjunction with a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol for the specific detection of " Candidatus arthromitus" on DNA extracted from wax-embedded tissues and fresh digestive contents of rainbow trout. Samples positive for " Candidatus arthromitus" DNA included fish with rainbow trout gastroenteritis (RTGE), clinically normal cohabiting fish, and apparently healthy controls from RTGE positive and RTGE negative sites. The results obtained from the PCR were confirmed by nucleotide sequencing. " Candidatus arthromitus" DNA was found in distal intestine as well as in sections of pyloric caeca, suggesting that both these locations are appropriate for molecular detection of " Candidatus arthromitus" DNA in trout. Furthermore, rainbow trout fry distal intestinal samples from two different hatcheries where RTGE had not been reported were also positive. Differences in " Candidatus arthromitus" DNA detection between paraffin wax-embedded and fresh digestive content samples from the same fish suggested that it may be predominantly epithelium-associated in healthy trout. Parallel histopathological observations indicated that pyloric caeca are the preferred site for visualizing segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB) in trout with RTGE. The results of this study showed that the presence of SFB was not invariably associated with clinical disease and that more information is required to understand the role of these organisms. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Paoli M.A.,Easter Bush Veterinary Center |
Lahrmann H.P.,Pig Research Center |
Jensen T.,Pig Research Center |
D'Eath R.B.,Animal and Veterinary science Research Group
Animal Welfare | Year: 2016
Tail-biting in pigs (Sus scrofa) reduces welfare and production. Tail-docking reduces (but does not eliminate) tail-biting damage. The reason tail-docking reduces tail damage is unknown. It may reduce pigs' attraction to tails (HI), or increase tails' sensitivity to investigation (H2). To investigate these hypotheses, behavioural differences between 472 individually marked grower pigs with intact tails (nine groups of 25-34 pigs) or docked tails (nine groups of 22-24 pigs) were observed from 5-8 weeks of age on a commercial farm in Denmark. Pens had part-slatted floors, dry feeding and two handfuls of straw per day, and enrichment objects were provided. Behavioural sampling recorded actor and recipient for tail-directed (tail interest, tail in mouth, tail reaction) and investigatory behaviours (belly-nosing, ear-chewing, interaction with enrichment). Scan sampling recorded pig posture/activity and tail posture. Intact-tail pigs performed more overall investigatory behaviours but tail type did not affect the amount of tail-directed behaviours. Larger pigs performed more investigatory and tail-directed behaviours than smaller pigs and females performed slightly more tail investigation. Tail-directed behaviours were not consistent over time at the individual or group level. However, ear-chewing was consistent at the group level. One group with intact tails was affected by a tail-biting outbreak in the final week of the study (evidenced by tail-damage scores) and showed an increase over time in tail posture (tail down) and tail-directed behaviour but not activity. Overall, there were few behavioural differences between docked and undocked pigs: no evidence of reduced tail investigation (HI) or an increased reaction to tail investigation (H2) in docked pigs, and yet docked pigs had less tail damage. We propose that docking might be effective because longer tails are more easily damaged as pigs are able to bite them with their cheek teeth. © 2016 Universities Federation for Animal Welfare.
Abbondati E.,University of Cambridge |
Del-Pozo J.,Easter Bush Veterinary Center |
Hoather T.M.,University of Cambridge |
Constantino-Casas F.,University of Cambridge |
Dobson J.M.,University of Cambridge
Veterinary Pathology | Year: 2013
Tumor hypoxia has been associated with increased malignancy, likelihood of metastasis, and increased resistance to radiotherapy and chemotherapy in human medicine. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a key transcription factor that is induced by tumor hypoxia and regulates the pathways involved in cellular response and adaptation to the hostile tumor microenvironment. HIF-1 induces transcription of different proteins, including Ca-IX and Glut-1, which are considered endogenous markers of chronic hypoxia in solid tumors in humans. In this study, sections from 40 canine sarcomas (20 histiocytic sarcomas and 20 low-grade soft-tissue sarcomas) were immunostained for these markers. Expression of Glut-1 was scored based on percentage of positive staining cells (0 = <1%; 1 = 1%-50%; 2 = >50%) and intensity of cellular staining (1 = weak; 2 = strong); Ca-IX was scored based on percentage of positive cells (0 = <1%; 1 = 1%-30%; 2 = >30%). Intratumoral microvessel density was measured using CD31 to assess intratumoral neoangiogenesis. Histiocytic sarcomas showed statistically significant higher Glut-1 immunoreactivity and angiogenesis than did low-grade soft-tissue sarcomas. Intratumoral microvessel density in histiocytic sarcomas was positively associated with Glut-1 immunoreactivity score. These findings suggest a potential role of hypoxia in the biology of these tumors and may provide a base for investigation of the potential prognostic use of these markers in naturally occurring canine tumors. © The Author(s) 2013.
Majekodunmi A.O.,University of Edinburgh |
Fajinmi A.,Nigerian Institute for Trypanosomiasis Research |
Dongkum C.,Nigerian Institute for Trypanosomiasis Research |
Picozzi K.,University of Edinburgh |
And 2 more authors.
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2013
Background: Trypanosomiasis is a widespread disease of livestock in Nigeria and a major constraint to the rural economy. The Jos Plateau, Nigeria was free from tsetse flies and the trypanosomes they transmit due to its high altitude and the absence of animal trypanosomiasis attracted large numbers of cattle-keeping pastoralists to inhabit the plateau. The Jos Plateau now plays a significant role in the national cattle industry, accommodating approximately 7% of the national herd and supporting 300,000 pastoralists and over one million cattle. However, during the past two decades tsetse flies have invaded the Jos Plateau and animal trypanosomiasis has become a significant problem for livestock keepers. Methods. In 2008 a longitudinal two-stage cluster survey on the Jos Plateau. Cattle were sampled in the dry, early wet and late wet seasons. Parasite identification was undertaken using species-specific polymerase chain reactions to determine the prevalence and distribution bovine trypanosomiasis. Logistic regression was performed to determine risk factors for disease. Results: The prevalence of bovine trypanosomiasis (Trypanosoma brucei brucei, Trypanosoma congolense savannah, Trypanosoma vivax) across the Jos Plateau was found to be high at 46.8% (39.0 - 54.5%) and significant, seasonal variation was observed between the dry season and the end of the wet season. T. b. brucei was observed at a prevalence of 3.2% (1% - 5.5%); T. congolense at 27.7% (21.8% - 33.6%) and T. vivax at 26.7% (18.2% - 35.3%). High individual variation was observed in trypanosomiasis prevalence between individual villages on the Plateau, ranging from 8.8% to 95.6%. Altitude was found to be a significant risk factor for trypanosomiasis whilst migration also influenced risk for animal trypanosomiasis. Conclusions: Trypanosomiasis is now endemic on the Jos Plateau showing high prevalence in cattle and is influenced by seasonality, altitude and migration practices. Attempts to successfully control animal trypanosomiasis on the Plateau will need to take into account the large variability in trypanosomiasis infection rates between villages, the influence of land use, and husbandry and management practices of the pastoralists, all of which affect the epidemiology of the disease. © 2013 Majekodunmi et al.
Turnbull J.F.,University of Stirling |
Berrill I.K.,University of Stirling |
Green D.M.,University of Stirling |
Kaye R.,University of Stirling |
And 4 more authors.
Aquaculture Research | Year: 2011
This paper is a brief introduction to epidemiology and its application to farmed fish health and welfare with examples from the United Kingdom. Epidemiology has the potential to do a great deal more than just identify risk factors. Indeed in many cases useful risk factors cannot be identified due to the complexity of the disease problems and the lack of resources. Epidemiological principles or analytical techniques have been applied in animal welfare studies, and they can reduce the cost of disease monitoring or surveillance and disease control. However, for epidemiological studies to make a real contribution to farmed fish health and welfare it is often necessary to use multidisciplinary teams, obtain good data and coordinate efforts on the major problems. © 2010 The Authors. Journal Compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Sargison N.D.,Easter Bush Veterinary Center |
Jackson F.,Moredun Research Institute |
Gilleard J.S.,University of Calgary
Veterinary Journal | Year: 2011
The effects of host age and immune suppression on abomasal parasitic infection in sheep were investigated following single experimental oral infections with MHco3 (ISE), MHco4 (WRS) and MHco10 (CAVR) strains of Haemonchus contortus in naïve 5-month-old crossbred lambs (n= 1 per group) and 15-month-old Greyface sheep treated with methyl prednisolone acetate (n= 2 per group) or without corticosteroid treatment (n= 2 per group). Adult female H. contortus in 5-month-old lambs (n= 1 per group) shed on average 6.5, 3.1 and 8.0 times more eggs than in 15-month-old sheep (n= 4 per group) following infection with MHco3 (ISE), MHco4 (WRS) and MHco10 (CAVR) strains of H. contortus, respectively, over a period of 28. days following the commencement of patency. There was no obvious effect of age of sheep or corticosteroid treatment on the abomasal establishment of H. contortus or on in vitro assays for egg hatching or larval feeding at different concentrations of anthelmintics, although statistical analysis could not be performed due to the small group sizes. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.
Ritchie M.A.,Institute for Animal Health |
Ritchie M.A.,Waters Pacific Pte Ltd |
Hunt L.G.,Institute for Animal Health |
Gill A.C.,Institute for Animal Health |
Gill A.C.,Easter Bush Veterinary Center
International Journal of Mass Spectrometry | Year: 2013
Conversion of PrPC, the prion protein, to a conformationally altered isoform, PrPSc, is the major pathogenic event in the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, a family of neurodegenerative diseases including bovine spongiform encephalopathy, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and scrapie. Known post-translational modifications to the protein include disulfide bridge formation, addition of a membrane anchor and N-linked glycosylation. We have previously identified the pro-collagen-like hydroxylation of proline 44 in a murine, recombinant prion protein expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells and herein report the identification of a second pro-collagen-like modification in this protein. In a proportion of the molecules, Lys193, within the C-terminal, folded domain of the protein, is specifically modified to hydroxylysine with subsequent addition of two hexose units, assumed to be the collagen-like disaccharide modifier Gal-Glu. Proof of the existence of these modifications has been obtained by means of tandem mass spectrometry and Edman degradation. Molecular dynamics simulations show that these modifications lead to a pronounced stabilising effect on the β2-α2 loop, a region of PrP crucial for the disease-associated conversion. If present in vivo, these modifications may have important implications in PrP structure, interactions with ligands or may modulate PrP aggregation. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.
Claxton A.M.,Easter Bush Veterinary Center
Applied Animal Behaviour Science | Year: 2011
Environmental enrichment strategies are used to improve both the physiological and psychological welfare of captive animals, which can be achieved by increasing the expression of natural behaviour and decreasing abnormal behaviours. Examples of successful environmental enrichment include the improvement of enclosure design, and the provision of feeding devices, novel objects, appropriate social groupings and other sensory stimuli. However, a key factor contributing to how a captive animal interacts with its environment is its relationship with humans. Firstly, this paper focuses upon the extent to which an animal's fear of humans may affect its overall behaviour, and the consequences of the subsequent human-animal relationship (HAR).Widely studied in farmed animals, the majority of data collected in the area of the HAR in exotic species largely focuses on primates and it is therefore also considered that further investigation is required to understand the impact of the HAR, particularly on the behaviour and welfare of a broader range of zoo-housed species - whose routine involves daily contact with both familiar and unfamiliar people. Research concerning the HAR is put into context of the field of environmental enrichment by discussing evidence which suggests that human contact meets some of the criteria that traditional methods of environmental enrichment aim to satisfy. A model has been developed to test the HAR in the zoo environment and, in doing so, predictions can be reliably made about how animals may react to humans. Here, the model has been further adapted to include predictions about the extent to which the HAR may affect an animal's daily behaviour budget and its reactions to other aspects of the zoo environment. It is also suggested that comparisons can be made directly between an animal's response to humans and to traditional enrichment methods in an attempt to determine if the HAR itself has any use as a form of environmental enrichment. Future research in this field has important implications for the management of captive zoo-housed animals through the design of appropriate husbandry procedures to improve captive animal behaviour on a species-specific basis and, in turn, for satisfying the zoo mission as a whole. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.
PubMed | Easter Bush Veterinary Center and Rossdales Equine Hospital
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Equine veterinary journal | Year: 2016
Laser resection for the treatment of sarcoids is an established part of equine practice; however, few studies have provided long-term follow-up results. Additionally, many previous reports have evaluated several treatments concurrently or have not been able to provide a definitive histological diagnosis of sarcoid.To establish the success rate following laser resection as a sole treatment for histologically confirmed sarcoids and evaluate risk factors for recurrence.Retrospective time-to-event analysis.Horses included had laser surgery to remove at least one sarcoid between 1 July 2005 and 1 September 2012. No previous known/concurrent veterinary treatment was administered. Diagnosis was confirmed by histology in all cases. Clinical data were retrieved from the hospital database. Follow-up information was obtained by telephone questionnaire.Ninety-nine horses, with a total of 235 sarcoids, were included in the analysis; 82 (83%) had no recurrence of the sarcoid removed and 71 (72%) had no occurrence of any sarcoids following surgery. Horses with sarcoids on the head and neck and those with verrucose sarcoids were at increased risk of recurrence (hazard ratios of 1.61 and 4.03, and 95% confidence intervals of 1.02-2.56 and 1.11-14.7, respectively).Laser resection of sarcoids in the horse has a positive post operative prognosis. Further work is required to fully evaluate risk factors for recurrence fully.
PubMed | Easter Bush Veterinary Center
Type: | Journal: Irish veterinary journal | Year: 2016
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1186/2046-0481-66-5.].