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Harrison S.C.W.,Pinderfields General Hospital | Lawrence W.T.,Eastbourne District General Hospital | Morley R.,Kingston Hospital | Pearce I.,Royal Infirmary | Taylor J.,Pinderfields General Hospital
BJU International | Year: 2011

OBJECTIVE: To report the British Association of Urological Surgeons' guidelines on the indications for, safe insertion of, and subsequent care for suprapubic catheters. METHODS A comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify the evidence base. This was reviewed by a guideline development group (GDG), who then drew up the recommendations. Where there was no supporting evidence expert opinion of the GDG and a wider body of consultees was used. RESULTS Suprapubic catheterisation is widely used, and generally considered a safe procedure. There is however a small risk of serious complications. Whilst the evidence base is small, the GDG has produced a consensus statement on SPC use with the aim of minimising risks and establishing best practice (Table 1). It should be of relevance to all those involved in the insertion and care of suprapubic catheters. Given the paucity of evidence, areas for future research and development are also highlighted. This review has been commissioned and approved by BAUS and the Section of Female, Neurological and Urodynamic Urology. Summary of recommendations for suprapubic catheters (SPCs) practice General considerations • Clinicians who are involved in the management of patients with long-term catheters should consider in each case whether an SPC would offer advantages to the patient over the use of a urethral catheter • Patients in whom an SPC is felt to be appropriate should have access to an efficient and expert service for SPC insertion • Patients who are undergoing SPC placement either as an isolated or as a combined procedure should undergo an appropriate consent procedure with best practice including the provision of both verbal and written information The suprapubic catheterization procedure • If appropriate expertise for SPC insertion is not available at a particular time, suprapubic aspiration of urine using a needle of up to 21 gauge can be used as a means of temporarily relieving the patient's symptoms (LE3) • A general or regional anaesthetic should be used if the bladder cannot be comfortably filled with at least 300 mL of fluid and in spinal cord injury patients with an injury level of T6 or above (LE3) • The use of antibiotic prophylaxis is recommended for patients where the urine is likely to be colonized with bacteria despite there being a lack of published data addressing this issue (LE3) • The different catheter insertion techniques and kits have not been compared in adequate clinical trials; the choice of technique is therefore a matter of individual preference. All of the closed (abdominal puncture) techniques run the risk of injury to intra-abdominal organs and the operator must have received training that allows the level of risk to be appreciated (LE3) • Ultrasonographic examination of the abdomen may be used as an adjunct to SPC insertion. However, the practitioner involved must have appropriate training and experience. Ultrasonography should only be used to look for interposing bowel loops along the planned catheter track by individuals who have received specific training and are experienced in this task. (LE3) • In the patient with a readily palpable bladder and no history of lower abdominal surgery, it is considered reasonable to insert a SPC using a closed technique providing that urine can be easily aspirated from the bladder using a needle passed along the planned catheter track (LE3) • In the patient in whom there is no history of lower abdominal surgery but where the distended (over 300 mL) bladder cannot be palpated because of obesity, it is considered that blind insertion should not be undertaken. In such circumstances, ultrasonography may be used to identify the distended bladder or cystoscopy may be used to ensure that an aspirating needle on the planned catheter track is entering the bladder at an appropriate point on the anterior bladder wall (LE3) • In the patient with either a history of lower abdominal surgery or a bladder that cannot be adequately distended, the SPC should either be inserted using an open technique or with the adjunct of imaging that can reliably exclude the presence of bowel loops on the intended catheter track. An open procedure must be performed in a manner that will reliably identify the bladder and allow mobilization of any interposing intestine away from the catheter track. Imaging to support a closed procedure would include the use of ultrasonography in skilled hands (see above) or CT scanning (LE3) Postoperative complications • Patients, carers and clinical staff must be made aware that urgent medical attention is needed if there are symptoms present that might suggest the presence of a catheter insertion-related visceral injury. Symptoms would include the persistence or worsening of lower abdominal pain or pain that is spreading away from the catheter insertion site (LE3) • Written instructions covering contact details and indications for seeking medical assistance should be given to patients and carers immediately after catheter insertion (LE3) Long-term SPC management • The use of a catheter valve as an alternative to continuous free drainage should always be considered where the bladder is known to provide safe urinary storage • The patient should have prompt and easy access to catheter change services and be offered the option of either them or their immediate carers being taught to change the catheter • Immediate access to a urology unit should be provided in the event of a failed catheter change • Antibiotic administration is indicated where there is evidence of cellulitis in the catheter site area or where there is evidence of symptomatic urinary tract infection (LE3) • Systemic antibiotics should not be used to treat uncomplicated pericatheter discharge or asymptomatic bacteruria (LE3) • Regular catheter bypassing or blockage should prompt referral to the local urology department for further investigation and management • Cystoscopy should be undertaken if repeated catheter blockages are occurring CONCLUSIONS It is hoped that these guidelines will assist in minimising morbidity associated with SPC usage. © 2010 BJU International. Source


Khan M.S.,Urology Center | Elhage O.,Urology Center | Challacombe B.,Urology Center | Murphy D.,Urology Center | And 4 more authors.
European Urology | Year: 2013

Background: Long-term oncologic and functional outcomes after robot-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC) for bladder cancer (BCa) are lacking. Objective: To report oncologic and functional outcomes in a cohort of patients who have completed a minimum of 5 yr and a maximum of 8 yr of follow-up after RARC and extracorporeal urinary diversion. Design, setting, and participants: In this paper, we report on the experience from one of the first European urology centres to introduce RARC. Only patients between 2004 and 2006 were included to ensure follow-up of ≥5 yr. We report on an analysis of oncologic outcomes in 14 patients (11 males and 3 females) with muscle-invasive/high-grade non-muscle-invasive or bacillus Calmette-Guérin-refractory carcinoma in situ who opted to have RARC. Intervention: RARC with pelvic lymphadenectomy was performed using the three-arm standard da Vinci Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical, CA, USA). Urinary diversion, either ileal conduit (n = 12) or orthotopic neobladder (n = 2), was constructed extracorporeally. Outcome measurements: Parameters were recorded in a prospectively maintained database including assessment of renal function, overall survival, disease-specific survival, development of metastases, and functional outcomes. Statistical analysis: Results were analysed using descriptive statistical analysis. Survival data were analysed and presented using the Kaplan-Meier survival curve. Results and limitations: Five of the 14 patients have died. Three patients died of metastatic disease, and two died of unrelated causes. Two other patients are alive with metastases, and another has developed primary lung cancer. Six patients are alive and disease-free. These results show overall survival of 64%, disease-specific survival of 75%, and disease-free survival of 50%. None of the patients had deterioration of renal function necessitating renal replacement therapy. Three of four previously potent patients having nerve-sparing RARC recovered erectile function. The study is limited by the relatively small number of highly selected patients undergoing RARC, which was a novel technique 8 yr ago. The standard da Vinci Surgical System made extended lymphadenectomy difficult. Conclusions: Within limitations, in our experience RARC achieved excellent control of local disease, but the outcomes in patients with metastatic disease seem to be equivalent to the outcomes of open radical cystectomy. © 2013 European Association of Urology. Source


Kumar A.,Eastbourne District General Hospital
BMJ case reports | Year: 2013

Digital swelling is a common presentation in clinical practice. Patients presenting with swollen fingers to the emergency department will often have rings on their finger, which can be removed using a variety of simple non-operative techniques or by cutting the ring off and thus avoiding any long-term consequences. Very rarely, when there is a delay in presentation of these patients, serious consequences may proceed, including finger ischaemia, infection, tendon attrition or ultimately the need for surgical amputation. We present an unusual case of patient with psychiatric illness who presented late with a ring that had embedded upon the volar aspect of the index finger. The difficulties faced by the emergency care practitioners in such circumstances, the consequences of rings acting as a tourniquet and strategies for removal of rings on swollen fingers are highlighted. Source


Howlett D.C.,Eastbourne District General Hospital | Lawrence D.,Novartis | Barter S.,Addenbrookes Hospital | Nicholson T.,Royal Infirmary
Radiology | Year: 2013

Purpose: To determine the frequency of complications and death following image-guided and/or image-assisted liver biopsy and to identify significant variables associated with an increased risk of complications or death. Materials and Methods: Institutional review board approval for this type of study is not required in the United Kingdom. United Kingdom radiology departments with a department leader for audit registered with the Royal College of Radiologists were invited to participate. The first 50 consecutive patients who underwent liver biopsy in 2008 were included. Audit standards were developed for minor pain (<30%), severe pain (<3%), vasovagal hypotension (<3%), significant hemorrhage (<0.5%), hemobilia (<0.1%), puncture of another organ (<0.1%), and death (,0.1%). Organizational, clinical, and coagulation variables were investigated statistically for their association with complications and/or death. Results: Data were obtained from 87 of 210 departments (41%). Audit standards were met for pain, hypotension, hemorrhage, hemobilia, and puncture of another organ. There were four hemorrhage-related deaths, and this target was narrowly missed (rate achieved in practice, 0.11% [four of 3486 patients]). Fifteen additional patients experienced at least one major complication. The international normalized ratio (INR) was absent in 3% of cases (97 of 2951 patients), the platelet count was absent in 1% (32 of 2986 patients), the INR was more than 1 week old in 8% (229 of 2888 patients), and the platelet count was more than 1 week old in 10% (291 of 2955 patients). Conclusion: Results of this audit confirm that image-guided and image-assisted biopsy is performed safely in United Kingdom radiology departments, with complication rates within expected parameters. Preprocedural clotting assessment was inadequate in some cases and would merit repeat audit. © RSNA, 2012. Source


Mcgreevy D.,Eastbourne District General Hospital
Nursing Inquiry | Year: 2014

Obesity is now commonly recognised to be a significant public health issue worldwide with its increasing prevalence frequently described as a global epidemic. In the United Kingdom, primary care nurses are responsible for weight management through the provision of healthy eating advice and support with lifestyle change. However, nurses themselves are not immune to the persistent and pervasive global levels of weight gain. Drawing on a Gadamerian informed phenomenological study of female primary care nurses in England, this paper considers the complex gendered understandings and experiences of being overweight, and of food and eating. The nurses' emotional and injurious experiences of being large is found to be capable of producing embodied caring practices, involving a fusion of horizons with patients over how it feels to inhabit a large body. Yet, even though subjected to similar derogatory stereotypes as patients, they simultaneously reinforce the dominant and damaging individualising psychopathology inherent to anti-obesity discourses. This suggests an urgent need to expose and challenge harmful discourses surrounding women's body size and weight in order to avoid nursing practices that unthinkingly reproduce culturally dominant and gendered understandings of weight, body size, food and eating. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

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