East Tennessee State University is an accredited American university located in Johnson City, Tennessee. It is part of the Tennessee Board of Regents system of colleges and universities, the nation's sixth largest system of public education, and is the fourth largest university in the state. ETSU has off-campus centers in nearby Kingsport and Elizabethton.Listed by The Princeton Review as one of America’s Best Value Colleges, ETSU has a host of programs that benefit both the region and nation, including the Quillen College of Medicine, consistently ranked as one of the top schools nationwide for rural medicine and primary care education, the Bill Gatton College of Pharmacy, the College of Nursing, the College of Public Health, and the recently formed College of Clinical and Rehabilitative Health science. Unique programs include a nationally acclaimed and accredited program in Bluegrass, Old Time, and Country Music, the nation's lone master's degree in Storytelling, and the Appalachian Studies programs, focused on the surrounding Appalachian region.ETSU had a record enrollment of over 15,000 students in Fall 2010.In 2011, ETSU had its 100th anniversary. Wikipedia.
Clements A.D.,East Tennessee State University
Developmental Psychobiology | Year: 2013
Salivary cortisol has been measured extensively in developmental research over the last three decades. The purpose of this article is to summarize the contributions to and limitations of salivary cortisol measurement in developmental research and propose future directions for research that includes salivary cortisol measurement. The properties of cortisol, the history of its burgeoning popularity, and the utility and limitations of (a) cortisol as a biological indicator, (b) saliva as a source of cortisol, and © various saliva collection methodologies are described. The current state of understanding about what is and is not reliably predictable from cortisol is summarized and the value of salivary cortisol measurement in developmental research is discussed, addressing whether methodology could be driving research design. Recommendations are made for streamlining study design and reporting within developmental research. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Stewart J.R.,East Tennessee State University
Journal of Morphology | Year: 2013
The primary pattern of embryonic nutrition for squamate reptiles is lecithotrophy; with few exceptions, all squamate embryos mobilize nutrients from yolk. The evolution of viviparity presents an opportunity for an additional source of embryonic nutrition through delivery of uterine secretions, or placentotrophy. This pattern of embryonic nutrition is thought to evolve through placental supplementation of lecithotrophy, followed by increasing dependence on placentotrophy. This review analyzes the relationship between reproductive mode and pattern of embryonic nutrition in three lecithotrophic viviparous species, and oviparous counterparts, for concordance with a current model for the evolution of viviparity and placentation. The assumptions of the model, that nutrients for oviparous embryos are mobilized from yolk, and that this source is not disrupted in the transition to viviparity, are supported for most nutrients. In contrast, calcium, an essential nutrient for embryonic development, is mobilized from both yolk and eggshell by oviparous embryos and reduction of eggshell calcium is correlated with viviparity. If embryonic fitness is compromised by disruption of a primary source of calcium, selection may not favor evolution of viviparity, yet viviparity has arisen independently in numerous squamate lineages. Studies of fetal nutrition in reproductively bimodal species suggest a resolution to this paradox. If uterine calcium secretion occurs during prolonged intrauterine egg retention, calcium placentotrophy evolves prior to viviparity as a replacement for eggshell calcium and embryonic nutrition will not be compromised. This hypothesis is integrated into the current model for evolution of viviparity and placentation to address the unique attributes of calcium nutrition. The sequence of events requires a shift in timing of uterine calcium secretion and the embryonic mechanism of calcium retrieval to be responsive to calcium availability. Regulation of uterine calcium secretion and the mechanism of embryonic uptake of calcium are important elements to understanding evolution of viviparity and placentation. 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kumar D.,East Tennessee State University
Plant Science | Year: 2014
Salicylic acid (SA) is a key plant hormone that mediates host responses against microbial pathogens. Identification and characterization of SA-interacting/binding proteins is a topic which has always excited scientists studying microbial defense response in plants. It is likely that discovery of a true receptor for SA may greatly advance understanding of this important signaling pathway. SABP2 with its high affinity for SA was previously considered to be a SA receptor. Despite a great deal work we may still not have true a receptor for SA. It is also entirely possible that there may be more than one receptor for SA. This scenario is more likely given the diverse role of SA in various physiological processes in plants including, modulation of opening and closing of stomatal aperture, flowering, seedling germination, thermotolerance, photosynthesis, and drought tolerance. Recent identification of NPR3, NPR4 and NPR1 as potential SA receptors and α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (KGDHE2), several glutathione S transferases (GSTF) such as SA binding proteins have generated more interest in this field. Some of these SA binding proteins may have direct/indirect role in plant processes other than pathogen defense signaling. Development and use of new techniques with higher specificity to identify SA-interacting proteins have shown great promise and have resulted in the identification of several new SA interactors. This review focuses on SA interaction/binding proteins identified so far and their likely role in mediating plant defenses. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Bailey B.A.,East Tennessee State University
Addictive Behaviors | Year: 2013
Background: Measurement of carbon monoxide in expired air samples (ECO) is a non-invasive, cost-effective biochemical marker for smoking. Cut points of 6. ppm-10. ppm have been established, though appropriate cut-points for pregnant woman have been debated due to metabolic changes. This study assessed whether an ECO cut-point identifying at least 90% of pregnant smokers, and misidentifying fewer than 10% of non-smokers, could be established. Methods: Pregnant women (N=167) completed a validated self-report smoking assessment, a urine drug screen for cotinine (UDS), and provided an expired air sample twice during pregnancy. Results: Half of women reported non-smoking status early (51%) and late (53%) in pregnancy, confirmed by UDS. Using a traditional 8. ppm. +. cut-point for the early pregnancy reading, only 1% of non-smokers were incorrectly identified as smokers, but only 56% of all smokers, and 67% who smoked 5. + cigarettes in the previous 24. h, were identified. However, at 4. ppm. +, only 8% of non-smokers were misclassified as smokers, and 90% of all smokers and 96% who smoked 5. + cigarettes in the previous 24. h were identified. False positives were explained by heavy second hand smoke exposure and marijuana use. Results were similar for late pregnancy ECO, with ROC analysis revealing an area under the curve of 95 for early pregnancy, and 94 for late pregnancy readings. Conclusions: A lower 4. ppm ECO cut-point may be necessary to identify pregnant smokers using expired air samples, and this cut-point appears valid throughout pregnancy. Work is ongoing to validate findings in larger samples, but it appears if an appropriate cut-point is used, ECO is a valid method for determining smoking status in pregnancy. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Sun P.,East Tennessee State University
Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2010
A method to fabricate cylindrical nanopore electrodes is presented. The volume of the cavity formed in the cylindrical nanopore electrode can be as small as several hundred attoliters. It has been characterized by using scanning electron microscopy and electrochemical methods. Our results show that the radius of the cavity can affect the diffusion coefficient of a redox species in the cavity. The cylindrical nanopore electrode has also been used to study charge transfer across the interface between an aqueous phase of several hundred attoliters in volume and a bulk chloroform phase. Compared with the same charge-transfer reaction across the interface between a bulk aqueous phase and a bulk chloroform phase, the potential of the charge-transfer reaction has a negative shift. The effect of the phase ratio on the distribution of the supporting electrolyte in the aqueous and organic phases has been used to explain the shift. © 2010 American Chemical Society.