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Uljin, South Korea

Kim C.G.,KIOST | Kang M.,KIOST | Lee Y.-H.,KIOST | Min W.G.,East Sea Research Institute | And 8 more authors.
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine | Year: 2015

We evaluated the preventive effects of four types of seawater collected in Republic of Korea on hairless mice with 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene- (DNCB-) induced allergic/atopic dermatitis (AD). The anti-inflammatory effects were evaluated by measuring tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α and interleukins (ILs). Glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide anion, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were measured to evaluate the antioxidant effects. Caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) were observed to measure the antiapoptotic effects; matrix metalloproteinase- (MMP-) 9 levels were also evaluated. Mice with AD had markedly higher clinical skin severity scores and scratching behaviors; higher TNF-α and ILs (1β, 10, 4, 5, and 13) levels; higher MDA, superoxide anion, caspase-3, PARP, and MMP-9 levels; and greater iNOS activity. However, the severity of AD was significantly decreased by bathing in seawaters, but it did not influence the dermal collagen depositions and skin tissue antioxidant defense systems. These results suggest that bathing in all four seawaters has protective effects against DNCB-induced AD through their favorable systemic and local immunomodulatory effects, active cytoprotective antiapoptotic effects, inhibitory effects of MMP activity and anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects. © 2015 Choong Gon Kim et al. Source

Cho M.L.,East Sea Research Institute | Lee D.-J.,Gangneung - Wonju National University | Lee H.-S.,Global Bioresources Research Center | Lee Y.-J.,Global Bioresources Research Center | You S.G.,Gangneung - Wonju National University
Ocean Science Journal | Year: 2013

The nitric oxide inhibitory (NOI) and antioxidant (ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging effects with reducing power) activities of the ethanol (EtOH) extracts and solvent partitioned fractions from Scytosiphon lomentaria, Chorda filum, Agarum cribrosum, and Desmarestia viridis were investigated, and the correlation between biological activity and total phenolic (TP) and phlorotannin (TPT) content was determined by PCA analysis. The yield of EtOH extracts from four brown seaweeds ranged from 2.6 to 6.6% with the highest yield from D. viridis, and the predominant compounds in their solvent partitioned fractions had medium and/or less polarity. The TP and TPT content of the EtOH extracts were in the ranges of 25.0-44.1 mg GAE/g sample and 0.2-4.6 mg PG/g sample, respectively, which were mostly included in the organic solvent partitioned fractions. Strong NOI activity was observed in the EtOH extracts and their solvent partitioned fractions from D. viridis and C. filum. In addition, the EtOH extract and its solvent partitioned fractions of D. viridis exhibited little cytotoxicity to Raw 264.7 cells. The most potent ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging capacity was shown in the EtOH extracts and their solvent partitioned fractions from S. lomentaria and C. filum, and both also exhibited strong reducing ability. In the PCA analysis the content of TPT had a good correlation with DPPH (r = 0.62), ABTS (r = 0.69) and reducing power (r = 0.65), however, an unfair correlation was observed between the contents of TP and TPT and NOI, suggesting that the phlorotannins might be responsible for the DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities. © 2013 Korea Ocean Research & Development Institute (KORDI) and the Korean Society of Oceanography (KSO) and Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source

Oh S.-Y.,Tong Yeong Marine Living Resources Research and Conservation Center | Oh S.-Y.,Korean University of Science and Technology | Kim C.-K.,Marine Ecosystem Research Division | Jang Y.-S.,East Sea Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Ocean and Polar Research | Year: 2014

The effect of salinity on the survival, oxygen consumption and blood physiology of Korean rockfish Sebastes schlegelii (body weight 97.4 ± 1.7 g, mean ± SD) was investigated at nine different salinities of 33.4 (control), 33.1, 32.8, 32.2, 31.0, 28.7, 23.9, 14.5 and 3.8 psu, respectively. Survival and blood physiology were measured at each salinity in two separate trials of 96 and 24 hr duration, respectively. Oxygen consumption rate (OCR) was determined at stepwise salinity exposure (33.4→33.1→ 32.8→32.2→31.0→28.7→23.9→14.5→3.8 psu) with an interval of 24 hr for each salinity. No death of fishes were observed in the range of 33.4 to 14.5 psu, but the survival rate was reduced to 26.7% at 3.8 psu after 96 hr. The OCRs were not significantly different in the range 33.4 to 28.7 psu (p > 0.05), but significantly increased until 14.5 psu and then drastically decreased at 3.8 psu compared to the control (p < 0.05). The concentrations of plasma Na+ and Cl- were significantly lower in fish exposed at 3.8 psu compared to the control (p < 0.05). The results of this study provide evidence that S. schlegelii exposed to concentrations below 23.9 psu show significant physiological responses to tolerate salinity changes under the experimental conditions we established. Source

Kang H.-S.,Jeju National University | Hong H.-K.,Jeju National University | Yang H.-S.,East Sea Research Institute | Park K.-I.,Kunsan National University | And 3 more authors.
Ocean and Polar Research | Year: 2015

Spatial variation in the reproductive effort of Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum is often closely associated with variation in the seawater temperature and food availability, which determines gonad maturity and the quantity of gamates produced during spawning. Previous studies also have reported that severe infection by the protozoan parasite Perkinsus olseni exerts a negative impact on clam reproduction, retarding gonad maturation or decreasing the reproductive effort. In the present study, we investigated impacts of P. olseni infection on the reproductive condition of Manila clam during a spawning season. Histology revealed that 54% of female clams in Wando off the south coast were in spawning, while only 10% of the female from Gomso and 0% of the female from Seonjaedo in Gyeonggi bay off the west coast were engaged in spawning at the end of May in 2004. Ray’s fluid thioglycollate media (RFTM) assay was applied to assess P. olseni infection and indicated that the infection intensity in Wando (3,608,000 ± 258,000 cells/g wet tissue) was significantly higher than the levels in Gomso (1,305,000 ± 106,000 cells/g wet tissue) and Seonjaedo (1,083,000 ± 137,000 cells/g wet tissue, p < 0.001). The size of the ripe female follicle determined from histology was significantly smaller in Wando (0.032 mm 2) compared to the sizes in Gomso (0.059 mm 2) and Seonjaedo (0.052 mm2, p < 0.05). Accordingly, the number of ripe eggs in the follicle was significantly fewer among clams in Wando (14) compared to the numbers determined in Gomso (23) and Seonjaedo (22). The absolute quantity of egg in ripe clams from Wando (31.01 mg) was also significantly smaller than Seonjaedo (61.79 mg) and Gomso (133.3 mg). Quantity of total protein, carbohydrate, and lipid in the tissue in the Wando samples was significantly smaller than the quantities determined in Gomso and Seonjaedo (p < 0.001). The observed poor reproductive condition and proximate tissue composition of the females in Wando were, in part, explained by the extremely high level of the parasites, sapping the ability to store energy in the host tissues, which is used in tissue growth and the egg production. © 2015, Korea Ocean Research and Development Institute. All rights reserved. Source

Hong G.H.,Ocean Circulation and Climate Research Division | Yang D.B.,Special Marine Areas Management Center | Lee H.-M.,Special Marine Areas Management Center | Yang S.R.,Gwangju University | And 7 more authors.
Ocean Science Journal | Year: 2012

Korean Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Aqua observations of the variation in ocean color at the sea surface were utilized to monitor the impact of nutrient-rich sewage sludge disposal in the oligotrophic area of the Yellow Sea. MODIS revealed that algal blooms persisted in the spring annually at the dump site in the Yellow Sea since year 2000 to the present. A number of implications of using products of the satellite ocean color imagers were exploited here based on the measurements in the Yellow Sea. GOCI observes almost every hour during the daylight period, every day since June 2011. Therefore, GOCI provides a powerful tool to monitor waste disposal at sea in real time. Tracking of disposal activity from a large tanker was possible hour by hour from the GOCI timeseries images compared to MODIS. Smaller changes in the color of the ocean surface can be easily observed, as GOCI resolves images at smaller scales in space and time in comparison to polar orbiting satellites, e. g., MODIS. GOCI may be widely used to monitor various marine activities in the sea, including waste disposal activity from ships. © 2012 Korea Ocean Research & Development Institute (KORDI) and the Korean Society of Oceanography (KSO) and Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source

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