East China Normal University , commonly referred to as ECNU, is a comprehensive research university in Shanghai, China. Established in 1951, it is the first national normal university of the People's Republic of China.Originally founded to train school teachers, the University is now an institution training researchers, professors, high-level civil servants, as well as business and political leaders. Sponsored by the national program "Project 211" and "Project 985", the university is a staunch force in the nation's research in the humanities, social science and technology innovation, and is reputed to be the "Columbia of the East". ECNU is ranked 67th in Asia according to the Times Higher Education Asia University Rankings in 2014, while the Leiden Ranking considered it 280th worldwide in 2013.ECNU is an institution of higher education with global impact. China's first Sino-US higher education institute – New York University Shanghai – is jointly operated by New York University and ECNU. King's College London, the University of California, as well as the University of Manchester hold their international summer schools at ECNU each year.Since 2013, the University officially changed its French name to École normale supérieure de l'Est de la Chine, to put forward the academic cooperation between ECNU and the École Normale Supérieure Group in France. And the ENS-ECNU Joint Graduate School was formally established in June 2005. Wikipedia.
News Article | April 28, 2017
Given that there are currently 415 million adults around the world with diabetes, it's not surprising there's a multi-billion dollar market for diabetic devices. Although technology has made managing the disease easier, it still involves taking blood samples to determine whether an insulin shot is needed, something that is fraught with complications since glucose levels can fluctuate due to a variety of reasons. But what if there was a way to trigger the body to produce insulin on demand? That's exactly what a team of scientists from China has done by creating a system that uses a smartphone to direct engineered cells to produce insulin when needed. Led by East China Normal University's Haifeng Ye, the solution is inspired by smart home systems and marries telecommunications technology with two emerging fields of medicine: cell-based therapy and optogenetics, a technique that makes use of light to regulate cellular activity and one that has been used in a variety of novel experiments to restore heart rhythms, reverse blindness and activate predatory instincts in mice. In this case, optogenetics plays a key role in enabling cells to process smartphone signals. Not only can light be generated by electronic commands, it can also trigger biological processes, such as circadian rhythms and in this case, gene expression. With this principle in mind, the team customized cells with a light-sensitive protein that can create insulin when illuminated by wirelessly powered far-red LEDs (FRLs). Both the lights and cells were then embedded in a soft bio-compatible sheath, which was implanted under the skin of diabetic mice. In addition to these engineered cells, the system also comprises three other components: an Android-based smartphone app that controls the lights remotely; a control box containing an electromagnetic circuit that activates the lights; and a Bluetooth-enabled blood glucose meter that sends glycemic values to the smartphone app for analysis. The result is a closed loop system in which the glucose meter is programmed to conduct glucose testing automatically on a periodic basis. The data is then sent to the app, which analyzes it to determine how much insulin is needed before sending a signal to the control box to activate the LED lights so the cells can begin production. According to the paper, the diabetic mice were exposed to four hours of light each day and the FRL was able to maintain a sustainable level of insulin production for 15 days. Within two hours of irradiation, they were able to reach nondiabetic levels of blood glucose without any hypoglycemic side effects. For Ye, who has been working on the idea of engineering "a smart insulin-sensor circuit that can sense, monitor and profile insulin levels in the blood stream" since his days as a PhD student at ETH Zurich, this study builds on his early work, which saw him using blue light to control glucose levels in mice. However, as continuous exposure to blue light can be toxic to mammalian cells, the decision was made to develop a "more robust" system using FRLs, which are commonly used in physiotherapy infrared lamps, and a multi-disciplinary approach involving electrical engineering, software engineering, optogenetics and synthetic biology. While diabetes was the focus of this study, the system can also be adapted to treat other metabolic diseases. That said, although this study can be seen as a successful proof of concept, the authors also acknowledge that there is more work that needs to be done before the technique can be tested on humans. One of the challenges is that the system still requires blood to be drawn manually to trigger the therapeutic response. The current device also requires the mice to be close to the electromagnetic emission circuit, which limits their mobility and exposes them to electromagnetic radiation. Finally, in order for this system to make its way from the lab into the clinic, it will need to be validated in cells derived from the same patients undergoing treatment and integrated with the optogenetic gene circuits. According to the researchers, one possible way of getting around these limitations is to replace the glucometer with a continuous glucose monitor that would be implanted in the body so that it can monitor blood glucose levels round the clock. And instead of the electromagnetic coil, the LED lights could be powered by clinically approved batteries to allow patients freedom of movement and avoid exposure to electromagnetic radiation. As for testing the technique using patient-derived autologous cells, plans are in the works to test this in hospitals in the future. The study has been published in Science Translational Medicine.
Song Y.,East China Normal University |
Hakoda Y.,Kyoto Women's University
Behavioural Brain Research | Year: 2015
Many previous behavioral inhibition studies have employed the classic Stroop and reverse-Stroop paradigm. Although an experimental dissociation has been demonstrated between Stroop interference (SI) and reverse-Stroop interference (RI), the mechanisms that underlie these phenomena remain unclear. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare the functional mechanisms of SI and RI. We identified the brain regions activated by the Stroop word-color matching task using four tests: the Stroop control test (Test 1), Stroop test (Test 2), reverse-Stroop control test (Test 3), and reverse-Stroop test (Test 4). Neuroimaging results revealed that SI elicited activation in the bilateral middle frontal gyrus (BA9). In contrast, a number of other regions, including the bilateral middle frontal gyrus (BA 9 and BA10), medial frontal gyrus (BA 8), and cingulate gyrus (BA6 and BA 32) exhibited significant activation during RI. Our results indicate that there is a dissociation between the types of interference and brain activation. These findings suggest that SI and RI interference can be attributable to different neural mechanisms. It also suggests that the prefrontal cortex and the cingulate cortex are differentially sensitive to various types of interference, and that the reverse-Stroop task may be more useful than the Stroop task for evaluating interference control in psychiatric patients with frontal dysfunction. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.
Zhang C.,Peking University |
Tang C.,Peking University |
Jiao N.,Peking University |
Jiao N.,East China Normal University
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2012
Copper salts have been developed as versatile catalysts for oxidative coupling reactions in organic synthesis. During these processes, Cu-catalysts are often proposed to serve as a one-electron oxidant to promote the single-electron transfer process. Recently, the transition-metal catalyzed direct dehydrogenative transformation has attracted considerable attention. This tutorial review summarizes the recent advances in the copper-catalyzed dehydrogenative functionalization via a single electron transfer (SET) process achieving C-C, C-N, C-O, C-halogen atoms, C-P, and N-N bond formation. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012.
Chen A.,East China Normal University |
Deangelis G.C.,University of Rochester |
Angelaki D.E.,Baylor College of Medicine
Journal of Neuroscience | Year: 2013
The ventral intraparietal area (VIP) of the macaque brain is a multimodal cortical region with directionally selective responses to visual and vestibular stimuli. To explore how these signals contribute to self-motion perception, neural activity in VIP was monitored while macaques performed a fine heading discrimination task based on vestibular, visual, or multisensory cues. For neurons with congruent visual and vestibular heading tuning, discrimination thresholds improved during multisensory stimulation, suggesting that VIP (like the medial superior temporal area; MSTd) may contribute to the improved perceptual discrimination seen during cue combination. Unlike MSTd, however, few VIP neurons showed opposite visual/vestibular tuning over the range of headings relevant to behavior, and those few cells showed reduced sensitivity under cue combination. Our data suggest that the heading tuning of some VIP neurons may be locally remodeled to increase the proportion of cells with congruent tuning over the behaviorally relevant stimulus range. VIP neurons also showed much stronger trial-by-trial correlations with perceptual decisions (choice probabilities; CPs) than MSTd neurons. While this may suggest that VIP neurons are more strongly linked to heading perception, we also find that correlated noise is much stronger among pairs of VIP neurons, with noise correlations averaging 0.14 in VIP as compared with 0.04 in MSTd. Thus, the large CPs in VIP could be a consequence of strong interneuronal correlations. Together, our findings suggest that VIP neurons show specializations that may make them well equipped to play a role in multisensory integration for heading perception. © 2013 the authors.
East China Normal University, CAS Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica and Nanjing Luyesike Pharmaceutical Co. | Date: 2014-02-26
Provided are a camptothecin compound containing 7-membered lactone ring, as shown in general formula I, and pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, as well as the preparation method and use thereof. In general formula I, R_(1) is H, a C1C3 alkyl, acetyl or propionyl; R_(2) is H, a C1C6 alkyl, a C3~C6 cycloalkyl, piperidyl; or a C1C6 alkyl substituted by an amino; R_(3) is H, a C1C3 alkyl, or a C1C6 alkyl substituted by an amino; R_(4) is H, a hydroxyl, or a C1C6 alkoxy; R_(5) is H, or a C1C6 alkoxyl; or R_(4) and R_(5) are linked to each other to form -OCH_(2)O- or -OCH_(2)CH_(2)O-. The compound has good anti-tumor activity, and can be clinically used via oral administration, intravenous injection, and intramuscular injection, among others.
Yu S.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry |
Ma S.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry |
Ma S.,East China Normal University
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2012
Allenes are the simplest class of cumulenes, with two contiguous C=C bonds, and show unique physical and chemical properties. These features make allenes particularly attractive in modern organic chemistry. In this Review, attention is paid to the advances made in catalytic asymmetric synthesis and natural product syntheses based on well-established reactions of allenes, such as propargylation, addition, cycloaddition, cycloisomerization, cyclization, etc., with or without catalysts. Their versatile reactivity, substituent-loading ability, axial to center chirality transfer, and controllable selectivity allow access to target molecules by unique and efficient approaches. The main topics in this Review are presented with selected examples from 2003 to 2011. Creative and easy syntheses of chiral compounds and natural products are possible by using allenes. These compounds display exceptional physical and chemical properties, and thus offer new possibilities in catalytic asymmetric synthesis and the total synthesis of natural products. The remarkable progress made in these two topics is summarized selectively in this Review. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Hu J.,Anhui University of Science and Technology |
Xu T.,Anhui University of Science and Technology |
Cheng Y.,East China Normal University
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2012
Applications of various NMR techniques to investigate the host behaviors of different dendrimers were reviewed. Chemical shift titration experiments give information on the types of interactions between dendrimer and guests, and can be used to calculate the binding parameters of the host-guest systems including number of binding sites and binding affinities. NOE analysis provides precise spatial conformations such as the localizations and orientations of the guests within the dendrimer/guest complexes. Diffusion NMR reveals the size of the dendrimer/guest complexes and can be used to predict the supramolecular structure of the dendrimer/surfactant aggregates. Relaxation measurement reflects the mobility and rigidity of the guest molecules bound with dendrimers. Besides, the combination of NOE, diffusion, and STD NMR experiments is successfully used for high-throughput screening dendrimer-binding drugs. NMR techniques also provide precise size information of palladium nanoparticles loaded within dendrimers.
Wang T.,East China Normal University
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2011
The spherically symmetric static solutions are searched for in some f(T) models of gravity theory with a Maxwell term. To do this, we demonstrate that reconstructing the Lagrangian of f(T) theories is sensitive to the choice of frame, and then we introduce a particular frame based on the conformally Cartesian coordinates. In this particular frame, the existence conditions of various solutions are presented. Our results imply that only a limited class of f(T) models can be solved in this frame. For more general models, the search for spherically symmetric static solutions is still an open and challenging problem, hopefully solvable in other frames. © 2011 American Physical Society.
Guo X.,East China Normal University |
Hu W.,East China Normal University
Accounts of Chemical Research | Year: 2013
Multicomponent reactions (MCRs) are one-pot processes in which three or more starting materials form a product that incorporates the structural features of each reagent. These reactions date back to the mid-19th century, when Strecker first prepared α-aminonitriles through the condensation of aldehydes with ammonia and hydrogen cyanide. In addition to affording products with structural complexity and diversity, MCRs offer the advantages of simplicity, synthetic efficiency, synthetic convergence, and atom economy. Therefore, they have played an important role in modern synthetic organic chemistry and drug-discovery research.The irreversible trapping of an active intermediate generated from two components by a third one offers an effective way to discover novel MCRs. In cases where the intermediate from the first two components is reactive enough to generate a two-component byproduct, it becomes challenging to control of the chemoselectivity of these MCRs over the side reaction. For example, researchers had expected that ammonium/oxonium ylides, high energy intermediates that have acidic protons and basic carbanions attached to adjacent carbons, would be too reactive to be intercepted by external electrophiles. Instead, a very fast 1,2-proton transfer would neutralize the charge separation, resulting in a stable N-H/O-H insertion product.In this Account, we present our efforts toward the development of novel MCRs via trapping of the active ammonium/oxonium ylide intermediates with a number of electrophiles. In these reactions, a "delayed proton transfer" that occurs after the trapping process produces novel multicomponent coupling products. Thus, transition-metal-catalyzed MCRs of diazocarbonyl compounds, anilines/alcohols, and electrophiles efficiently afford polyfunctional molecules such as α-amino-β-hydroxy acids, α-hydroxy-β-amino acids, α,β-diamino acids, and α,β-dihydroxy acid derivatives. We have also applied a cooperative catalysis strategy to some of these MCRs leading to reactions with high chemo-, diastereo-, and enantioselectivity. These MCRs also provide solid experimental evidence for the existence of the active protic onium ylides. © 2013 American Chemical Society.
Zhou J.,East China Normal University
Chemistry - An Asian Journal | Year: 2010
Multicatalyst promoted asymmetric tandem reactions have emerged as a powerful strategy to improve the synthetic efficiency. It enables the synthesis of complex molecules with high selectivity from simple starting materials in an almost biomimetic-like way. The use of multiple catalyst systems can enlarge the substrate and reaction scope for the reaction design, improve the reactivity, and benefit the control of selectivity. In this Focus Review, the current achievement of this promising field is discussed, including the advantages and difficulties of this research, and the strategies applied to address these problems. © 2010 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH&Co. KGaA.