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East China Normal University , commonly referred to as ECNU, is a comprehensive research university in Shanghai, China. Established in 1951, it is the first national normal university of the People's Republic of China.Originally founded to train school teachers, the University is now an institution training researchers, professors, high-level civil servants, as well as business and political leaders. Sponsored by the national program "Project 211" and "Project 985", the university is a staunch force in the nation's research in the humanities, social science and technology innovation, and is reputed to be the "Columbia of the East". ECNU is ranked 67th in Asia according to the Times Higher Education Asia University Rankings in 2014, while the Leiden Ranking considered it 280th worldwide in 2013.ECNU is an institution of higher education with global impact. China's first Sino-US higher education institute – New York University Shanghai – is jointly operated by New York University and ECNU. King's College London, the University of California, as well as the University of Manchester hold their international summer schools at ECNU each year.Since 2013, the University officially changed its French name to École normale supérieure de l'Est de la Chine, to put forward the academic cooperation between ECNU and the École Normale Supérieure Group in France. And the ENS-ECNU Joint Graduate School was formally established in June 2005. Wikipedia.


Zhou T.,CAS Institute of Biophysics | Zhou T.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Xiong J.,China National Institute of Biological Sciences | Wang M.,CAS Institute of Biophysics | And 4 more authors.
Molecular Cell | Year: 2014

Methylated cytosine of CpG dinucleotides in vertebrates may be oxidized by Tet proteins, a process that can lead to DNA demethylation. The predominant oxidation product, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), has been implicated in embryogenesis, cell differentiation, and human diseases. Recently, the SRA domain of UHRF2 (UHRF2-SRA) has been reported to specifically recognize 5hmC, but how UHRF2 recognizes this modification is unclear. Here we report the structure of UHRF2-SRA in complex with a 5hmC-containing DNA. The structure reveals that the conformation of a phenylalanine allows the formation of an optimal 5hmC binding pocket, and a hydrogen bond between the hydroxyl group of 5hmC and UHRF2-SRA is critical for their preferential binding. Further structural and biochemical analyses unveiled the role of SRA domains as a versatile reader of modified DNA, and the knowledge should facilitate further understanding of the biological function of UHRF2 and the comprehension of DNA hydroxymethylation in general. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.


Dai H.,Soochow University of China | Morelli J.N.,Texas A&M University | Ai F.,Sun Yat Sen University | Yin D.,East China Normal University | And 3 more authors.
Human Brain Mapping | Year: 2013

Purpose: To analyze functional connectivity (FC) of the visual cortex using resting-state functional MRI in human primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) patients. Materials and Methods: Twenty-two patients with known POAG and 22 age-matched controls were included in this IRB-approved study. Subjects were evaluated by 3 T MR using resting-state blood oxygenation level dependent and three-dimensional brain volume imaging (3D-BRAVO) MRI. Data processing was performed with standard software. FC maps were generated from Brodmann areas (BA) 17/18/19/7 in a voxel-wise fashion. Region of interest analysis was used to specifically examine FC among each pair of BA17/18/19/7. Results: Voxel-wise analyses demonstrated decreased FC in the POAG group between the primary visual cortex (BA17) and the right inferior temporal, left fusiform, left middle occipital, right superior occipital, left postcentral, right precentral gyri, and anterior lobe of the left cerebellum. Increased FC was found between BA17 and the left cerebellum, right middle cerebellar peduncle, right middle frontal gyrus, and extra-nuclear gyrus (P < 0.05). In terms of the higher visual cortices (BA18/19), positive FC was disappeared with the cerebellar vermis, right middle temporal, and right superior temporal gyri (P < 0.05). Negative FC was disappeared between BA18/19 and the right insular gyrus (P < 0.05). Region of interest analysis demonstrated no statistically significant differences in FC between the POAG patients relative to the controls (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Changes in FC of the visual cortex are found in patients with POAG. These include alterations in connectivity between the visual cortex and associative visual areas along with disrupted connectivity between the primary and higher visual areas. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Li M.,East China Normal University | Li M.,University of Macau | Lim S.C.,Multimedia University | Cattani C.,University of Salerno | Scalia M.,University of Rome La Sapienza
Advances in High Energy Physics | Year: 2013

The fundamental theorem of algebra determines the number of characteristic roots of an ordinary differential equation of integer order. This may cease to be true for a differential equation of fractional order. The results given in this paper suggest that the number of the characteristic roots of a class of oscillators of fractional order may in general be infinitely great. Further, we infer that it may also be the case for the characteristic roots of a differential equation of fractional order greater than 1. The relationship between the range of the fractional order and the locations of characteristic roots of oscillators in the complex plane is considered. © 2013 Ming Li et al.


Zhao X.-L.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | Zhao X.-L.,East China Normal University | Mak T.C.W.,Chinese University of Hong Kong
Inorganic Chemistry | Year: 2010

Three polyoxometalate-based silver(I) ethynediide complexes have been obtained by hydrothermal synthesis. New types of polyoxometalate motifs are generated and stabilized in a silver-rich environment in their respective three-dimensional coordination frameworks via assembly of the polyhedral metal-ligand C2@Agn (n = 6 and 7) supramolecular synthon. © 2010 American Chemical Society.


Liu D.,Huazhong University of Science and Technology | Tang K.,Hefei University of Technology | Yang Z.,East China Normal University
IEEE Photonics Technology Letters | Year: 2011

A novel improved differential evolution (DE) algorithm, named self-adaptive neighborhood search differential evolution plus (SaNSDE+), is used to solve the wavelength detection problem in the wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor network. The incorporation of the self-adaptive strategy results in an increased accuracy and detection speed for the conventional peak detection (CPD) technique in the FBG sensor network. © 2011 IEEE.


Zhu L.,East China Normal University | Wang T.,East China Normal University | Zhu L.,Hong Kong Baptist University | Ferre L.,French National Center for Scientific Research
Biometrika | Year: 2010

In the context of sufficient dimension reduction, the goal is to parsimoniously recover the central subspace of a regression model. Many inverse regression methods use slicing estimation to recover the central subspace. The efficacy of slicing estimation depends heavily upon the number of slices. However, the selection of the number of slices is an open and long-standing problem. In this paper, we propose a discretization-expectation estimation method, which avoids selecting the number of slices, while preserving the integrity of the central subspace. This generic method assures root-n consistency and asymptotic normality of slicing estimators for many inverse regression methods, and can be applied to regressions with multivariate responses. A BIC-type criterion for the dimension of the central subspace is proposed. Comprehensive simulations and an illustrative application show that our method compares favourably with existing estimators. © 2010 Biometrika Trust.


Huang X.,Peking University | Li X.,Peking University | Zou M.,Peking University | Song S.,Peking University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2014

The Cu-catalyzed aerobic oxidative esterification of simple ketones via C-C bond cleavage has been developed. Varieties of common ketones, even inactive aryl long-chain alkyl ketones, are selectively converted into esters. The reaction tolerates a wide range of alcohols, including primary and secondary alcohols, chiral alcohols with retention of the configuration, electron-deficient phenols, as well as various natural alcohols. The usage of inexpensive copper catalyst, broad substrate scope, and neutral and open air conditions make this protocol very practical. 18O labeling experiments reveal that oxygenation occurs during this transformation. Preliminary mechanism studies indicate that two novel pathways are mainly involved in this process. (Chemical Equation Presented) © 2014 American Chemical Society.


Li M.,East China Normal University | Zhao W.,University of Macau
Mathematical Problems in Engineering | Year: 2012

Reliable distinguishing DDOS flood traffic from aggregated traffic is desperately desired by reliable prevention of DDOS attacks. By reliable distinguishing, we mean that flood traffic can be distinguished from aggregated one for a predetermined probability. The basis to reliably distinguish flood traffic from aggregated one is reliable detection of signs of DDOS flood attacks. As is known, reliably distinguishing DDOS flood traffic from aggregated traffic becomes a tough task mainly due to the effects of flash-crowd traffic. For this reason, this paper studies reliable detection in the underlying DiffServ network to use static-priority schedulers. In this network environment, we present a method for reliable detection of signs of DDOS flood attacks for a given class with a given priority. There are two assumptions introduced in this study. One is that flash-crowd traffic does not have all priorities but some. The other is that attack traffic has all priorities in all classes, otherwise an attacker cannot completely achieve its DDOS goal. Further, we suppose that the protected site is equipped with a sensor that has a signature library of the legitimate traffic with the priorities flash-crowd traffic does not have. Based on those, we are able to reliably distinguish attack traffic from aggregated traffic with the priorities that flash-crowd traffic does not have according to a given detection probability.


Bathelt H.,University of Toronto | Zeng G.,East China Normal University
Applied Geography | Year: 2012

This paper investigates the developing spatial and social division of labor in the Greater Shanghai chemical industry. This industry experienced strong growth after the Asian financial crisis, when policy support was extended beyond " new economy" industries to include traditional manufacturing sectors. Based on a conceptualization that emphasizes the role of producer-user networks and interactive learning as a basis for ongoing innovation and business success, an explorative study was designed to investigate the supplier and customer linkages in different locations of the Greater Shanghai region. The results suggest that inter-firm networks are not extensive and often involve limited producer-user interaction. Important chemical firms in the region concentrate on business with their established international customer basis, use state-controlled distribution channels or rely on intermediaries that act as knowledge brokers. Neither of these practices of market interaction includes intensive information exchange and feedback on products, customer experience and demand changes. As such, these practices do not provide a sound basis for self-sustained growth or innovation in the future. The paper concludes that regional policy needs to support the establishment of combined " bonding" and " bridging" relations between chemical producers and their user industries. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Yang C.-P.,Hangzhou Normal University | Yang C.-P.,East China Normal University
Journal of Physics Condensed Matter | Year: 2011

We present a method for implementing an n-qubit controlled-rotation gate with three-level superconducting qubit systems in cavity quantum electrodynamics. The two logical states of a qubit are represented by the two lowest levels of each system while a higher energy level is used for the gate implementation. The method operates essentially by preparing a W state conditioned on the states of the control qubits, creating a single photon in the cavity mode, and then performing an arbitrary rotation on the states of the target qubit with the assistance of the cavity photon. It is interesting to note that the basic operational steps for implementing the proposed gate do not increase with the number of qubits n, and the gate operation time decreases as the number of qubits increases. This proposal is quite general, and can be applied to various types of superconducting devices in a cavity or coupled to a resonator. © 2011 IOP Publishing Ltd.


Yu D.-G.,University of Shanghai for Science and Technology | Yu J.-H.,East China Normal University | Chen L.,University of Shanghai for Science and Technology | Williams G.R.,London Metropolitan University | Wang X.,University of Shanghai for Science and Technology
Carbohydrate Polymers | Year: 2012

This study investigates the use of a modified coaxial electrospinning process in the production of drug-loaded cellulose acetate (CA) nanofibers. With CA employed as a filament-forming matrix and ketoprofen (KET) as an active pharmaceutical ingredient, modified coaxial processes using sheath fluids comprising only mixed solvents were undertaken. With a sheath-to-core flow rate ratio of 0.2:1, the nanofibers prepared from the coaxial process had a smaller average diameter, narrower size distribution, more uniform structures, and smoother surface morphologies than those generated from single fluid electrospinning. In addition, the coaxial fibers provided a better zero-order drug release profile. The use of a sheath solvent means that the core jet is subjected to electrical drawing for a longer period, facilitating homogeneous core jet solidification and retarding the formation of wrinkles on the surface of the nanofibers. This modified coaxial electrospinning protocol allows the systematic fabrication of functional polymer nanofibers with improved quality. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Chen S.,Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory | Chen S.,East China Normal University | Wang L.-W.,Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2014

Rather than being free carriers or separated single-hole polarons, double holes in anatase TiO2 prefer binding with each other, to form an O-O dimer after large structural distortion. This pushes the hole states upward into the conduction band and traps the holes. Similar double-hole-induced O-O dimerization (a bipolaron) exists also in other transition metal oxides (TMOs) such as V2O5 and MoO3, which have the highest valence bands composed mainly of O 2p states, loose lattices, and short O-O distances. Since the dimerization can happen in impurity-free TMO lattices, independent of any extrinsic dopant, it acts as an intrinsic and general limit to the p-type conductivity in these TMOs. © 2014 American Physical Society.


Zhou X.,East China Normal University | Merzenich M.M.,University of California at San Francisco
Nature Communications | Year: 2012

To date, the functional and physiological impact on the mature brain of moderate-level environmental noises that do not cause noticeable peripheral deficits remains largely unstudied. Here we show that exposing adult rats to structured noise at a sound pressure level of 65 dB, which is markedly below the broadly accepted safety level standard, results in behavioural impairments and substantially impairs the function of the auditory cortex. The strong deterioration in cortical processing of acoustic inputs is independent of the modulation rates of structured noises. Almost equally strong effects result from 10-h daily versus 24-h daily exposure regimens. These results indicate that there can be substantial negative consequences for the auditory system documented at the cortical level, attributable to environmental exposure to structured noises delivered under conditions that do not directly impact hearing sensitivity. These noises are deemed to be 'safe' and are often present in modern human environments. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.


Yang F.,Shanghai University | Li B.,East China Normal University
Visual Computer | Year: 2012

Learning from unlabeled images that contain various objects that change in pose, scale, and degree of occlusion is a challenging task in computer vision. Shared structures embody the consistence and coherence of features that repeatedly cooccur at an object class. They can be used as discriminative information to separate the various objects contained in unlabeled images. In this paper, we propose a maximum likelihood algorithm for unsupervised shared structure learning, where shared structures are represented as the strongly connected clusters of consistent pairwise relationships and shared structures of different order are learned through exploring and combining consistent pairwise spatial relationships. Two routines of sampling data, namely densely sampling and sparsely sampling, are also discussed in our work. We test our algorithm on a diverse set of data to verify its merits. © Springer-Verlag 2011.


Liu Q.,Fudan University | Sun Y.,Fudan University | Li C.,Fudan University | Zhou J.,Fudan University | And 5 more authors.
ACS Nano | Year: 2011

A novel method of rare-earth cation-assisted ligand assembly has been developed to provide upconversion nanophosphors with T1-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR), radioactivity, and targeted recognition properties, making these nanoparticles potential candidates for multimodal bioimaging. The process of modifying the surface of the nanophosphors has been confirmed by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, proton nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, and so on. The versatility of this surface modification approach for incorporating functional molecules and fabricating fluorine-18-labeled magnetic-upconversion nanophosphors as multimodal bioprobes has been demonstrated by targeted cell imaging, in vivo upconversion luminescence, MR imaging, and positron emission tomography imaging of whole-body small animals. © 2011 American Chemical Society.


He B.,East China Normal University
Electronic Journal of Combinatorics | Year: 2014

We give some identities involving sums of powers of the partial sum of q-binomial coefficients, which are q-analogues of Hirschhorn's identities [Discrete Math. 159 (1996), 273-278] and Zhang's identity [Discrete Math. 196 (1999), 291-298].


Zhang C.,Peking University | Jiao N.,Peking University | Jiao N.,East China Normal University
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2010

In the air tonight: A novel approach to symmetric and unsymmetric aromatic azo compounds from simple anilines catalyzed by inexpensive CuBr has been disclosed. Air (or dioxygen) was used as an oxidant under mild reaction conditions, with H2O as the byproduct, to make this transformation environmentally benign and very easy to handle. © 2010 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Wang B.,University of Florida | He X.,East China Normal University | Merz K.M.,University of Florida
Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation | Year: 2013

We have performed densisty functional theory (DFT) calculations of vicinal J coupling constants involving the backbone torsional angle for the protein GB3 using our recently developed automatic fragmentation quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (AF-QM/MM) approach (Xiao He et al. J. Phys. Chem. B 2009, 113, 10380-10388). Interestingly, the calculated values based on an NMR structure are more accurate than those based on a high-resolution X-ray strucure because the NMR structure was refined using a large number of residual dipolar couplings (RDCs) whereas the hydrogen atoms were added into the X-ray structure in idealized positions, confirming that the postioning of the hydrogen atoms relative to the backbone atoms is important to the accuracy of J coupling constant prediction. By comparing three Karplus equations, our results have demonstrated that hydrogen bonding, substituent and electrostatic effects could have significant impacts on vicinal J couplings even though they depend mostly on the intervening dihedral angles. The root-mean-square deviations (RMSDs) of the calculated 3J(HN,Hα), 3J(HN,Cβ), 3J(H N,C′) values based on the NMR structure are 0.52, 0.25, and 0.35 Hz, respectively, after taking the dynamic effect into consideration. The excellent accuracy demonstrates that our AF-QM/MM approach is a useful tool to study the relationship between J coupling constants and the structure and dynamics of proteins. © 2013 American Chemical Society.


Chen W.J.,East China Normal University
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2014

An In-Vehicle Monitoring System (IVMS) monitors the location and status of the remote vehicle status. We developed an IVMS with OBD based Vehicle Terminal (VT) instead of traditional one, to reduce installing complexity and gain more useful data from OBD interface. This paper describes the architecture, discusses the different users and their related concerned features. This paper classifies the OBD-VT to 3 classes to fit for different requests. Finally, this paper discusses the development of OBD specification, with an expectation of standardization of more common functions, such as anti-theft features. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Gao J.,East China Normal University | Gao J.,Fudan University
Solid-State Electronics | Year: 2011

A new method for the determination of the four noise parameters of the metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) based on the noise figure measurement system without microwave tuner is presented. The noise parameters are determined based on a set of analytical expressions of noise parameters by fitting the measured noise figure of the active device. These expressions are derived from an accurate small signal and noise equivalent circuit model, which takes into account the substrate parasitics, pad capacitances, and series inductances. On-wafer experimental verification is presented and a comparison with tuner based method is given. Good agreement is obtained between simulated and measured results for 0.5 × 5 × 16 μm, 0.35 × 5 × 16 μm and 0.18 × 5 × 16 μm (gate length × number of gate fingers × unit gate width) MOSFETs. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Guo V.J.W.,East China Normal University
Electronic Journal of Combinatorics | Year: 2014

For all positive integers n, we prove the following divisibility properties. This confirms two recent conjectures of Z.-W. Sun. Some similar divisibility properties are given. Moreover, we show that, for all positive integers m and n, the product am is divisible by m + n. In fact, the latter result can be further generalized to the q-binomial coefficients and q-integers case, which generalizes the positivity of q-Catalan numbers. We also propose several related conjectures.


Qu Z.,East China Normal University
Electronic Journal of Combinatorics | Year: 2014

Let k = (k1,k2,..., kt) be a t-tuple of integers, and m be a positive integer. For a subset A ⊂ Zm and any n ∈ Zm, let rk A (n)denote the number of solutions of the equation k1a1 +... + ktat = n with a1,..., at ∈ A. In this paper, we give a necessary and sufficient condition on (k, m) such that there exists a subset A ∈ Zm satisifying rk A = rk Zm\A. This settles a problem of Yang and Chen.


Gu F.,Shanghai Key Laboratory of Modern Optical Systems | Gu F.,Zhejiang University | Zeng H.,Shanghai Key Laboratory of Modern Optical Systems | Zeng H.,East China Normal University | And 2 more authors.
Optics Letters | Year: 2013

We demonstrated a general approach for plasmonic sensing using metal single nanowires based on an evanescent coupling technique, where light was efficiently launched into and picked up from the metal nanowires using silica fiber tapers. A high amplitude sensitivity of ∼13 dB to 1.2% hydrogen was obtained using palladium-coated Au nanowires for hydrogen sensing, and a fast response of ∼5 ms was obtained using a polyacrylamide filmsupported Ag nanowire for relative humidity sensing. Our results may help develop metal nanowire-based plasmonic sensors. © 2013 Optical Society of America.


Wu H.,North Carolina State University | Wu H.,East China Normal University | Thomas J.E.,North Carolina State University
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2012

We describe two-field optical techniques to control interactions in Feshbach resonances for two-body scattering in ultracold gases. These techniques create a molecular dark state in the closed channel of a magnetically tunable Feshbach resonance, greatly suppressing optical scattering compared to single optical field methods. The dark-state method enables control of the effective range, by creating narrow features that modify the energy dependence of the scattering phase shift, as well as control of the elastic and inelastic parts of the zero-energy s-wave scattering amplitude. We determine the scattering length and the effective range from an effective range expansion, by calculating the momentum-dependent scattering phase shift from the two-body scattering state. © 2012 American Physical Society.


Yang C.-P.,Hangzhou Normal University | Yang C.-P.,East China Normal University | Su Q.-P.,Hangzhou Normal University | Han S.,University of Kansas
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2012

We propose an efficient method to generate a Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger entangled state of n photons in n microwave cavities (or resonators) via resonant interaction to a single superconducting qutrit. The deployment of a qutrit, instead of a qubit, as the coupler enables us to use resonant interactions exclusively for all qutrit-cavity and qutrit-pulse operations. This unique approach significantly shortens the time of operation, which is advantageous for reducing the adverse effects of qutrit decoherence and cavity decay on the fidelity of the protocol. Furthermore, the protocol involves no measurement on either the state of the qutrit or cavity photons. We also show that the protocol can be generalized to other systems by replacing the superconducting qutrit coupler with different types of physical qutrits, such as an atom in the case of cavity QED, to accomplish the same task. © 2012 American Physical Society.


Sun S.,East China Normal University | Xu X.,National University of Defense Technology
IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems | Year: 2011

This paper proposes a new variational approximation for infinite mixtures of Gaussian processes. As an extension of the single Gaussian process regression model, mixtures of Gaussian processes can characterize varying covariances or multimodal data and reduce the deficiency of the computationally cubic complexity of the single Gaussian process model. The infinite mixture of Gaussian processes further integrates a Dirichlet process prior to allowing the number of mixture components to automatically be determined from data. We use variational inference and a truncated stick-breaking representation of the Dirichlet process to approximate the posterior of hidden variables involved in the model. To fix the hyperparameters of the model, the variational EM algorithm and a greedy algorithm are employed. In addition to presenting the variational infinite-mixture model, we apply it to the problem of traffic flow prediction. Experiments with comparisons to other approaches show the effectiveness of the proposed model. © 2006 IEEE.


Zhang Y.,Tianjin Polytechnic University | Jia T.Q.,East China Normal University | Zhang H.M.,Tianjin Polytechnic University | Xu Z.Z.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Optics and fine Mechanics
Optics Letters | Year: 2012

This Letter presents a plasmonic nanostructure consisting of a nanodisk and a nanoring. The nanodisk is outside of the nanoring. The quadrupolar, hexapolar, and octupolar resonance modes of the nanoring are excited easily by the bright dipolar mode of nanodisks. This nanostructure shows strong interaction and deep Fano dips. In addition, the resonance frequency, depth, and line width of Fano dips can be tuned by changing the geometrical parameters of the nanodisk and nanoring. These plasmonic nanostructures show both high contrast ratio and high figure of merit. Such characters make them suitable for chemical and biological sensing. © 2012 Optical Society of America.


Liefner I.,Justus Liebig University | Bromer C.,Justus Liebig University | Zeng G.,East China Normal University
Applied Geography | Year: 2012

Knowledge absorption theories argue that technologically less advanced companies (latecomer firms) can substantially upgrade their knowledge base through active knowledge absorption. These theories view knowledge absorption as a stepwise process which includes a linkage phase, a leverage phase and a learning phase (LLL concept). Case studies in Taiwan and Korea have shown that latecomer firms can indeed follow this approach and catch-up technologically with advanced firms. This paper aims to discuss the relevance of the LLL concept in China using the example of Optical Technology (OT). It reveals that the concept is not universally applicable. In the case of China, the ownership of companies determines successes and failures of strategies for increasing knowledge absorption. Private firms face substantial difficulties in establishing the necessary linkages; the upgrading of foreign-invested enterprises (FIEs) is controlled by their parent companies. This result has implications for theoretical concepts of learning and innovation in China, as well as for policy. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Xu J.,East China Normal University
Journal of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology | Year: 2012

Time course expression analysis constitutes a large portion of applications of microarray experiments. One primary goal of such experiments is to detect genes with the temporal changes over a period of time or at some interested time points. Difficulties arising from data with small number of replicates over only a few unaligned time points in multiple groups pose challenges for efficient statistical analysis. Some known methods are limited by the unverifiable assumptions or by the scope of applications for only two groups. We present a new method for detecting differentially expressed genes under nonhomogeneous time course experiments in multiple groups. The new method first models the time course curve of one gene by a Gaussian process to align the nonhomogeneous time course data and to compute the gradient of the time course curve as well, the latter of which is used as directional information to enhance the sensitivity of detection for temporal changes. Second, we adopt a nonparametric method to test a surrogate hypothesis based on the augmented data from the Gaussian process model. The proposed method is robust in terms of model fitting and testing. It does not require any distributional assumption for the observations or the test statistic and the method works for the case with as few as triplicate samples over four or five time points under multiple groups. We show the effectiveness and superiority of the new method in comparison with some existing methods using simulated models and two real data sets. © 2012 Imperial College Press.


Dong G.,Zhejiang Normal University | DeVito E.,Yale University | Huang J.,Zhejiang Normal University | Du X.,East China Normal University
Journal of Psychiatric Research | Year: 2012

Internet gaming addiction (IGA) is increasingly recognized as a widespread disorder with serious psychological and health consequences. Diminished white matter integrity has been demonstrated in a wide range of other addictive disorders which share clinical characteristics with IGA. Abnormal white matter integrity in addictive populations has been associated with addiction severity, treatment response and cognitive impairments. This study assessed white matter integrity in individuals with internet gaming addiction (IGA) using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). IGA subjects (N = 16) showed higher fractional anisotropy (FA), indicating greater white matter integrity, in the thalamus and left posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) relative to healthy controls (N = 15). Higher FA in the thalamus was associated with greater severity of internet addiction. Increased regional FA in individuals with internet gaming addiction may be a pre-existing vulnerability factor for IGA, or may arise secondary to IGA, perhaps as a direct result of excessive internet game playing. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Wei T.,East China Normal University | Chen X.,Michigan Technological University | Hu S.,Michigan Technological University
IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems | Year: 2011

This paper proposes a reliability-driven task scheduling scheme for multiprocessor real-time embedded systems that optimizes system energy consumption under stochastic fault occurrences. The task scheduling problem is formulated as an integer linear program where a novel fault adaptation variable is introduced to model the uncertainties of fault occurrences. The proposed scheme, which considers both the dynamic power and the leakage power, is able to handle the scheduling of independent tasks and tasks with precedence constraints, and is capable of scheduling tasks with varying deadlines. Experimental results have demonstrated that the proposed reliability-driven parallel scheduling scheme achieves energy savings of more than 15% when compared to the approach of designing for the corner case of fault occurrences. © 2006 IEEE.


Wu Z.Y.,Suzhou University of Science and Technology | Wang Y.M.,East China Normal University
Current Organic Chemistry | Year: 2014

The recent progress, particularly in this decade, in catalytic applications of mesoporous ZSM-5 was reviewed. Mesoporous ZSM-5 materials aim to combine the shape-selectivity from micropores of ZSM-5 with enhanced mass transportation from the additional mesoporosity in catalytic reactions. The reactions discussed in this review are classified into two types: (1) the reactions mainly occurred on the external surface or in the pore mouths of the mesoporous ZSM-5 and (2) the reactions mainly occurred in micropores of ZSM-5. The external acid sites of mesoporous ZSM-5 enable the reactions involving bulky reactants that exceed the size of ZSM-5 micropores; and the presence of mesoporosity which improves the mass transport of reactants as well as products, reduces diffusion limitation and accelerates catalytic reaction. Although the advantages of mesoporous ZSM-5 compared with the conventional one are closely related to high external surface area and large mesopore volume, the acidity, including the type, strength and amount of acid sites and Al distribution, should be taken into account when the mesoporous ZSM-5 is utilized as catalyst in a real reaction. Finally, future challenges and opportunities for mesoporous ZSM-5 materials are presented. © 2014 Bentham Science Publishers.


Ge M.,Nankai University | Zhu N.,Nankai University | Zhao Y.,East China Normal University | Li J.,Nankai University | Liu L.,Nankai University
Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research | Year: 2012

Sunlight-induced photodegradation of rhodamine B over Ag 3PO 4 has been observed. Nanosized Ag 3PO 4 was synthesized by a facile ion-exchange route. X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the Brunauer-Emmett- Teller surface area, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectra were employed to investigate the phase structure, morphology and optical property of the Ag 3PO 4 product. Nearly 100% of rhodamine B was degraded after a very short irradiation time using simulated sunlight in Ag 3PO 4 suspension, and the total organic carbon measurement revealed that a high degree of mineralization was achieved in the present photocatalytic system. Ag 3PO 4 catalyst has an excellent photocatalytic performance due to the high separation efficiency of electron and hole pairs. In the neutral pH solution, Ag 3PO 4 catalyst exhibited the best photoactivity under simulated sunlight. The photoinduced holes were considered to be the dominant active species in the photodegradation process. © 2012 American Chemical Society.


Li M.,East China Normal University | Zhao W.,University of Macau
IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems | Year: 2010

This paper presents a theoretical representation of a stochastic traffic bound (σ′, ρ′) that consists of two items, the burstiness bound σ′ and the bound of long-term average rate ρ′. The novelty of the suggested representation is that the burstiness bound and the bound of long-term average rate are separately connected to the fractal dimension D that is the measure of the local self-similarity together with the small-scale factor r and the Hurst parameter H that is the measure of the long-range dependence (LRD) together with the large-scale factor a of traffic. More precisely, we obtain σ′ = r2D-5 σ and ρ′ = a-H ρ, where σ is the conventional bound of burstiness and ρ the conventional bound of long-term average rate, respectively. Thus, the present bound (σ′, ρ′) takes the conventional bound, say (σ, ρ), as a special case when r = 1 and a = 1. Hence, the proposed representation provides us with a flexible way to tighten a traffic bound. Since we study the stochastically bounded modeling of traffic by taking into account the parameters in stochastic modeling, namely, D, H, r, and a, as well as the parameters in the deterministic modeling of traffic, i.e., σ and ρ, a new outlook regarding the stochastically bounded modeling of traffic is revealed. In addition, we open a problem to estimate r and a with respect to the possible applications of the proposed bound to the practice. © 2010 IEEE.


Wang C.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry | Wang C.,East China Normal University | Xie X.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry | Liu J.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry | And 2 more authors.
Chemistry - A European Journal | Year: 2015

Gold(I)-catalyzed regioselective cycloisomerizations of furan-ynes have been described. The reaction provides a concise access to stereodefined trisubstituted alkenes by endo cyclization with concomitant 1,5-migration of the furanyl group in the presence of unactivated 3 Å molecular sieves. In the absence of molecular sieves, indene products are generated by exo cyclization, followed by 1,4-furanyl migration/cyclization. The scope for 1,5-migrations can be extended to other heterocycles, such as benzofurans, thiophenes, and pyrroles. © 2015 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Sun S.,East China Normal University
Pattern Recognition Letters | Year: 2010

A new method for assigning weights to individual classifiers in a multiple classifier system based on their local within-class accuracies is proposed. First distance metric learning is applied to determine the within-class nearest neighbors for an example to be classified. Then the local within-class accuracy for an individual classifier while classifying this example is judged by its performance on these neighbors. Experiments on a number of data sets with comparisons to two other existing methods show the effectiveness of the proposed method. Practical considerations about its applicability and asymptotic behavior analysis for theoretical justification are also provided. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Ng F.F.-Y.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | Pomerantz E.M.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Deng C.,East China Normal University
Child Development | Year: 2014

Chinese parents exert more control over children than do American parents. The current research examined whether this is due in part to Chinese parents' feelings of worth being more contingent on children's performance. Twice over a year, 215 mothers and children (Mage = 12.86 years) in China and the United States (European and African American) reported on psychologically controlling parenting. Mothers also indicated the extent to which their worth is contingent on children's performance. Psychologically controlling parenting was higher among Chinese than American mothers, particularly European (vs. African) American mothers. Chinese (vs. American) mothers' feelings of worth were more contingent on children's performance, with this contributing to their heightened psychological control relative to American mothers. © 2013 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.


Yang C.-P.,Hangzhou Normal University | Yang C.-P.,East China Normal University | Su Q.-P.,Hangzhou Normal University | Zheng S.-B.,Fuzhou University | Han S.,University of Kansas
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2013

We discuss how to generate entangled coherent states of four microwave resonators (a.k.a. cavities) coupled by a three-level superconducting device (qutrit). We also show that a Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state of four superconducting qubits embedded in four different resonators can be created with this scheme. In principle, the proposed method can be extended to create an entangled coherent state of n resonators and to prepare a (GHZ) state of n qubits distributed over n cavities in a quantum network. In addition, it is noted that four resonators coupled by a coupler qutrit may be used as a basic circuit block to build a two-dimensional quantum network, which is useful for scalable quantum information processing. © 2013 American Physical Society.


Li R.,Wuhan University | Zhang L.,Wuhan University | Xu M.,East China Normal University
Carbohydrate Polymers | Year: 2012

Regenerated films were successfully prepared from cellulose/NaOH/urea solution by coagulating with water at temperature from 25 to 45 °C. The results of solid 13C NMR, wide angle X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and tensile testing revealed that the cellulose films possessed homogeneous structure and cellulose II crystalline, similar to that prepared previously by coagulating with 5 wt% H2SO4. By changing the coagulation temperature from 25 to 45 °C, tensile strength of the films was in the range of 85-139 MPa. Interestingly, the RC35 film coagulated at 35 °C exhibited the highest tensile strength (σb = 139 MPa). The inclusion complex associated with cellulose, NaOH and urea hydrates in the cellulose solution were broken by adding water (non-solvent), leading to the self-association of cellulose to regenerate through rearrangement of the hydrogen bonds. This work provided low-cost and "green" pathway to prepare cellulose films, which is important in industry. © 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Ouyang X.,East China Normal University | Lin B.,Minjiang University | Lin B.,Xiamen University
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2014

Subsidies to fossil-fuel consumption have made Chinas energy system fragile and unsustainable. It is necessary for China to reform fossil-fuel subsidies and reflect the resource cost and environmental cost in energy prices. Considering the life-cycle external costs, this paper estimates the scale of fossil-fuel subsidy and the true cost of renewable energy in 2010 and evaluates impacts of increasing renewable energy subsidies and phasing out fossil fuel subsidies on macro-economy and energy system in China based on scenario analysis. Simulation results show that the negative impacts on economic growth can be reduced from 4.460% to 0.432%, if only 10% of fossil fuel subsidies were removed. Increasing subsidies for renewable energy has positive impacts on macroeconomic variables. Although the economic benefits per unit of subsidies for renewable energy are lower than those for fossil fuels by 0.06-0.19 CNY, the revenue gap can be narrowed by shifting more subsidies from fossil fuels to renewables. Increasing subsidies for renewable energy helps optimize Chinas energy system in three ways: the first is making energy consumption structure cleaner; the second is improving energy efficiency; and the third is addressing the problem of imbalanced distribution and consumption of energy. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Liu Z.,Shandong University | Wang H.,Shandong University | Li Q.,East China Normal University
Sensors | Year: 2012

A hyperspectral imaging system to measure and analyze the reflectance spectra of the human tongue with high spatial resolution is proposed for tongue tumor detection. To achieve fast and accurate performance for detecting tongue tumors, reflectance data were collected using spectral acousto-optic tunable filters and a spectral adapter, and sparse representation was used for the data analysis algorithm. Based on the tumor image database, a recognition rate of 96.5% was achieved. The experimental results show that hyperspectral imaging for tongue tumor diagnosis, together with the spectroscopic classification method provide a new approach for the noninvasive computer-aided diagnosis of tongue tumors. © 2012 by the authors.


Dehaene S.,College de France | Dehaene S.,University Paris - Sud | Meyniel F.,University Paris - Sud | Wacongne C.,College de France | And 4 more authors.
Neuron | Year: 2015

A sequence of images, sounds, or words can be stored at several levels of detail, from specific items and their timing to abstract structure. We propose a taxonomy of five distinct cerebral mechanisms for sequence coding: transitions and timing knowledge, chunking, ordinal knowledge, algebraic patterns, and nested tree structures. In each case, we review the available experimental paradigms and list the behavioral and neural signatures of the systems involved. Tree structures require a specific recursive neural code, as yet unidentified by electrophysiology, possibly unique to humans, and which may explain the singularity of human language and cognition. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.


Hirata S.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Gilliard K.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | He X.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | He X.,East China Normal University | And 3 more authors.
Accounts of Chemical Research | Year: 2014

ConspectusMolecular crystals are chemists' solids in the sense that their structures and properties can be understood in terms of those of the constituent molecules merely perturbed by a crystalline environment. They form a large and important class of solids including ices of atmospheric species, drugs, explosives, and even some organic optoelectronic materials and supramolecular assemblies. Recently, surprisingly simple yet extremely efficient, versatile, easily implemented, and systematically accurate electronic structure methods for molecular crystals have been developed. The methods, collectively referred to as the embedded-fragment scheme, divide a crystal into monomers and overlapping dimers and apply modern molecular electronic structure methods and software to these fragments of the crystal that are embedded in a self-consistently determined crystalline electrostatic field. They enable facile applications of accurate but otherwise prohibitively expensive ab initio molecular orbital theories such as Møller-Plesset perturbation and coupled-cluster theories to a broad range of properties of solids such as internal energies, enthalpies, structures, equation of state, phonon dispersion curves and density of states, infrared and Raman spectra (including band intensities and sometimes anharmonic effects), inelastic neutron scattering spectra, heat capacities, Gibbs energies, and phase diagrams, while accounting for many-body electrostatic (namely, induction or polarization) effects as well as two-body exchange and dispersion interactions from first principles. They can fundamentally alter the role of computing in the studies of molecular crystals in the same way ab initio molecular orbital theories have transformed research practices in gas-phase physical chemistry and synthetic chemistry in the last half century.In this Account, after a brief summary of formalisms and algorithms, we discuss applications of these methods performed in our group as compelling illustrations of their unprecedented power in addressing some of the outstanding problems of solid-state chemistry, high-pressure chemistry, or geochemistry. They are the structure and spectra of ice Ih, in particular, the origin of two peaks in the hydrogen-bond-stretching region of its inelastic neutron scattering spectra, a solid-solid phase transition from CO2-I to elusive, metastable CO2-III, pressure tuning of Fermi resonance in solid CO2, and the structure and spectra of solid formic acid, all at the level of second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory or higher. © 2014 American Chemical Society.


Wang F.,East China Normal University | Ngo C.-W.,City University of Hong Kong
IEEE Transactions on Multimedia | Year: 2012

Rushes footages are considered as cheap gold mine with the potential for reuse in broadcasting and filmmaking industries. However, mining gold from unedited videos such as rushes is challenging as the reusable segments are buried in a large set of redundant information. In this paper, we propose a unified framework for stock footage classification and summarization to support video editors in navigating and organizing rushes videos. Our approach is composed of two steps. First, we employ motion features to filter the undesired camera motion and locate the stock footage. A hierarchical hidden Markov model (HHMM) is proposed to model the motion feature distribution and classify video segments into different categories to decide their potential for reuse. Second, we generate a short video summary to facilitate quick browsing of the stock footages by including the objects and events that are important for storytelling. For objects, we detect the presence of persons and moving objects. For events, we extract a set of features to detect and describe visual (motion activities and scene changes) and audio events (speech clips). A representability measure is then proposed to select the most representative video clips for video summarization. Our experiments show that the proposed HHMM significantly outperforms other methods based on SVM, FSM, and HMM. The automatically generated rushes summaries are also demonstrated to be easy-to-understand, containing little redundancy, and capable of including ground-truth objects and events with shorter durations and relatively pleasant rhythm based on the TRECVID 2007, 2008, and our subjective evaluations. © 2006 IEEE.


Liu X.,Southwest University for Nationalities | Liu X.,University of Electronic Science and Technology of China | Yu W.,East China Normal University | Wang L.,Peking University
IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control | Year: 2010

This note addresses the stability problem of continuous-time positive systems with time-varying delays. It is shown that such a system is asymptotically stable for any continuous and bounded delay if and only if the sum of all the system matrices is a Hurwitz matrix. The result is a time-varying version of the widely-known asymptotic stability criterion for constant-delay positive systems. A numerical example illustrates the correctness of our result. © 2006 IEEE.


Yang Y.-G.,Huaibei Normal University | Yang Y.,East China Normal University | Li S.-Z.,Huaibei Normal University
Astronomical Journal | Year: 2014

New extensive photometry for two triple binary stars, DI Peg and AF Gem, was performed from 2012 October to 2013 January, with two small telescopes at Xinglong station (XLs) of NAOC. From new multi-color observations and previously published ones in literature, the photometric models were (re)deduced using the updated Wilson-Devinney code. The results indicated that the low third lights exist in two classic Algol-type binaries, whose fill-out factors for the more massive components are fp = 78.2(± 0.4)% for DI Peg, and fp = 69.0(± 0.3)% for AF Gem, respectively. Through analyzing the O-C curves, the orbital periods for two binaries change in the complicated mode. The period of DI Peg possibly appears to show two light-time orbits, whose modulated periods are P 3 = 54.6(± 0.5) yr and P 4 = 23.0(± 0.6) yr, respectively. The inferred minimum masses for the inner and outer sub-stellar companions are M ⊙in = 0.095 M ⊙ and M ⊙out = 0.170 M ⊙, respectively. Therefore, DI Peg may be a quadruple star. The orbital period of AF Gem appears to show a continuous period decrease or a cyclic variation; the latter may be preferable. The cyclic oscillation, with a period of 120.3(± 2.5) yr, may be attributed to the light-time effect due to the third body. This kind of additional companion may extract angular momentum from the central system, which may play a key role in the evolution of the binary. © 2014. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.


Xu A.,Wenzhou University | Basu S.,Northern Illinois University | Tang Y.,East China Normal University
IEEE Transactions on Reliability | Year: 2014

Bayesian analysis of the series system failure data under step-stress accelerating life testing is proposed when the cause of failure may not have been identified but has only been narrowed down to a subset of all potential risks. A general Bayesian formulation is investigated for the log-location-scale distribution family that includes most commonly used parametric lifetime distributions. Reparameterization is introduced for estimating the lifetime under the use condition stress and other parameters directly. The posterior analysis is done by Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling. The methodology is illustrated through the Weibull distributions, and a numerical example. © 2012 IEEE.


Yan Z.,East China Normal University | Yan Z.,City University of Hong Kong | Tam N.F.Y.,City University of Hong Kong
Plant and Soil | Year: 2013

Background and Aims: This study aimed to evaluate the responses of anti-oxidative enzymes and stress-related hormones in E. agallocha to different levels of Pb stresses at different exposure time. Methods: The study was carried out in greenhouse, and the pot trials were conducted to investigate the stress responses of root and leaf to Pb exposure in seedlings of E. agallocha. Results: Pb stress posed higher toxic effects on root than leaf at day 49. At days 1, 7and 49, the activities of superoxide dismutase and peroxidases increased significantly, especially in leaves. Significant increases of malondialdehyde content were also observed at day 1 but significant increases of proline were only found at day 49 in leaf. Increases of salicylic acid and jasmonic acid were mainly observed in the leaves at day 1. Conclusions: E. agallocha was sensitive to Pb stress and damages, but tended to acclimate to low levels of Pb stresses by increasing and maintaining high levels of SOD and POD activities even at the later stage of exposure (day 49). Increases of endogenous SA and JA concentrations at day 1 might also involve in the plant's tolerance to Pb stress. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Liu Z.,East China Normal University
Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics | Year: 2010

The collective dynamics of coupled oscillators has been well studied in fully occupied networks, but little attention has been paid to the case of partially occupied networks. We study this problem by a dynamic bipartite model and focus on the influence of population mobility. We find that when the density of occupied nodes is smaller than the percolation threshold ρc, the order parameter will show an effect of mobility with optimal value at a medium moving probability. Its mechanism can be revealed through three factors, i.e., the size of the largest component, the mixing degree in individual components, and the frequency of exchange information among components. When the density of occupied nodes is larger than ρc, the moving probability will act as a bifurcation parameter to synchronization. The effect of mobility also exists for other dynamics such as the epidemic spreading where the effect is shown through the number of infected agents. © 2010 The American Physical Society.


Hu N.,East China Normal University | Wang X.,Nankai University
Journal of Geometry and Physics | Year: 2010

We construct convex PBW-type Lyndon bases for two-parameter quantum groups Ur, s (s o2 n + 1) with detailed commutation relations. It turns out that under a certain condition, the restricted two-parameter quantum group ur, s (s o2 n + 1) (r, s are roots of unity) is a Drinfel'd double. All Hopf isomorphisms of ur, s (s o2 n + 1), as well as ur, s (s ln), are determined. Finally, necessary and sufficient conditions for ur, s (s o2 n + 1) to be a ribbon Hopf algebra are singled out by describing the left and right integrals. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Li M.,East China Normal University
Physica Scripta | Year: 2010

Generation of long-range-dependent (LRD) traffic is crucial for networking, e.g. simulating the Internet. In this respect, it is necessary to generate an LRD traffic series according to a given correlation structure that may well reflect the statistics of real traffic. Recent research on traffic modeling exhibits that the LRD traffic is well modeled by the generalized Cauchy (GC) process indexed by two parameters that separately characterize the self-similarity (SS), which is a local property described by the fractal dimension D, and long-range dependence (LRD), which is a global property measured by the Hurst parameter H. This paper gives a computational method to generate the LRD traffic based on the correlation form of the GC process in both the unifractal and multifractal cases. It may nevertheless be used as a way to flexibly simulate the realizations that reflect the fractal phenomena of traffic for both short-term lags and long-term ones. © 2010 The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.


An efficient and general copper-catalyzed Goldberg reaction at 90-110 °C between aryl bromides and amides providing the desired products in good to excellent yields has been developed using N,N-dimethylglycine as the ligand. The reaction is tolerant toward a wide range of amides and a variety of functional group substituted aryl bromides. In addition, hindered, unreactive aromatic and aliphatic secondary acyclic amides, known to be poor nucleophiles, are efficiently coupled with aryl iodides through this simple and cheap copper/N,N-dimethylglycine catalytic system. © 2014 by the author; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


Yu J.-S.,East China Normal University
Synlett | Year: 2014

(A) Using 1,4-naphthoquinone (1) as arylation reagent, Jorgensen and co-workers realized the highly enantioselective α-arylation of aldehydes 2, affording α-arylated products 4 with a dihydroquinone functionality.6 (B) Zhou7 and Wang & Jiang8 independently reported the organocatalytic asymmetric Michael addition of oxindole 5 to 1,4-naphthoquinone, which could furnish the 3,3-disubstituted oxindoles 6 that are widely presented in natural products and pharmaceutically active compounds. (C) In the presence of phosphoric acid 8, the asymmetric 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of 1,4-naphthoquinone 1 with in situ generated azomethine ylides from aldehydes 2 and diethyl aminomalonate 7 was achieved by Gong and co-workers, which afforded the biologically active isoindolines 9 with excellent yield and ee.9. © 2014 Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart New York.


Chen J.F.,East China Normal University | Du S.,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology
Frontiers of Physics | Year: 2012

In this article, we review on narrowband photon pairs produced in nonlinear crystals, and especially in atomic ensembles. In atomic ensembles, "write-read" process in pulse mode and spontaneous four-wave mixing process (SFWM) in continuous mode are two popular photon pair generation schemes. We specifically discuss the experimental works with continuous SFWM scheme in cold atomic ensembles. Photon pairs produced in these systems are characteristic of controllable long coherence time, and therefore are accessible with direct temporal modulation. We elaborate on the recent techniques on modulation and waveform reshaping of narrow-band paired photons. © 2012 Higher Education Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Shao J.,East China Normal University | Zhang J.,University of Wisconsin - Madison
Biometrika | Year: 2015

We consider a linear mixed-effects model in which the response panel vector has missing components and the missing data mechanism depends on observed data as well as missing responses through unobserved random effects. Using a transformation of the data that eliminates the random effects, we derive asymptotically unbiased and normally distributed estimators of certain model parameters. Estimators of model parameters that cannot be estimated using the transformed data are also constructed, and their asymptotic unbiasedness and normality are established. Simulation results are presented to examine the finite sample performance of the proposed estimators and a real data example is discussed. © 2015 Biometrika Trust.


Zhang Y.,Beijing Normal University | Linlin X.,Beijing Normal University | Weining X.,East China Normal University
Landscape and Urban Planning | Year: 2014

Analyzing the spatial pattern of a city's carbon metabolism can provide insights into the spatial adjustments required to mitigate the greenhouse effect. Using GIS software and empirical coefficients, we analyzed the spatial distribution of Beijing's carbon metabolism in 5 years (1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2008), and analyzed both temporal and spatial changes in this pattern. Our results highlight the importance of the expansion of built-up areas in defining the patterns of Beijing's carbon metabolism, and let us explore options for changing these patterns. Carbon emission was high in the highly urbanized southeastern parts of the city and low in the less-urbanized northwestern parts, whereas carbon sequestration showed the opposite pattern (low in southeastern parts and high in northwestern parts). During the study period, carbon sequestration only offset 2.4% of carbon emission, indicating a serious imbalance of the city's carbon metabolism. The city's core built-up area expanded along eight axes, and its form fluctuated between simpler and more complex. From a small-scale perspective, the spatial pattern mainly showed expansion and aggregation of patches with high carbon emission and shrinkage and fragmentation of patches with high carbon sequestration. These results provide insights that will guide the development of more effective management of the spatial patterns of carbon emission and sequestration. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Fu X.,East China Normal University
Journal of Dynamical and Control Systems | Year: 2011

In this paper, we study the approximate controllability of semilinear impulsive functional differential inclusions with nonlocal conditions. Analytic semigroup theory and á-norm arguments are employed to ensure that the obtained results can be applied to the systems involving spatial derivatives. In particular, the compactness condition or Lipschitz condition for the function g in the nonlocal conditions appearing in literature is not required here. An example is provided to illustrate the application of the obtained results. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.


Li M.,East China Normal University | Lim S.C.,28 Farrer Road and 05 01 | Chen S.,Zhejiang University of Technology
Mathematical Problems in Engineering | Year: 2011

Oscillator of single-degree-freedom is a typical model in system analysis. Oscillations resulted from differential equations with fractional order attract the interests of researchers since such a type of oscillations may appear dramatic behaviors in system responses. However, a solution to the impulse response of a class of fractional oscillators studied in this paper remains unknown in the field. In this paper, we propose the solution in the closed form to the impulse response of the class of fractional oscillators. Based on it, we reveal the stability behavior of this class of fractional oscillators as follows. A fractional oscillator in this class may be strictly stable, nonstable, or marginally stable, depending on the ranges of its fractional order. © 2011 Ming Li et al.


Li M.,East China Normal University | Zhao W.,University of Macau | Chen S.,Zhejiang University of Technology
Mathematical Problems in Engineering | Year: 2011

Scaling phenomena of the Internet traffic gain peoples interests, ranging from computer scientists to statisticians. There are two types of scales. One is small-time scaling and the other large-time one. Tools to separately describe them are desired in computer communications, such as performance analysis of network systems. Conventional tools, such as the standard fractional Brownian motion (fBm), or its increment process, or the standard multifractional fBm (mBm) indexed by the local Hlder function H(t) may not be enough for this purpose. In this paper, we propose to describe the local scaling of traffic by using D(t) on a point-by-point basis and to measure the large-time scaling of traffic by using E [H(t) ] on an interval-by-interval basis, where E implies the expectation operator. Since E [H(t) ] is a constant within an observation interval while D(t) is random in general, they are uncorrelated with each other. Thus, our proposed method can be used to separately characterize the small-time scaling phenomenon and the large one of traffic, providing a new tool to investigate the scaling phenomena of traffic. © 2011 Ming Li et al.


Wu J.,Beijing Normal University | Wu J.,Arizona State University | Wei-Ning Xiang,East China Normal University | Wei-Ning Xiang,University of North Carolina at Charlotte | Zhao J.,Chinese Institute of Urban Environment
Landscape and Urban Planning | Year: 2014

China has the largest population and the longest urban development history in the world, with primitive cities first occurring along the Yellow River in northern China more than 4000 years ago. After a long period of stagnation during recent centuries, urbanization has revived again in China since the economic reform in 1978. Strongly influenced by national land use policy and the history of urbanization after 1949, China's urban ecology has gone through three development periods: the emergent period (1983-1989), the early growth period (1990-1999), and the rapid development period (2000-present). In this paper, we first provide a historical review of urbanization and urban ecology in China; based on this retrospective analysis, we further identify the main characteristics of, and missing links in, China's urban ecological research; and finally we suggest future research directions. The amount and scope of research in urban ecology and environment conducted in China since the 1980s are impressive. Not only did Chinese scholars import Western ideas to develop urban ecological science, but also they have promoted a holistic, use-inspired, transdisciplinary philosophy for studying and managing urban systems - which has unique Chinese characteristics. After more than 5000 years of being predominantly agrarian, China is now urban, and will become only more urban in the future. This continued fast urbanization makes China a living laboratory for studying urbanization, and China's urban ecology seems poised to make strides in the coming decades. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Gurman V.I.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Kang N.M.,East China Normal University
Automation and Remote Control | Year: 2011

Considered is the practically important and theoretically challenging class of optimal control problems which can be integrated within the common notion of "degenerate problems." The general definition of such problems is given, which arises from the connection between the degeneracy and the presence of hidden passive differential constraints or discrete chains in the problem. This definition is analyzed with the focus on its relation with the classical notion of degeneracy in the variational calculus and the notion of singular and sliding modes well known in the control theory. This paper is the first one in the series of three, which are aimed at presenting a survey of the main facts and applications of the special theory of such problems, which is essentially based on finding and eliminating passive constraints. New results and generalizations are also reported. © 2011 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.


Jiang B.,Simon Fraser University | Pei J.,Simon Fraser University | Tao Y.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | Lin X.,University of New South Wales | Lin X.,East China Normal University
IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering | Year: 2013

Clustering on uncertain data, one of the essential tasks in mining uncertain data, posts significant challenges on both modeling similarity between uncertain objects and developing efficient computational methods. The previous methods extend traditional partitioning clustering methods like (k)-means and density-based clustering methods like DBSCAN to uncertain data, thus rely on geometric distances between objects. Such methods cannot handle uncertain objects that are geometrically indistinguishable, such as products with the same mean but very different variances in customer ratings. Surprisingly, probability distributions, which are essential characteristics of uncertain objects, have not been considered in measuring similarity between uncertain objects. In this paper, we systematically model uncertain objects in both continuous and discrete domains, where an uncertain object is modeled as a continuous and discrete random variable, respectively. We use the well-known Kullback-Leibler divergence to measure similarity between uncertain objects in both the continuous and discrete cases, and integrate it into partitioning and density-based clustering methods to cluster uncertain objects. Nevertheless, a naïve implementation is very costly. Particularly, computing exact KL divergence in the continuous case is very costly or even infeasible. To tackle the problem, we estimate KL divergence in the continuous case by kernel density estimation and employ the fast Gauss transform technique to further speed up the computation. Our extensive experiment results verify the effectiveness, efficiency, and scalability of our approaches. © 2012 IEEE.


Chang T.-H.,National Taiwan University of Science and Technology | Hong M.,Iowa State University | Wang X.,East China Normal University
IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing | Year: 2015

Multi-agent distributed consensus optimization problems arise in many signal processing applications. Recently, the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) has been used for solving this family of problems. ADMM based distributed optimization method is shown to have faster convergence rate compared with classic methods based on consensus subgradient, but can be computationally expensive, especially for problems with complicated structures or large dimensions. In this paper, we propose low-complexity algorithms that can reduce the overall computational cost of consensus ADMM by an order of magnitude for certain large-scale problems. Central to the proposed algorithms is the use of an inexact step for each ADMM update, which enables the agents to perform cheap computation at each iteration. Our convergence analyses show that the proposed methods converge well under some convexity assumptions. Numerical results show that the proposed algorithms offer considerably lower computational complexity than the standard ADMM based distributed optimization methods. © 2014 IEEE.


Liu J.,Tongji University | Mao Y.,Tongji University | Ge J.,East China Normal University | Ge J.,Tongji University
Journal of Materials Chemistry C | Year: 2013

Electrically tunable photonic crystals are fabricated by encapsulating magnetically assembled colloidal crystals inside an electrolytic cell, and their reflection decreases or recovers when an electric field is applied or removed. The reflection changes are caused by the change in the order degree of the colloidal crystals, which can be further explained by the migration of Fe 3O4 nanoparticles and the change of localized ionic strength in different electric fields. A stronger electric field is needed to tune the colloidal crystals assembled by a strong magnetic field, and a good match between their strengths is significant to improve the sensitivity and reversibility of the reflection switching. Generally, the reflection falls within 1 s and recovers after 4-5 s depending on the field strength. Since the electric field can be well restricted in the space between two electrodes and precisely controlled by the applied potentials, it is possible to fabricate adjacent magnetic photonic crystal cells whose reflection signals can be independently controlled by the electric field, which reveals a possible solution to high-resolution photonic crystal based optical devices. This journal is © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Sun S.,East China Normal University
Expert Systems with Applications | Year: 2010

A new method called extreme energy difference (EED) is proposed for supervised feature extraction of electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. It is a linear feature extractor which aims at maximizing or minimizing the disparity of energy features between two classes of EEG signals. The final transform for feature extraction in EED is very concise, which is resolved by an eigenvalue decomposition problem. In the context of EEG signal classification for brain-computer interfaces, the performance of EED is evaluated with real EEG signals from different subjects. Experimental results on nine subjects show that the EED feature extractor is comparable to the state-of-the-art feature extraction method common spatial patterns (CSP). Furthermore on another benchmark data set, by combining features obtained by EED and CSP, we train a linear support vector machine classifier whose classification accuracy outperforms the best result reported. This shows EED can be a beneficial complement to CSP. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Salama M.S.,International Institute for Geo information Science and Earth Observation | Salama M.S.,East China Normal University | Shen F.,International Institute for Geo information Science and Earth Observation
Optics Express | Year: 2010

Improving the inversion of ocean color data is an ever continuing effort to increase the accuracy of derived inherent optical properties. In this paper we present a stochastic inversion algorithm to derive inherent optical properties from ocean color, ship and space borne data. The inversion algorithm is based on the cross-entropy method where sets of inherent optical properties are generated and converged to the optimal set using iterative process. The algorithm is validated against four data sets: simulated, noisy simulated in-situ measured and satellite match-up data sets. Statistical analysis of validation results is based on model-II regression using five goodness-of-fit indicators; only R2 and root mean square of error (RMSE) are mentioned hereafter. Accurate values of total absorption coefficient are derived with R2 < 0.91 and RMSE, of log transformed data, less than 0.55. Reliable values of the total backscattering coefficient are also obtained with R2 < 0.7 (after removing outliers) and RMSE>0.37. The developed algorithm has the ability to derive reliable results from noisy data with R2 above 0.96 for the total absorption and above 0.84 for the backscattering coefficients.The algorithm is self contained and easy to implement and modify to derive the variability of chlorophyll-a absorption that may correspond to different phytoplankton species. It gives consistently accurate results and is therefore worth considering for ocean color global products. © 2010 Optical Society of America.


Zhao Y.,East China Normal University | Jiangyong H.,National University of Singapore | Chen H.,Tongji University
Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry | Year: 2010

β-FeOOH loaded resin (β-FeOOH/resin) was synthesized through in situ hydrolysis of Fe(III)-exchanged resin and its physiochemical properties were characterized. The typical environmental endocrine disruptor, natural hormone 17β-estradiol (E2) was removed by heterogeneous photo-Fenton reaction in presence of β-FeOOH/resin and H2O2 under weak UV irradiation. E2 degradation was effectively achieved by hydroxyl radicals that were generated in the heterogeneous photo-Fenton process. pH was an important factor that affected efficiency of E2 degradation and catalyst's surface activity which were determined by X-ray photoelectron spectrum (XPS). The mechanical stability and photo activity of β-FeOOH/resin were tested by several cycles of photo catalytic degradation and FTIR. The reduction of estrogenicity of E2 would be very important to the safety of treated water so as to avoid secondary pollution. It seems that the heterogeneous Fenton oxidation would be a promising method to eliminate the steroid estrogenic compounds. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Chen S.,East China Normal University | Chen S.,Fudan University | Walsh A.,University of Bath | Gong X.-G.,Fudan University | Wei S.-H.,National Renewable Energy Laboratory
Advanced Materials | Year: 2013

The kesterite-structured semiconductors Cu2ZnSnS4 and Cu2ZnSnSe4 are drawing considerable attention recently as the active layers in earth-abundant low-cost thin-film solar cells. The additional number of elements in these quaternary compounds, relative to binary and ternary semiconductors, results in increased flexibility in the material properties. Conversely, a large variety of intrinsic lattice defects can also be formed, which have important influence on their optical and electrical properties, and hence their photovoltaic performance. Experimental identification of these defects is currently limited due to poor sample quality. Here recent theoretical research on defect formation and ionization in kesterite materials is reviewed based on new systematic calculations, and compared with the better studied chalcopyrite materials CuGaSe2 and CuInSe2. Four features are revealed and highlighted: (i) the strong phase-competition between the kesterites and the coexisting secondary compounds; (ii) the intrinsic p-type conductivity determined by the high population of acceptor CuZn antisites and Cu vacancies, and their dependence on the Cu/(Zn+Sn) and Zn/Sn ratio; (iii) the role of charge-compensated defect clusters such as [2CuZn+SnZn], [VCu+Zn Cu] and [ZnSn+2ZnCu] and their contribution to non-stoichiometry; (iv) the electron-trapping effect of the abundant [2Cu Zn+SnZn] clusters, especially in Cu2ZnSnS 4. The calculated properties explain the experimental observation that Cu poor and Zn rich conditions (Cu/(Zn+Sn) ≈ 0.8 and Zn/Sn ≈ 1.2) result in the highest solar cell efficiency, as well as suggesting an efficiency limitation in Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 cells when the S composition is high. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Zhu G.,East China Normal University | Zhu G.,University of Pittsburgh | Singh C.,University of Pittsburgh
Physical Review Special Topics - Physics Education Research | Year: 2013

We describe the difficulties advanced undergraduate and graduate students have with concepts related to addition of angular momentum in quantum mechanics. We also describe the development and implementation of a research-based learning tool, Quantum Interactive Learning Tutorial (QuILT), to reduce these difficulties. The preliminary evaluation shows that the QuILT related to the basics of the addition of angular momentum is helpful in improving students' understanding of these concepts.


Cai Q.,East China Normal University | Van der Haegen L.,Ghent University
Neuroscience Bulletin | Year: 2015

Recent studies have made substantial progress in understanding the interactions between cognitive functions, from language to cognitive control, attention, and memory. However, dissociating these functions has been hampered by the close proximity of regions involved, as in the case in the prefrontal and parietal cortex. In this article, we review a series of studies that investigated the relationship between language and other cognitive functions in an alternative way — by examining their functional (co-)lateralization. We argue that research on the hemispheric lateralization of language and its link with handedness can offer an appropriate starting-point to shed light on the relationships between different functions. Besides functional interactions, anatomical asymmetries in non-human primates and those underlying language in humans can provide unique information about cortical organization. Finally, some open questions and criteria are raised for an ideal theoretical model of the cortex based on hemispheric specialization. © 2015, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, CAS and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Deng L.,U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology | Zhu C.,U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology | Zhu C.,East China Normal University | Hagley E.W.,U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2013

We present a semiclassical theoretical framework on light-wave mixing and scattering with single-component quantum gases. We show that these optical processes originating from elementary excitations with dominant collective atomic recoil motion are stimulated Raman or hyper-Raman in nature. In the forward direction the wave-mixing process, which is the most efficient process in normal gases, is strongly reduced by the condensate structure factor even though the Bogoliubov dispersion relation automatically compensates the optical-wave phase mismatch. In the backward direction, however, the free-particle-like condensate structure factor and Bogoliubov dispersion result in highly efficient light-wave mixing and collective atomic recoil motion that are enhanced by a stimulated hyper-Raman gain and a very narrow two-photon motional state resonance. © 2013 American Physical Society.


Chen Y.,CSIRO | Chen Y.,Shanghai Normal University | Yu J.,Shanghai Normal University | Yu J.,East China Normal University | Khan S.,UNESCO Regional Science Bureau for Asia and the Pacific
Environmental Modelling and Software | Year: 2013

Criteria weights determined from pairwise comparisons are often the greatest contributor to the uncertainties in the AHP-based multi-criteria decision making (MCDM). During an MCDM process, the weights can be changed directly by adjusting the output from a pairwise comparison matrix, or indirectly by recalculating the matrix after varying its input. Corresponding weight sensitivity on multi-criteria evaluation results is generally difficult to be quantitatively assessed and spatially visualized. This study developed a unique methodology which extends the AHP-SA model proposed by Chen etal. (2010) to a more comprehensive framework to analyze weight sensitivity caused by both direct and indirect weight changes using the one-at-a-time (OAT) technique. With increased efficiency, improved flexibility and enhanced visualization capability, the spatial framework was developed as AHP-SA2 within a GIS platform. A case study with in-depth discussion is provided to demonstrate the new toolset. It assists stakeholders and researchers with better understanding of weight sensitivity for characterising, reporting and minimising uncertainty in the AHP-based spatial MCDM. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Shawe-Taylor J.,University College London | Sun S.,University College London | Sun S.,East China Normal University
Neurocomputing | Year: 2011

Support vector machines (SVMs) are theoretically well-justified machine learning techniques, which have also been successfully applied to many real-world domains. The use of optimization methodologies plays a central role in finding solutions of SVMs. This paper reviews representative and state-of-the-art techniques for optimizing the training of SVMs, especially SVMs for classification. The objective of this paper is to provide readers an overview of the basic elements and recent advances for training SVMs and enable them to develop and implement new optimization strategies for SVM-related research at their disposal. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Qiu P.,University of Florida | Xiang D.,East China Normal University
Statistics in Medicine | Year: 2015

In the SHARe Framingham Heart Study of the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, one major task is to monitor several health variables (e.g., blood pressure and cholesterol level) so that their irregular longitudinal pattern can be detected as soon as possible and some medical treatments applied in a timely manner to avoid some deadly cardiovascular diseases (e.g., stroke). To handle this kind of applications effectively, we propose a new statistical methodology called multivariate dynamic screening system (MDySS) in this paper. The MDySS method combines the major strengths of the multivariate longitudinal data analysis and the multivariate statistical process control, and it makes decisions about the longitudinal pattern of a subject by comparing it with other subjects cross sectionally and by sequentially monitoring it as well. Numerical studies show that MDySS works well in practice. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Fu X.,East China Normal University
IMA Journal of Mathematical Control and Information | Year: 2013

This paper considers the approximate controllability for a class of neutral control systems governed by semilinear neutral delayed equations. Sufficient conditions for approximate controllability are established by constructing fundamental solutions and using Banach fixed-point principle. The obtained results improve some existing analogous ones to some extent. An example is presented to illustrate the applications of the obtained results. © 2013 The authors 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications. All rights reserved.


Zhou J.,Fudan University | Sun Y.,Fudan University | Du X.,East China Normal University | Xiong L.,Fudan University | And 2 more authors.
Biomaterials | Year: 2010

Upconversion luminescence (UCL) imaging is expected to play a significant role in future photoluminescence imaging since it shows advantages of sharp emission lines, long lifetimes, superior photostability and no blinking. To further improve penetration depth, herein, near-infrared to near-infrared (NIR-to-NIR) UCL and magnetic properties were combined into a nanoparticle, and NIR-to-NIR UCL and MRI dual-modal bioimaging in vivo of whole-body animal were developed. Hydrophilic and carboxylic acid-functionalized Tm3+/Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped NaGdF4 upconversion nanophosphors (AA-NPs) were synthesized and showed both NIR-to-visible and NIR-to-NIR luminescence under excitation of 980 nm. Collecting the signal of the upconversion emission from AA-NPs in the visible and NIR range, all UCL imaging of cells, tissues and whole-body animals with different penetration depth showed high contrast. Moreover, AA-NPs showed a high relaxivity of 5.60 s-1 (mm)-1 and were successfully applied as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in vivo. By means of the combination of UCL imaging and MRI, the distribution of AA-NPs in living animals was studied, and the results indicated that these particles mainly accumulate in the liver and spleen without undesirable stay in the lungs. Therefore, the concept of UCL and MR dual-modality imaging in vivo of whole-body animals using Tm3+/Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped NaGdF4 with NIR-to-NIR upconversion luminescent and magnetic resonance properties can serve as a platform technology for the next-generation of probes for bioimaging in vivo. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Wu P.,East China Normal University | Kubota Y.,Yokohama National University | Yokoi T.,Tokyo Institute of Technology
ACS Catalysis | Year: 2014

On the occasion of Professor Takashi Tatsumi's retirement and winning of the Alwin Mittasch Prize, some of his main achievements in zeolite catalysis are summarized, with a focus on the design, synthesis, and catalytic application of new titanosilicate catalysts. He and his co-workers succeeded in the direct synthesis of the MWW-type titanosilicate, Ti-MWW, by employing boric acid in the synthesis and thereafter developed a dry gel conversion method for boron-reduced Ti-MWW as well as a secondary isomorphous substitution route for boron-free Ti-MWW molecular sieves. In particular, the postsynthetic conversion involved a reversible structure interchange between three-dimensional silicalite and a two-dimensional layered precursor. Taking advantage of the structural diversity of the layered MWW zeolite precursor, phase-delaminated Ti-MMW and interlayer expanded Ti-MWW were also prepared. Using hydrogen peroxide as an oxidant, the Ti-MWW/H2O2 system was highly efficient for liquid-phase oxidation of a variety of substrates, particularly the epoxidation of alkenes and ammoximation of ketones. Some of the Ti-MWW-catalyzed reactions have already led to or are becoming practical catalytic technologies in industrial practice. Several other recent achievements in the synthesis and catalytic applications of other titanosilicates, zeolitic hydrid materials, and solid acid zeolite catalysts are also briefly summarized. © 2013 American Chemical Society.


Du S.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Lv J.,East China Normal University
International Journal of Production Economics | Year: 2013

Though traditional control charts have been widely used as effective tools in statistical process control (SPC), they are not applicable in many industrial applications where the process variables are highly auto-correlated. In this study, one new minimal Euclidean distance (MED) based monitoring approach is proposed for enhancing the monitoring mean shifts of auto-correlated processes. Support vector regression (SVR) is used to predict the values of a variable in time series. Through calculating minimal Euclidean distance (MED) values over time series, a novel MED chart is developed for monitoring mean shifts, and it can provide a comprehensive and quantitative assessment for the current process state. The performance of the proposed MED control chart is evaluated based on average run length (ARL). Simulation experiments are conducted and one industrial case is illustrated to validate the effectiveness of the developed MED control chart. The analysis results indicate that the developed MED control chart is more effective than other control charts for small process mean shifts in auto-correlated processes, and it can be used as a promising tool for SPC. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Huang Y.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Fan N.,East China Normal University
IEEE Journal on Selected Topics in Signal Processing | Year: 2011

We study the problem of interpolating blurred frames from their adjacent sharp frames using optical flow for video camera anti-shake deblurring post-processing. A new method is proposed that alternatively projects the resulting image onto two convex sets: an observed constraint set in the spatial domain and a detail constraint set in the wavelet domain. Experiments show that, it is effective for diversified scenes under various illumination conditions. © 2010 IEEE.


Jiang X.,East China Normal University | Jiang X.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2016

Comprehensive utilization of both electronic and steric properties of ligands in homogeneous gold catalysis is achieved in the regiodivergent intramolecular hydroarylation of alkynes. A flexible electron-deficient phosphite ligand, combined with the readily transformable directing group methoxyl amide, is attached to a cationic Au(I) center in three-coordinate mode, affording sterically hindered ortho-position cyclization. Meanwhile, para-position cyclization is exclusively achieved with the assistance of a rigid electron-abundant phosphine ligand-based Au(I) catalyst, in which ligands manifest the compensating effect for cyclization through steric hindrance and electronic properties. By combining gold with silver catalysts, tetrahydropyrroloquinolinones possessing a congested tricyclic structure are obtained via a proven Au/Ag relay catalytic process. © 2016 American Chemical Society.


Han J.,Nagoya University | Xiang W.-N.,East China Normal University
Sustainability Science | Year: 2013

Materials stocked in infrastructure provide necessary personal and economic services, and are also closely linked with massive resource extraction, energy consumption and waste generation. To support policy deliberations toward regional harmony and sustainable development, this paper examines the temporal change during 1978-2008 and spatial patterns of ten types of materials stocked in four major infrastructures (residential buildings, roads, railways, and water pipelines) in 31 provinces in China, and diagnoses regional disparity and driving factors by Theil index and multivariable regression based on panel data. It was found that the total material stock has boomed to 42.5 billion tons in 2008, with its per capita level increased by nine times over that in 1978. Over 90 % of materials are concentrated in residential buildings and roads, and are spatially inclined to decrease from coastal regions to inland areas. Since China has shifted its strategy from an inclined to harmonious regional development, the overall inequality of per capita material stock has been changing toward equality with its scale contributed mainly by inter-regional inequality, and downward trend affected dominantly by intra-regional inequality. To balance the growth speed across regions meanwhile, to develop economy and attract foreign investment in each region, would be a promising route towards reducing regional inequality. Moreover, the enhancement of governmental performance and construction of each sector's share would also be effective for decreasing inter-regional gaps. © 2012 Springer Japan.


Li M.,East China Normal University
Mathematical Problems in Engineering | Year: 2013

This paper clarifies that the fractional Brownian motion, B H (t), is of long-range dependence (LRD) for the Hurst parameter 0 < H < 1 except H = 1 / 2. In addition, we note that the fractional Brownian motion is positively correlated for 0 < H < 1 except H = 1 / 2. Moreover, we present a theorem to state that the differential or integral of a random function, X (t), may substantially change the statistical dependence of X (t). One example is that the differential of B H (t), in the domain of generalized functions, changes the LRD of B H (t) to be of short-range dependence (SRD) when 0 < H < 0.5. © 2013 Ming Li.


Zhang C.,Peking University | Jiao N.,Peking University | Jiao N.,East China Normal University
Organic Chemistry Frontiers | Year: 2014

A novel and efficient approach to α-ketoesters has been developed with wide functional group tolerance. This copper-catalyzed oxidative dehydrogenative coupling reaction of alcohols and α-carbonyl aldehydes employs air as the oxidant and generates H2O as the only by-product. Broad substrate scope, high atom economy and mild reaction conditions make this chemistry very practical. © 2015 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Zhang L.,East China Normal University
Abstract and Applied Analysis | Year: 2014

Predator-prey models describe biological phenomena of pursuit-evasion interaction. And this interaction exists widely in the world for the necessary energy supplement of species. In this paper, we have investigated a ratio-dependent spatially extended food chain model. Based on the bifurcation analysis (Hopf and Turing), we give the spatial pattern formation via numerical simulation, that is, the evolution process of the system near the coexistence equilibrium point (u* 2,v* 2,w* 2), and find that the model dynamics exhibits complex pattern replication. For fixed parameters, on increasing the control parameter c1, the sequence "holes → holes-stripe mixtures → stripes → spots-stripe mixtures → spots" pattern is observed. And in the case of pure Hopf instability, the model exhibits chaotic wave pattern replication. Furthermore, we consider the pattern formation in the case of which the top predator is extinct, that is, the evolution process of the system near the equilibrium point (u* 1,v* 1,0), and find that the model dynamics exhibits stripes-spots pattern replication. Our results show that reaction-diffusion model is an appropriate tool for investigating fundamental mechanism of complex spatiotemporal dynamics. It will be useful for studying the dynamic complexity of ecosystems. © 2014 Lei Zhang.


Zhang J.,CAS Institute of Mechanics | Guo D.-S.,East China Normal University | Guo D.-S.,Southern University and A&M College
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2013

Our theoretical study shows that the spectral minimum and the giant enhancement structures observed in the high harmonic spectra also exist in the photoelectron spectra from driven Xe atoms. They are attributed to the inherent property of the radial part of the wave function of the Xe 5p subshell in momentum space. The spectral minimum is caused by the nodal point in the modulus of the radial wave function in momentum space, and the giant enhancement reflects the increase in magnitude of the modulus of the wave function. To observe these structures, midinfrared lasers of about 0.2 PW/cm2 intensity are preferred. Employing circularly polarized laser light is suggested for exhibiting these structures in photoelectron spectra. © 2013 American Physical Society.


Xin N.,East China Normal University | Ma S.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry
European Journal of Organic Chemistry | Year: 2012

A convenient and efficient synthesis of 4-halo-2,5-dihydro-1,2-oxaphosphole 2-oxides through CuX 2-mediated direct halocyclization of diethyl 1,2-allenylphosphonates was developed. The yields range from moderate to excellent. The efficiency of axial-to-central chirality transfer has also been studied. Further Suzuki cross-coupling of the resulting vinylic chlorides with dicyclohexyl(2,4,6-trimethoxyphenyl)phosphane (LB-Phos) as the ligand, was established. CuX 2-mediated direct halocyclization of diethyl 1,2-allenylphosphonates was developed to afford 4-halo-2,5-dihydro-1,2- oxaphosphole 2-oxides. The efficiency of axial-to-central chirality transfer and subsequent Suzuki cross-coupling of the resultingvinylic chlorides with dicyclohexyl(2,4,6-trimethoxyphenyl)phosphane (LB-Phos) as the ligand were also investigated. © Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Li M.,East China Normal University | Zhao W.,University of Macau | Cattani C.,University of Salerno
Mathematical Problems in Engineering | Year: 2013

Delay analysis plays a role in real-time systems in computer communication networks. This paper gives our results in the aspect of delay analysis of fractal traffic passing through servers. There are three contributions presented in this paper. First, we will explain the reasons why conventional theory of queuing systems ceases in the general sense when arrival traffic is fractal. Then, we will propose a concise method of delay computation for hard real-time systems as shown in this paper. Finally, the delay computation of fractal traffic passing through severs is presented. © 2013 Ming Li et al.


Polyamidoamine (PAMAM) and polypropylenimine (PPI) dendrimers are the commercially available and most widely used dendrimers in pharmaceutical sciences and biomedical engineering. In the present study, the loading and release behaviors of generation 3 PAMAM and generation 4 PPI dendrimers with the same amount of surface amine groups (32 per dendrimer) were compared using phenylbutazone as a model drug. The dendrimer-phenylbutazone complexes were characterized by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance and nuclear Overhauser effect techniques, and the cytotoxicity of each dendrimer was evaluated. Aqueous solubility results suggest that the generation 3 PAMAM dendrimer has a much higher loading ability towards phenylbutazone in comparison with the generation 4 PPI dendrimer at high phenylbutazone-dendrimer feeding ratios. Drug release was much slower from the generation 3 PAMAM matrix than from the generation 4 PPI dendrimer. In addition, the generation 3 PAMAM dendrimer is at least 50-fold less toxic than generation 4 PPI dendrimer on MCF-7 and A549 cell lines. Although the nuclear Overhauser effect nuclear magnetic resonance results reveal that the generation 4 PPI dendrimer with a more hydrophobic interior encapsulates more phenylbutazone, the PPI dendrimer-phenylbutazone inclusion is not stable in aqueous solution, which poses a great challenge during drug development.


Moore B.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Sun H.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Sun H.,East China Normal University | Govind N.,Pacific Northwest National Laboratory | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation | Year: 2015

Criteria to assess charge-transfer (CT) and CT-like character of electronic excitations are examined. Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations with non-hybrid, hybrid, and tuned long-range corrected (LC) functionals are compared with coupled-cluster (CC) benchmarks. The test set comprises an organic CT complex, two push-pull donor-acceptor chromophores, a cyanine dye, and several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Proper CT is easily identified. Excitations with significant density changes upon excitation within regions of close spatial proximity can also be diagnosed. For such excitations, the use of LC functionals in TDDFT sometimes leads to dramatic improvements of the singlet energies, similar to proper CT. It is shown that such CT-like excitations do not have the characteristics of physical charge transfer, and improvements with LC functionals may not be obtained for the right reasons. The TDDFT triplet excitation energies are underestimated for all systems, often severely. For the CT-like candidates, the singlet-triplet (S/T) separation changes from negative with a non-hybrid functional to positive with a tuned LC functional. For the cyanine, the S/T separation is systematically too large with TDDFT, leading to better error compensation for the singlet energy with a non-hybrid functional. © 2015 American Chemical Society.


Ye J.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry | Li S.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry | Ma S.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry | Ma S.,East China Normal University
Organic Letters | Year: 2012

A highly efficient and atom-economic route to synthesize 5-(1,3,4-alkatrien-2-yl)oxazolidin-2-ones via palladium-catalyzed cyclization reactions of 2,3-allenyl amines with propargylic carbonates was reported. The CO 2 generated in situ from propargylic carbonates is incorporated into the oxazolidin-2-one unit with high efficiency, affording the products in 70-92% yields. © 2012 American Chemical Society.


Wang X.,East China Normal University
Leukemia | Year: 2016

Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a M3 subtype of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Promyelocytic leukemia (PML)-retinoic acid receptor α (RARα) translocation generally occurs in APL patients and makes APL unique both for diagnosis and treatment. However, some conventional drugs like all-transretinoic acid (ATRA) and arsenic trioxide (ATO), as the preferred ones for APL therapy, induce irreversible resistance and responsible for clinical failure of complete remission. Herein, we screened a library of novel chemical compounds with structural diversity and discovered a novel synthetic small compound, named LG-362B, specifically inhibited the proliferation of APL and induced apoptosis. Notably, the differentiation arrest was also relieved by LG-362B in cultured APL cells and APL mouse models. Moreover, LG-362B overcame the ATRA resistance on cellular differentiation and transplantable APL mice. These positive effects were driven by caspases-mediated degradation of PML-RARα when treated with LG-362B, making it specific to APL and reasonable for ATRA resistance relief. We propose that LG-362B would be a potential candidate agent for the treatment of the relapsed APL with ATRA resistance in the future.Leukemia advance online publication, 25 March 2016; doi:10.1038/leu.2016.50. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited


Pan X.-B.,East China Normal University
Journal of Mathematical Physics | Year: 2011

This paper concerns the asymptotic behavior of the solutions of a singularly perturbed quasilinear system involving a small parameter λ and a quadratic form gM(curl H) = (Mcurl H, curl H). This system arises in the mathematical theory of nucleation of instability of the Meissner states of anisotropic superconductors, and the location of the maximum points of the quadratic form suggests the location where instability begins to nucleate. The existence and regularity of the solutions of this system for fixed λ have been established by Pan ["A quasilinear system involving the operator curl," Calculus Var. Partial Differ. Equ. 36, 317 (2009)]. In this paper we find an optimal bound of the boundary data for the solvability for all small λ and find the asymptotic behavior of the solutions as λ goes to zero. In particular it is proved that the maximum points of the quadratic form approach a point on the domain boundary where the tangential component of the boundary datum is the maximal. In the special case where the applied magnetic field has constant direction and constant magnitude, the maximum points of the quadratic form approach a point on the domain boundary where the applied field is tangential to the surface. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.


Fang T.,Shanghai University | Tan Q.,Shanghai University | Ding Z.,Shanghai University | Liu B.,Shanghai University | And 3 more authors.
Organic Letters | Year: 2014

An efficient palladium-catalyzed oxidative annulation reaction was developed through sequential isocyanide insertions into N-H and O-H bonds of hydrazides, which provides an efficient access to valuable 2-amino-1,3,4- oxadiazoles and their derivatives. © 2014 American Chemical Society.


Li J.,Xiangtan University | Ma S.,Nanyang Technological University | Liu X.,East China Normal University | Zhou Z.,Xiangtan University | And 2 more authors.
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2012

A study was conducted to demonstrate zinc oxide (ZnO) meso-mechano-thermo physical chemistry. ZnO exhibited strong piezoelectric and dilute magnetic properties dominating at sites of defects or varying with surface crystal morphology. ZnO provided an impact on applications in forthcoming technologies, such as biomedical sensors,6 actuators, solar cells, catalysis, energy harvesting, and photonic crystals. Experimental observations showed that the Young's modulus of ZnO nanostructures increased when the operating temperature dropped and the thermal effect was modeled based on the third law of thermodynamics. The modeling approaches implemented complemented the advanced models to provide consistent and deeper insight into the size, shape, temperature, and pressure effects on the known bulk ZnO properties and the emerging properties associated with the ndercoordinated atoms at the surfaces and defects of ZnO.


Chen F.,Peking University | Shen T.,Peking University | Cui Y.,Peking University | Jiao N.,Peking University | Jiao N.,East China Normal University
Organic Letters | Year: 2012

A novel and efficient copper or nickel catalyzed highly selective denitrogenative annulation of vinyl azides with aryl acetaldehydes has been developed. 2,4- and 3,4-diaryl substituted pyrroles, which are difficult to synthesize by the reported methods, can be highly regioselectively prepared by this protocol simply switched by the selection of the transition metal catalysts. Compared with the reported acidic or basic conditions for polysubstituted pyrrole synthesis, the present reaction conditions are mild, neutral, and very simple without any additives. © 2012 American Chemical Society.


Tang X.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry | Kuang J.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry | Ma S.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry | Ma S.,East China Normal University
Chemical Communications | Year: 2013

A highly efficient CuBr-catalyzed coupling of ketones, amines and alkynes (KA2) forming propargylic amines bearing a quaternary carbon center with the broadest scope so far has been developed. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Xu S.,Shanghai University | Huang X.,Shanghai University | Hong X.,Shanghai University | Xu B.,Shanghai University | And 2 more authors.
Organic Letters | Year: 2012

A palladium-catalyzed regioselective C-H cyanation of heteroarenes was achieved using tert-butyl isocyanide as "CN" source, which provides a new and unique strategy for the preparation of (hetero)aryl nitriles. Indoles, pyrroles, and aromatic rings could be efficiently cyanated through C-H bond activation with high regioselectivity. © 2012 American Chemical Society.


Tang Y.,Xian Shiyou University | Meng M.,Xian Shiyou University | Zhang J.,Xian Shiyou University | Lu Y.,East China Normal University
Applied Energy | Year: 2011

In this study, the catalytic performance of commercial CaO modified by trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS) for transesterification of rapeseed oil and methanol to biodiesel production was investigated. It was found that the fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) yield of the modified CaO was greatly enhanced from 85.4% to 94.6%. The possible reason lies on promoting the absorption of grease to CaO surface. Good results of repeated experiments showed that the modified catalyst has the capacity of water resistance and can be reused for several runs without significant deactivation, which can be confirmed by the humidity test in the vapor-saturated atmosphere. Both the characterizations of the catalyst and the effects of various factors such as mass ratio of catalyst to oil, reaction temperature and molar ratio of methanol to oil were investigated. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Zhang C.,Peking University | Xu Z.,Peking University | Zhang L.,Peking University | Jiao N.,Peking University | Jiao N.,East China Normal University
Tetrahedron | Year: 2012

A novel Et 3N-catalyzed oxidative dehydrogenative coupling of α-unsubstituted carbonyl compounds with aryl diamines leading to quinoxaline derivatives using molecular oxygen as oxidant has been developed. Six hydrogen dissociations involving 2 sp 3 C-H bonds activation are realized under mild conditions in this approach. Plausible mechanism is proposed for this novel Et 3N-catalyzed transformation on the basis of the aboratively designed mechanistic studies including the radical detection by EPR. ©2012 Elsevier Science. All rights reserved. © 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd.


Yu S.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry | Ma S.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry | Ma S.,East China Normal University
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2012

Allenes are the simplest class of cumulenes, with two contiguous C=C bonds, and show unique physical and chemical properties. These features make allenes particularly attractive in modern organic chemistry. In this Review, attention is paid to the advances made in catalytic asymmetric synthesis and natural product syntheses based on well-established reactions of allenes, such as propargylation, addition, cycloaddition, cycloisomerization, cyclization, etc., with or without catalysts. Their versatile reactivity, substituent-loading ability, axial to center chirality transfer, and controllable selectivity allow access to target molecules by unique and efficient approaches. The main topics in this Review are presented with selected examples from 2003 to 2011. Creative and easy syntheses of chiral compounds and natural products are possible by using allenes. These compounds display exceptional physical and chemical properties, and thus offer new possibilities in catalytic asymmetric synthesis and the total synthesis of natural products. The remarkable progress made in these two topics is summarized selectively in this Review. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Zhu P.,University of Missouri - Kansas City | Zhu P.,East China Normal University | Zhai B.,Texas A&M University | Lin X.,Texas A&M University | Idnurm A.,University of Missouri - Kansas City
Infection and Immunity | Year: 2013

Cryptococcus gattii is responsible for a large outbreak of potentially fatal disease that started in the late 1990s on Vancouver Island, Canada. How this fungus and the outbreak isolates in particular cause disease in immunocompetent people is unknown, with differing hypotheses. To explore genetic contributions, a pair of congenic a and α mating type strains was generated by a series of 11 backcrosses to introgress the MAT locus from a nonoutbreak strain into the background of strain R265, isolated from a Vancouver Island patient. The congenic pair was used to investigate three traits: mitochondrial inheritance, the effect of the MAT alleles on virulence, and the impact of a predicted virulence factor on pathogenicity. The two congenic strains show the same virulence in different models of cryptococcosis and equivalent levels of competition in coinfection assays. These results rule out a role of the MAT locus and mitochondrial genotype as major virulence factors in the outbreak strains. Disruption of Bwc2, a light-dependent transcription factor, resulted in reduced virulence, consistent with a similar function in the related species Cryptococcus neoformans. The C. gattii congenic strains represent a new resource for exploring the evolution of virulence in the C. neoformans-C. gattii clade. © 2013, American Society for Microbiology.


Ou Y.,Peking University | Jiao N.,Peking University | Jiao N.,East China Normal University
Chemical Communications | Year: 2013

A novel A21-CuI catalyzed direct nitrogenation of biphenyl halides for the direct synthesis of carbazoles via a direct C-H amination process has been developed. A recyclable and inexpensive Cu-catalyst was successfully employed in N-heterocyclic compound synthesis via tandem azidation and C-H amination, which makes this protocol very practical and easy to handle. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Gu J.,East China Normal University
Communications in Computer and Information Science | Year: 2011

The human-computer interaction depended computing mode is evolved to an intelligent adaptive context aware computing, involving multiple sensors. The corresponding middleware should be adaptive, reflective, dynamic reconfigurable and physical/virtual context aware. Some key issues, e.g. virtual and meta sensors, reflective context model, multi-agent mechanism, an extension of Web Service-Open Web Service, etc. are analyzed and studied. An experimental system and its design are introduced. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.


Sun Y.,Northridge | Du D.,East China Normal University
Environment and Planning A | Year: 2011

This study systematically analyzes the impacts of supplier - client and technological linkages with foreign firms on domestic firm technological innovation, based on a unique dataset that was collected through a survey of over 600 firms in China's information and communication technology industry. The results revealed that Chinese firms were engaged in extensive supplier - client relation- ships with foreign firms, although their technological collaborations with foreign firms were very limited. It was found that firm innovation benefited significantly from technological relationships with foreign firms. However, the results also suggest that, although export/import did contribute to domestic firm innovation, supplier - client relationships with foreign-invested enterprises in China did not show positive effects on domestic firm innovation. The analyses further suggest that such market transactions between domestic and foreign firms helped building technological linkages between domestic firms and foreign firms. These results clearly demonstrate the value of networking in enhancing firm innovation in developing countries. © 2011 Pion Ltd and its Licensors.


Zhang Y.,East China Normal University
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment | Year: 2011

On the basis of remote sensing and GIS techniques, the Landsat data obtained in 1987, 1996, and 2008 were used to examine coastline changes in the Modern Yellow River (MYR) delta in China. The coastal land lost and gained illustrations were derived, the rates of coastal change were estimated, and the coastal parts that experienced severe changes were identified. The results revealed that the accretion rates in the MYR delta coast has been decelerating while the accretion effect remained. Taken the artificial coast from the south of ShenXianGou (SXG) to Gudong Oil Field (GOF) as the landmark, the coast in the south of the landmark showed an accretion pattern, while the coast in the west of the landmark showed an erosion pattern. Wherein, the coast from Chao River Estuary (CRE) to Zhuang 106 (Z106) showed an erosion pattern with the transition from erosion to accretion and the accelerated rates from east to west. The coast from Z106 to the south border of GOF also showed erosion pattern but significant differences existed among the internal coastal parts. The coast from the south border of GOF to XiaoDao River Estuary (XDRE) showed a pattern from rapid accretion to dynamic balance of accretion/erosion, and the trend towards erosion. The coast from XDRE to XiaoQing River Estuary (XQRE) showed slow accretion pattern. Human activities have heavily influenced the natural evolution of the MYR delta coast. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Hassane B.,Abu Dhabi University | Xianlong F.,East China Normal University
Acta Mathematica Scientia | Year: 2011

In this article, we give sufficient conditions for controllability of some partial neutral functional differential equations with infinite delay. We suppose that the linear part is not necessarily densely defined but satisfies the resolvent estimates of the Hille-Yosida theorem. The results are obtained using the integrated semigroups theory. An application is given to illustrate our abstract result. © 2011 Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics.


Chen X.,Michigan Technological University | Wei T.,East China Normal University | Hu S.,Michigan Technological University
IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid | Year: 2013

High quality demand side management has become indispensable in the smart grid infrastructure for enhanced energy reduction and system control. In this paper, a new demand side management technique, namely, a new energy efficient scheduling algorithm, is proposed to arrange the household appliances for operation such that the monetary expense of a customer is minimized based on the time-varying pricing model. The proposed algorithm takes into account the uncertainties in household appliance operation time and intermittent renewable generation. Moreover, it considers the variable frequency drive and capacity-limited energy storage. Our technique first uses the linear programming to efficiently compute a deterministic scheduling solution without considering uncertainties. To handle the uncertainties in household appliance operation time and energy consumption, a stochastic scheduling technique, which involves an energy consumption adaptation variable β, is used to model the stochastic energy consumption patterns for various household appliances. To handle the intermittent behavior of the energy generated from the renewable resources, the offline static operation schedule is adapted to the runtime dynamic scheduling considering variations in renewable energy. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach. Compared to a traditional scheduling scheme which models typical household appliance operations in the traditional home scenario, the proposed deterministic linear programming based scheduling scheme achieves up to 45% monetary expense reduction, and the proposed stochastic design scheme achieves up to 41% monetary expense reduction. Compared to a worst case design where an appliance is assumed to consume the maximum amount of energy, the proposed stochastic design which considers the stochastic energy consumption patterns achieves up to 24% monetary expense reduction without violating the target trip rate of 0.5%. Furthermore, the proposed energy consumption scheduling algorithm can always generate the scheduling solution within 10 seconds, which is fast enough for household appliance applications. © 2010-2012 IEEE.


Meng F.,Shandong Jianzhu University | Liu M.,East China Normal University
International Journal of Remote Sensing | Year: 2013

According to the UN Population Reference Bureau, 1.4 billion more people will have settled in urban areas by 2030. One of the key environmental effects of rapid urbanization is the urban heat island (UHI) effect. Understanding the mechanism of surface UHIs associated with land-use/land-cover (LULC) change patterns is important for improving the ecology and sustainability of cities. In this article, time series Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM)/Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) data were used to extract LULC data and land surface temperature (LST) data for the city of Jinan, China, from 1987 to 2011, a period during which the city experienced rapid urbanization. With the aid of a geographical information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) approach, the changes in this urban area's LULC were explored, and the impact of these changes on the spatiotemporal patterns and underlying driving forces of the surface UHI effect were further quantitatively characterized. The results show that significant changes in land use and land cover occurred over the study period, with loss of farmland, forest, and shrub vegetation to urban use, leading to spatial growth of impervious surfaces. Consequently, the land surface characteristics and spatiotemporal patterns of the UHI have changed drastically. According to the seasonal and inter-annual variations in intensity of UHIs, mean differences in UHI intensity between city centre, peri-urban, and nearby rural areas were stronger during summer and spring and weaker during winter and autumn. Spatially, there were significant LST gradients from the city centre to surrounding rural areas. The city centre exhibited higher LSTs and remarkable variation in LSTs, while the surrounding rural areas exhibited lower LSTs and lower variation in LSTs. Moreover, the analysis of LSTs and indices showed that great differences of temperature even existed in a LULC type except for variations between different LULC types. In addition, a local-level analysis revealed that the intensity of the UHI effect is proportional to the size of the urban area, the population density, and the frequent occurrence of certain activities. © 2013 © Taylor & Francis.


Zhu C.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry | Zhang X.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry | Lian X.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry | Ma S.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry | Ma S.,East China Normal University
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2012

Ring fusion: The Pd0-catalyzed reaction of 2-allyl-3-iodo-1- tosyl-1H-indoles and propargylic bromides affords dihydrocycloocta[b]indoles (see scheme; M.S.=molecular sieves, TFP=tris(2-furyl)phosphine, Ts=4-toluenemethanesulfonyl), and proceeds by carbon-carbon coupling, [1,5]-hydrogen migration, and electrocyclization. The newly established method was used to efficiently access iprindole. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Zhang Y.,East China Normal University
International Journal of Environment and Pollution | Year: 2011

On the basis of remote sensing and GIS techniques, the Landsat data obtained in 1978, 1987 and 2000 were used to examine coastline changes in the Abandoned Yellow River (AYR) Delta in China. The coastal land lost and gained illustrations were derived from the extracted coastlines, the rates of coastal change were estimated, and the coastal parts that experienced the biggest changes were identified. The results illustrated that the erosion rates of the AYR Delta coast decreased during 1978-2000 while the erosion effect remained strong. The spatial-temporal changing patterns of the northern, central and southern coastal parts in the study area were characterised by slow erosion, erosion and dynamic balance of erosion/accretion. © 2011 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.


Fan W.,East China Normal University | Ma S.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2014

A novel copper(I)-catalyzed three-component reaction for the efficient synthesis of 3-amino-2-pyrones and 2,5- dihydrofurans from propargyl alcohols, aldehydes, and amines has been developed. The starting materials are easily available and the scope of this method is broad. Through mechanistic studies, it is believed that the three-component reaction consists of an A3coupling to propargylic amine, alkyne-allene isomerization, and intramolecular cyclization of the allenol to form a furan. In case of using ethyl glyoxalate as the aldehyde, a ring-opening, lactonization, and isomerization process affords the 3-amino-2-pyrones. © 2014 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Zhang S.,East China Normal University
PloS one | Year: 2013

Carbon nanoparticles can penetrate the cell membrane and cause cytotoxicity. The diffusion feature and translocation free energy of fullerene through lipid membranes is well reported. However, the knowledge on self-assembly of fullerenes and resulting effects on lipid membrane is poorly addressed. In this work, the self-assembly of fullerene nanoparticles and the resulting influence on the dioleoylphosphtidylcholine (DOPC) model membrane were studied by using all-atom molecular dynamics simulations with explicit solvents. Our simulation results confirm that gathered small fullerene cluster can invade lipid membrane. Simulations show two pathways: 1) assembly process is completely finished before penetration; 2) assembly process coincides with penetration. Simulation results also demonstrate that in the membrane interior, fullerene clusters tend to stay at the position which is 1.0 nm away from the membrane center. In addition, the diverse microscopic stacking mode (i.e., equilateral triangle, tetrahedral pentahedral, trigonal bipyramid and octahedron) of these small fullerene clusters are well characterized. Thus our simulations provide a detailed high-resolution characterization of the microscopic structures of the small fullerene clusters. Further, we found the gathered small fullerene clusters have significant adverse disturbances to the local structure of the membrane, but no great influence on the global integrity of the lipid membrane, which suggests the prerequisite of high-content fullerene for cytotoxicity.


Kong B.,Tongji University | Zhu A.,Tongji University | Ding C.,Tongji University | Zhao X.,Tongji University | And 2 more authors.
Advanced Materials | Year: 2012

A carbon dot (C-Dot)-based two-photon fluorescent probe has been developed for the monitoring of pH changes across a broad range with high sensitivity and selectivity. The inorganic-organic probe also shows good biocompatibility and cell permeability, and thus can be successfully applied in bioimaging and biosensing of physiological pH in living cells, as well as living tissues at a depth of 65-185 μm. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Wen Y.,East China Normal University | Wen Y.,Columbia University
Expert Systems with Applications | Year: 2012

An improved discriminative common vectors and support vector machine based face recognition approach is proposed in this paper. The discriminative common vectors (DCV) algorithm is a recently addressed discriminant method, which shows better face recognition effects than some commonly used linear discriminant algorithms. The DCV is based on a variation of Fisher's Linear Discriminant Analysis for the small sample size case. However, for multiclass problem, the Fisher criterion is clearly suboptimal. We design an improved discriminative common vector by adjustment for the Fisher criterion that can estimate the within-class and between-class scatter matrices more accurately for classification purposes. Then we employ support vector machine as the classifier due to its higher classification and higher generalization. Testing on two public large face database: ORL and AR database, the experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is an effective face recognition approach, which outperforms several representative recognition methods. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Sun S.,East China Normal University
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2011

We propose a new approach, multi-view Laplacian support vector machines (SVMs), for semi-supervised learning under the multi-view scenario. It integrates manifold regularization and multi-view regularization into the usual formulation of SVMs and is a natural extension of SVMs from supervised learning to multi-view semi-supervised learning. The function optimization problem in a reproducing kernel Hilbert space is converted to an optimization in a finite-dimensional Euclidean space. After providing a theoretical bound for the generalization performance of the proposed method, we further give a formulation of the empirical Rademacher complexity which affects the bound significantly. From this bound and the empirical Rademacher complexity, we can gain insights into the roles played by different regularization terms to the generalization performance. Experimental results on synthetic and real-world data sets are presented, which validate the effectiveness of the proposed multi-view Laplacian SVMs approach. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.


Morin O.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Huang K.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Huang K.,East China Normal University | Liu J.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | And 3 more authors.
Nature Photonics | Year: 2014

The wave-particle duality of light has led to two different encodings for optical quantum information processing. Several approaches have emerged based either on particle-like discrete-variable states (that is, finite-dimensional quantum systems) or on wave-like continuous-variable states (that is, infinite-dimensional systems). Here, we demonstrate the generation of entanglement between optical qubits of these different types, located at distant places and connected by a lossy channel. Such hybrid entanglement, which is a key resource for a variety of recently proposed schemes, including quantum cryptography and computing, enables information to be converted from one Hilbert space to the other via teleportation and therefore the connection of remote quantum processors based upon different encodings. Beyond its fundamental significance for the exploration of entanglement and its possible instantiations, our optical circuit holds promise for implementations of heterogeneous network, where discrete- and continuous-variable operations and techniques can be efficiently combined. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited.


Zhang L.,East China Normal University
Information Sciences | Year: 2015

An authenticated key agreement protocol is used to share a secret key for encrypting data being transferred between two or more parties over a public network. In this paper, we study one-pass and two-party authenticated key agreement protocols in certificateless public key cryptography. We first define a security model for certificateless one-pass and two-party authenticated key agreement protocols and then propose a concrete certificateless one-pass and two-party authenticated key agreement protocol which has low transmission overhead. Our protocol captures several common security requirements that a one-pass and two-party authenticated key agreement protocol should satisfy. We prove the security of our protocol under the computational Diffie-Hellman, square computational Diffie-Hellman and gap bilinear Diffie-Hellman assumptions in the random oracle model. Two extensions with better security attributes are also proposed. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Su Y.,Peking University | Sun X.,Peking University | Wu G.,Peking University | Jiao N.,Peking University | Jiao N.,East China Normal University
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2013

Oxygen? That's radical! A method for the direct synthesis of substituted alcohols, ketones, and diketones through a catalyst-controlled highly chemoselective coupling and oxygenation of olefins has been developed. The method is simple and practical, can be switched by the selection of different catalysts, and employs molecular oxygen as both an oxidant and a reagent. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Wan B.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry | Ma S.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry | Ma S.,East China Normal University
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2013

Getting axed: Synthesis of the title amines, bearing functionality (R 1 and R2), involves the enantioselective palladiumcatalyzed decarboxylation of allenyl Ntosylcarbamates. The reaction proceeds smoothly using both the chiral ligands (S)- and (R)-DTBM-Segphos (1) to afford the allenyl amines in good yields and with high enantioseletivities. © 2013 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Zhou J.,Fudan University | Yu M.,Fudan University | Sun Y.,Fudan University | Zhang X.,Beijing Normal University | And 4 more authors.
Biomaterials | Year: 2011

Molecular imaging modalities provide a wealth of information that is highly complementary and rarely redundant. To combine the advantages of molecular imaging techniques, 18F-labeled Gd3+/Yb3+/Er3+ co-doped NaYF4 nanophosphors (NPs) simultaneously possessing with radioactivity, magnetic, and upconversion luminescent properties have been fabricated for multimodality positron emission tomography (PET), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and laser scanning upconversion luminescence (UCL) imaging. Hydrophilic citrate-capped NaY0.2Gd0.6Yb0.18Er0.02F4 nanophosphors (cit-NPs) were obtained from hydrophobic oleic acid (OA)-coated nanoparticles (OA-NPs) through a process of ligand exchange of OA with citrate, and were found to be monodisperse with an average size of 22 × 19 nm. The obtained hexagonal cit-NPs show intense UCL emission in the visible region and paramagnetic longitudinal relaxivity (r1 = 0.405 s-1·(mM)-1). Through a facile inorganic reaction based on the strong binding between Y3+ and F-, 18F-labeled NPs have been fabricated in high yield. The use of cit-NPs as a multimodal probe has been further explored for T1-weighted MR and PET imaging in vivo and UCL imaging of living cells and tissue slides. The results indicate that 18F-labeled NaY0.2Gd0.6Yb0.18Er0.02 is a potential candidate as a multimodal nanoprobe for ultra-sensitive molecular imaging from the cellular scale to whole-body evaluation. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Gao X.N.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Lou S.Y.,East China Normal University | Lou S.Y.,Ningbo University | Tang X.Y.,Shanghai JiaoTong University
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2013

Assuming that there exist at least two fermionic parameters, the classical N=1 supersymmetric Korteweg-de Vries (SKdV) system can be transformed to some coupled bosonic systems. The boson fields in the bosonized SKdV (BSKdV) systems are defined on even Grassmann algebra. Due to the intrusion of other Grassmann parameters, the BSKdV systems are different from the usual non-supersymmetric integrable systems, and many more abundant solution structures can be unearthed. With the help of the singularity analysis, the Painlevé property of the BSKdV system is proved and a Bäcklund transformation (BT) is found. The BT related nonlocal symmetry, we call it as residual symmetry, is used to find symmetry reduction solutions of the BSKdV system. Hinted from the symmetry reduction solutions, a more generalized but much simpler method is established to find exact solutions of the BSKdV and then the SKdV systems, which actually can be applied to any fermionic systems. © 2013 SISSA, Trieste, Italy.


Sarmah M.M.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Prajapati D.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Hu W.,East China Normal University
Synlett | Year: 2013

A mild and efficient protocol for the synthesis of various tetrahydroquinazolinedione and dihydropyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine-2,4-dione templates from uracil derivatives utilizing a [4+2]-cycloaddition strategy in a one-pot reaction has been developed. © Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart · New York.


Zhao X.,East China Normal University
Topics in Current Chemistry | Year: 2012

Membrane proteins are a large, diverse group of proteins, representing about 20-30% of the proteomes of most organisms, serving a multitude of cellular functions and more than 40% of drug targets. Knowledge of a membrane protein structure enables us insight into its function and dynamics, and can be used for further rational drug design. Owing to the intrinsic hydrophobicity, flexibility, and instability of membrane proteins, solid-state NMR may offer an unique opportunity to study membrane protein structure, ligand binding, and activation at atomic resolution in the native membrane environment on a wide ranging time scale. Over the past several years, solid-state NMR has made tremendous progress, showing its capability of determining membrane protein structure, ligand binding, and protein dynamic conformation on a variety of time scales at atomic resolution. In this chapter we will mainly discuss some recent achievements on membrane protein structure determination, ligand conformation and binding, structure changes upon activation, and structure of insoluble fibrous proteins investigated by using magic-angle spinning solid-state NMR from the structural biology point of view. Protein dynamics, sensitivity enhancement, and the possibility of chemical shift-based structure determination in solid-state NMR are also briefly touched upon. © 2011 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Sun S.,East China Normal University | Hardoon D.R.,Institute for Infocomm Research
Neurocomputing | Year: 2010

In the setting of active learning there exists a general assumption that labeled examples are available for training a classifier, which in turn is used to examine unlabeled data to select the most 'informative' examples for manual labeling. However, in some domain applications there are a limited number of labeled examples available, such as in the most extreme cases of having a single labeled example per category. In these scenarios, the most existing active learning methodologies cannot be directly applied without initially making an assumption on label assignment. In this paper we present a method for finding high-informative examples for manual labeling based on extremely limited labeled data available during training. We propose using canonical correlation analysis to investigate the correlation between different views of the available data and demonstrate that this measure can be used as a selection criterion for the novel application of active learning using only a single labeled example from each class. We demonstrate our method with promising experimental results on text classification, advertisement removal and multi-class image classification tasks. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Zhang L.,East China Normal University
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2013

Key agreement protocols are one of the fundamental primitives in cryptography. In this paper, we formalize the security model for certificateless one-way and two-party authenticated key agreement protocols and propose a concrete certificateless one-way and two-party authenticated key agreement protocol. The security of our protocol is proven under the computational Diffie-Hellman, square computational Diffie-Hellman and gap bilinear Diffie-Hellman assumptions. As for efficiency, the protocol requires only one pass and has low communication overhead. © 2013 Springer-Verlag.


Qian H.,East China Normal University | Xu S.,University of Texas at San Antonio
Information Processing Letters | Year: 2010

Multisignatures extend standard digital signatures to allow an ad hoc set of users to jointly sign a message. Multisignature schemes are often evaluated from the following perspectives: (1) the cryptographic assumptions underlying the schemes; (2) the operational assumptions about the bootstrapping of the schemes in practice; (3) the number of communication rounds for signing a message; (4) the time complexity for signing a message; (5) the amount of communication for signing a message; (6) the time complexity for verifying a multisignature; (7) the length of the resulting multisignatures. Existing multisignature schemes achieve various trade-offs among these measures, but none of them can achieve simultaneously the desired properties with respect to all (or even most) of these measures. In this paper, we present a novel multisignature scheme that offers desired properties with respect to the above (1)-(7) simultaneously, except that it uses random oracles (which however are often required in order to design practical schemes). In particular, our scheme is featured by its weak operational (i.e., plain public-key) model, non-interactive signing, and efficient verification. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


He J.,East China Normal University
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2013

Hybrid systems are composed by continuous physical component and discrete control component where the system state evolves over time according to interacting law of discrete and continuous dynamics. Combinations of computation and control can lead to very complicated system designs. Rather than address the formal verification of hybrid systems, this paper forcuses on general modelers, aimed at modelling hybrid dynamics in such a way one can extract the specification of the control component from the specification of the total system and the desire behaviour of the physical component. We treat more explicit hybrid models by providing a mathematical framework based on clock and synchronous signal. This paper presents an abstract concept of clock with two suitable metric spaces for description of temporal order and time latency, and links clocks with synchronous events by showing how to represent the occurrences of an event by a clock. We tackle discrete variables by giving them a clock-based representation, and show how to capture dynamical behaviours of continuous components by recording the time instants when a specific type of changes take place. This paper introduces a clock-based hybrid language for description and reasoning of both discrete and continuous dynamics, and applies it to a family of physical devices, and demonstrates how to specify a water tanker and construct and verify its controller based on clocks. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Sinatra A.,Kastler-Brossel Laboratory | Castin Y.,Kastler-Brossel Laboratory | Li Y.,East China Normal University
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2010

We study fluctuations in the atom number difference between two halves of a harmonically trapped Bose gas in three dimensions. We solve the problem analytically for noninteracting atoms. In the interacting case we find an analytical solution in the Thomas-Fermi and high temperature limit in good agreement with classical field simulations. In the large system size limit, fluctuations in the number difference are maximal for a temperature T0.7Tc where Tc is the critical temperature, independently of the trap anisotropy. The occurrence of this maximum is due to an interference effect between the condensate and the noncondensed fields. © 2010 The American Physical Society.


The signaling molecules NH(3) (unprotonated volatile ammonia), as well as cyclic adenosine monophosphate and differentiation-inducing factor, play important roles in the multicellular development of the slime mould Dictyostelium discoideum. One of the downstream metabolic products catalyzed by allantoicase (allC) is ammonia. We observed the role of allC by RNAi-mediated manipulation of its expression. The allC gene of D. discoideum was silenced by RNAi. We found significant downregulation of allC mRNA and protein expression levels. Recombinant allC RNAi mutant cell lines had a shortened cell cycle, a reduction in cell size relative to wild-type cells and interrupted development. We conclude that the normal functions of allC include retarding cell division until a specific cell size is reached and coordinating the progression of development.


Xu Z.,Chongqing University of Arts and Sciences | Xu L.,East China Normal University
Chemical Communications | Year: 2016

During the last few years, the preparation of novel fluorescent probes for the selective detection of chemical species inside mitochondria has attracted considerable attention because of their wide applications in chemistry, biology, and medical science. This feature article focuses on the recent advances in the design principles and recognition mechanisms of these kinds of fluorescent probes. In addition, their applications for the detection of reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide, reactive sulfur species (RSS), thioredoxin (Trx), metal ions, anions, etc. in the mitochondrion is discussed as well. © The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Xueqin J.,East China Normal University | Kania P.W.,Copenhagen University | Buchmann K.,Copenhagen University
Journal of Fish Diseases | Year: 2012

The effects on rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), immune parameters by differently formulated fish feed types containing immunostimulants have been tested in a double-blind, duplicated and controlled study performed over 50days. A total of 800 rainbow trout (10-12g) were kept in eight duplicate fish tanks (each containing 100 fish) and fed at a daily feeding rate of 1.5% of the biomass. The feed types were (1) control feed (C) without additives, (2) feed containing beta-glucan, nucleotides, manno-oligosaccharides (MOS), vitamins C and E (GNMCE), (3) feed containing probiotic bacteria and plant extracts (PP) and (4) feed with nucleotides, manno-oligosaccharides, vitamins C and E (NMCE). Plasma lysozyme activity was increased in fish fed two feed types (GNMCE and NMCE) but slightly depressed in fish fed PP. A non-significant trend for a higher mucous cell density at days 30 and 50 was shown in all fish receiving feeds with additives compared to the control group. All fish became infected with Ichthyophthirius multifiliis when exposed, but fish fed GNMCE showed a significantly lower infection both at days 30 and 50. Expression of genes encoding C3 and MHCII was significantly up-regulated in fish fed GNMCE for 50days, and the expression of genes coding Hepcidin was significantly down-regulated in fish fed NMCE for 50days. Beta-glucan was the single component, when used in combination with other feed ingredients, which was found associated with increased parasite resistance, increased lysozyme and immune gene up-regulation. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


Zhang K.,East China Normal University | Chen W.,University of Arizona | Bhattacharya M.,University of Arizona | Meystre P.,University of Arizona
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2010

We present a theoretical study of a hybrid optomechanical system consisting of a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) trapped inside a single-mode optical cavity with a moving end mirror. The intracavity light field has a dual role: it excites a momentum side mode of the condensate, and acts as a nonlinear spring that couples the vibrating mirror to that collective density excitation. We present the dynamics in a regime where the intracavity optical field, the mirror, and the side-mode excitation all display bistable behavior. In this regime we find that the dynamics of the system exhibits Hamiltonian chaos for appropriate initial conditions. © 2010 The American Physical Society.


Xia A.,Fudan University | Gao Y.,Fudan University | Zhou J.,Fudan University | Li C.,Fudan University | And 4 more authors.
Biomaterials | Year: 2011

New core-shell structured NaYF4:Yb3+,Tm3+@FexOy nanocrystals, with 20 nm Yb3+,Tm3+-co-doped NaYF4 nanocrystals as a core and 5 nm FexOy nanocrystals as a shell, have been synthesized and characterized by TEM and XRD analysis. These core-shell nanocrystals exhibit excellent near-infrared upconversion luminescence (UCL) emission at 800 nm under excitation by a continuous-wave 980 nm laser and superparamagnetic properties with a saturation magnetization (Ms) of ~12 emu/g. Water-soluble nanocrystals were obtained by surface ligand exchange of oleic acid-coated precursor nanocrystals, and their internalization within living cells has been investigated by laser scanning UCL microscopy. Furthermore, the obtained core-shell nanocrystals have been applied in dual-modality T2-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) and UCL imaging in vivo of the lymphatic system. Moreover, the toxicity of NaYF4:Yb3+,Tm3+@FexOy nanocrystals has also been evaluated by MTT assay, IC50 values, and histological analysis of lymphatic node sections. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Chen S.,Fudan University | Chen S.,East China Normal University | Gong X.G.,Fudan University | Walsh A.,University College London | Wei S.-H.,National Renewable Energy Laboratory
Applied Physics Letters | Year: 2010

Cu2 ZnSnS4 is one of the most promising quaternary absorber materials for thin-film solar cells. Examination of the thermodynamic stability of this quaternary compound reveals that the stable chemical potential region for the formation of stoichiometric compound is small. Under these conditions, the dominant defect will be p -type CuZn antisite, which has an acceptor level deeper than the Cu vacancy. The dominant self-compensated defect pair in this quaternary compound is [CuZn - + Zn Cu +]0, which leads to the formation of various polytype structures of Cu2 ZnSnS4. We propose that to maximize the solar cell performance, growth of Cu2 ZnSnS4 under Cu-poor/Zn-rich conditions will be optimal, if the precipitation of ZnS can be avoided by kinetic barriers. © 2010 American Institute of Physics.


Ye H.,East China Normal University | Ye H.,ETH Zurich | Fussenegger M.,ETH Zurich | Fussenegger M.,University of Basel
FEBS Letters | Year: 2014

In the emerging field of synthetic biology, scientists are focusing on designing and creating functional devices, systems, and organisms with novel functions by engineering and assembling standardised biological building blocks. The progress of synthetic biology has significantly advanced the design of functional gene networks that can reprogram metabolic activities in mammalian cells and provide new therapeutic opportunities for future gene- and cell-based therapies. In this review, we describe the most recent advances in synthetic mammalian gene networks designed for biomedical applications, including how these synthetic therapeutic gene circuits can be assembled to control signalling networks and applied to treat metabolic disorders, cancer, and immune diseases. We conclude by discussing the various challenges and future prospects of using synthetic mammalian gene networks for disease therapy. © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Xia B.,Zhejiang University | He J.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Abliz Z.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Yu Y.,East China Normal University | Huang F.,Zhejiang University
Tetrahedron Letters | Year: 2011

A pillar[5]arene dimer was successfully prepared by co-oligomerization of 1,4-dimethoxybenzene and 1,6-bis(4-butoxyphenoxy)hexane. It was demonstrated that it forms 1:2 complexes with n-octyltrimethyl ammonium hexafluorophosphate both in chloroform and the gaseous state. A Scatchard plot indicated that the complexation between them is statistical with an average association constant of 6.0 (±0.4) × 102 M-1 in chloroform. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Dendritic cells (DCs) have been identified as the most effective antigen-presenting cell (APC), much attention has been directed toward the use of DCs in vaccine strategies for the treatment of cancer or chronic virus infection. B7-H1 (PD-L1) is a ligand for programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) and does not bind to other CD28 family members, it is expressed on resting and upregulated on activated B, T, myeloid, and dendritic cells (DCs). The overwhelming number of studies supports the role of B7-H1 as a negative regulator of T cell responses. RNA interference (RNAi) is a mechanism for sequence-specific posttranscriptional inhibition of gene expression via double stranded RNA molecules and it has recently been applied to mammalian cells with the use of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). In the study, transfection of DCs with siRNA specific for B7-H1 gene resulted in the blockade of the expression of B7-H1 on DCs. The allostimulatory activity of DCs could be enhanced by silencing of B7-H1 on DCs. Blockade of B7-H1 on DCs inhibited the production of IFN-γ and IL-10 but not IL-2 and IL-4 in mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR). HBV specific peptide-pulsed DCs could break tolerance and trigger specific CTL responses, the level of HBsAg and HBV DNA in sera of HBV transgenic mice decreased, whereas blockade of B7-H1 on DCs augmented the effects. These data strongly support the concept that blockade of B7-H1 can enhance DC-mediated antiviral immune responses. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Wang J.,East China Normal University | Bian Z.,Shanghai Normal University | Zhu J.,Shanghai Normal University | Li H.,Shanghai Normal University
Journal of Materials Chemistry A | Year: 2013

Single-crystal TiO2 with 2D and 3D ordered mesoporous structures and exposed (001) facets were synthesized by SBA-15 or KIT-6 templated alcoholysis of TiOSO4 under solvothermal conditions. In the liquid phase photocatalytic selective oxidation of alcohols to aldehydes under UV-light irradiation, the single-crystal TiO2 exhibited much higher activity than the polycrystalline TiO2, since the high crystallization degree favored the transfer of photoelectrons, which might reduce their rate of recombination with holes. Meanwhile, the TiO2 with ordered mesopores showed higher activity than that with disordered mesopores, and the 3D ordered mesoporous channels were more favorable for photocatalytic oxidation than the 2D ordered mesoporous channels, which could be attributed to both the enhanced light harvesting resulting from the multiple light reflections in the pore channels, and the facilitated diffusion and adsorption of the reactant molecules. Also, the exposed (001) facets favored the photocatalytic oxidation due to its high surface energy and increased oxygen vacancies, which reduced the photocharge recombination rate by capturing photoelectrons. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2013.


Cao Z.-Y.,East China Normal University
Synlett | Year: 2013

(A) A highly stereoselective synthesis of Z-allyl bromides from Baylis Hillman adducts has been realized using CBr4 and Ph3P. The product can be further elaborated into the natural bioactive fatty acid amides semiplenamides C and E (B) Selective aerobic photooxidative dibromination of ethyl aromatics to dibromoacetophenones has been achieved using CBr4, visible light and molecular oxygen (C) CBr4 can participate in atom transfer radical additions to olefins using a visible-light photocatalyst. The 1,1-dibromoalkenes are obtained after further manipulation (D) Dong et al. reported the preparation of fully substituted isoxazoles from cyclopropyl oximes using a combination of CBr4and Ph3P as the bromination reagent (E) Chiral 1,3-oxazoline heterocycles bearing fluorinated aliphatic chains (R F) were obtained from a tandem one-pot reaction promoted by a combination of CBr4 and Ph3P. The product skeleton is present in many bioactive molecules, natural products, organomaterials and ligands for asymmetric catalysis (F) In the presence of CBr4, dithiocarbamates and thioethers were prepared by reaction of dithioic acids, generated in situ, or thiols with nucleophiles such as active methylene compounds or N-methyl indole at room temperature (G) Benzoxanthenes owning spectroscopic properties for leuco dyes, laser technology and fluorescent materials can be prepared using CBr4 as the catalyst under solvent-free conditions.© Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart · New York.


Wang H.,East China University of Science and Technology | Kong A.,East China Normal University
Materials Letters | Year: 2014

Fluorine-doped mesoporous carbons (F/Cs) were prepared by a simple hard-template method. The pyrolysis of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) supported on SBA-15 silica at high temperatures resulted in the formation of mesoporous structures with graphitic pore walls. The F/Cs obtained at 1000 °C possessed a surface area of 504 m2 g-1 and a pore size distribution centered at 6.7 nm. Such F/Cs exhibited a comparable catalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) to that of commercial platinum/carbon (Pt/C) catalysts and better stability and methanol-tolerance in alkaline solutions. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Shi T.,East China Normal University
BMC plant biology | Year: 2014

Plant secondary metabolites are critical to various biological processes. However, the regulations of these metabolites are complex because of regulatory rewiring or crosstalk. To unveil how regulatory behaviors on secondary metabolism reshape biological processes, we constructed and analyzed a dynamic regulatory network of secondary metabolic pathways in Arabidopsis. The dynamic regulatory network was constructed through integrating co-expressed gene pairs and regulatory interactions. Regulatory interactions were either predicted by conserved transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) or proved by experiments. We found that integrating two data (co-expression and predicted regulatory interactions) enhanced the number of highly confident regulatory interactions by over 10% compared with using single data. The dynamic changes of regulatory network systematically manifested regulatory rewiring to explain the mechanism of regulation, such as in terpenoids metabolism, the regulatory crosstalk of RAV1 (AT1G13260) and ATHB1 (AT3G01470) on HMG1 (hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase, AT1G76490); and regulation of RAV1 on epoxysqualene biosynthesis and sterol biosynthesis. Besides, we investigated regulatory rewiring with expression, network topology and upstream signaling pathways. Regulatory rewiring was revealed by the variability of genes' expression: pathway genes and transcription factors (TFs) were significantly differentially expressed under different conditions (such as terpenoids biosynthetic genes in tissue experiments and E2F/DP family members in genotype experiments). Both network topology and signaling pathways supported regulatory rewiring. For example, we discovered correlation among the numbers of pathway genes, TFs and network topology: one-gene pathways (such as δ-carotene biosynthesis) were regulated by a fewer TFs, and were not critical to metabolic network because of their low degrees in topology. Upstream signaling pathways of 50 TFs were identified to comprehend the underlying mechanism of TFs' regulatory rewiring. Overall, this dynamic regulatory network largely improves the understanding of perplexed regulatory rewiring in secondary metabolism in Arabidopsis.


Tang Y.,Xian Shiyou University | Xu J.,Xian Shiyou University | Zhang J.,Xian Shiyou University | Lu Y.,East China Normal University
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2013

A high efficient production of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) from soybean oil and rapeseed oil was carried out using modified CaO as solid basic catalyst by connecting bromooctane to the surface of CaO chemically in a simple way. It was found that 99.5% yield of the FAME over modified CaO was obtained from soybean oil using 15:1 molar ratio of methanol to oil after 3 h at reaction temperature of 65 °C, which is much higher than the yield of 35.4% over commercial CaO at the same reaction conditions. For the transesterification between rapeseed oil and methanol, the reaction time to its highest yield, 99.8%, was shortened to 2.5 h. The physical and chemical properties of catalysts were characterized by using techniques of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), BET surface area measurement (BET), Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and thermogravimeter (TG). The results indicated that well dispersed CaO with relatively small particle sizes and high surface areas were obtained after modification. Furthermore, the thermal stability of modified CaO is improved and the amount of Ca(OH)2 formed during the modifying process is very little. Influence of the amount of modifier and various reaction conditions, such as mass ratio of catalyst to oil, reaction temperature and molar ratio of methanol to oil, were investigated in detail. Furthermore, water-tolerance of the modified CaO was tested by adding water in the reaction system. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Yan Y.,University of California at Los Angeles | Yan Y.,East China Normal University
Journal of Asian Studies | Year: 2012

Food-safety problems constitute a new, urgent, and multifaceted challenge to Chinese people, society, and the state, involving a number of social, political, and ethical issues beyond those of food safety, nutrition, and health. In light of Ulrich Beck's theory of risk society, this article examines food-safety problems in contemporary Chinese society at the levels of food hygiene, unsafe food, and poisonous foods and argues that food-safety problems not only affect the lives of Chinese people in harmful ways but also pose a number of manufactured risks that are difficult to calculate and control. More importantly, food-safety problems in China have contributed to a rapid decline of social trust, thus posing a risk of distrust that has far-reaching social and political ramifications. In this sense, a risk society has already arrived in China but it comes with certain local characteristics and poses some new theoretical questions. © 2012 The Association for Asian Studies, Inc.


Chen M.,East China Normal University | Mishra P.,University of Florida
Proceedings -Design, Automation and Test in Europe, DATE | Year: 2011

SAT-based BMC is promising for directed test generation since it can locate the reason of an error within a small bound. However, due to the state space explosion problem, BMC cannot handle complex designs and properties. Although various optimization methods are proposed to address a single complex property, the test generation process cannot be fully automated. This paper presents an efficient automated approach that can scale down the falsification complexity using property decomposition and learning techniques. Our experimental results using both software and hardware benchmarks demonstrate that our approach can drastically reduce the overall test generation effort. © 2011 EDAA.


Fan W.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Bu W.,East China Normal University | Shi J.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Ceramics
Advanced Materials | Year: 2016

Following the "detect-to-treat" strategy, by biological engineering, the emerging upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) have become one of the most promising inorganic nanomedicines, and their biomedical applications have gradually shifted from multimodal tumor imaging to highly efficient cancer therapy. The past few years have witnessed a three-stage development of UCNP-based nanomedicines. On one hand, UCNPs can optimize each clinical treatment tool (chemotherapy, photodynamic therapy (PDT), radiotherapy (RT)) by controlled drug delivery/release, near-infrared (NIR)-excited deep PDT, and radiosensitization, respectively, all of which contribute greatly to the optimized treatment efficacy along with minimized side effects. On the other hand, several individual treatments can be "smartly" integrated into a single UCNP-based nanotheranostic system for multimodal synergetic therapy, which can further improve the overall therapeutic effectiveness. Especially, UCNPs provide more-effective strategies for overcoming tumor hypoxia, thus leading to an ideal treatment efficacy for complete eradication of solid tumors. Finally, the critical issues regarding the future development of UCNPs are discussed to promote the clinic-translational applications of UCNP-based nanomedicines, as well as realization of our "one drug fits all" dream. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Han M.,Nanjing University | Zhang J.Z.H.,East China Normal University | Zhang J.Z.H.,New York University
Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling | Year: 2010

The combination of docking and molecular dynamics simulation is used to explain the isoform-specific selectivity between PI3Kα and PI3Ky, which are two lipid kinases in the class I PI3Ks. The protein flexibility is incorporated in docking the ligands to the ensemble of representative structures extracted from a clustering analysis of the molecular dynamics simulation in explicit aqueous solution. The reported most potent PI3Kα inhibitor PIK-75 was studied, and we predicted three possible PIK-75-bound conformations for PI3Kα and two for PI3Kγ. Comparative analysis between the PI3Kα and PI3Kγ docking experiments indicates that the residue Trp780 and Asn782 in PI3Kα and the corresponding residues Trp812 and Glu814 in PI3Kγ in the solvent-accessible region can confer the PI3Kα and PI3Kγ isoform specificity. The predicted bound conformations are further studied in aqueous solution by molecular dynamics simulation. The work provides a possible effective pharmacophore model for PI3Kα inhibitor. The dynamic behaviors of the LY294002-bound PI3Ks are studied too. © 2010 American Chemical Society.


Cong R.,Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon | Das S.,Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon | Douet J.,Institute of Predictive and Personalized Medicine of Cancer IMPPC | Wong J.,East China Normal University | And 3 more authors.
Nucleic Acids Research | Year: 2014

The regulation of ribosomal DNA transcription is an important step for the control of cell growth. Epigenetic marks such as DNA methylation and posttranslational modifications of canonical histones have been involved in this regulation, but much less is known about the role of histone variants. In this work, we show that the histone variant macroH2A1 is present on the promoter of methylated rDNA genes. The inhibition of the expression of macroH2A1 in human HeLa and HepG2 cells and in a mouse ES cell line resulted in an up to 5-fold increase of pre-rRNA levels. This increased accumulation of pre-rRNA is accompanied by an increase of the loading of RNA polymerase I and UBF on the rDNA without any changes in the number of active rDNA genes. The inhibition of RNA polymerase I transcription by actinomycin D or by knocking down nucleolin, induces the recruitment of macroH2A1 on the rDNA and the relocalization of macroH2A1 in the nucleolus. Interestingly, the inhibition of rDNA transcription induced by nucleolin depletion is alleviated by the inactivation of macroH2A1. These results demonstrate that macroH2A1 is a new factor involved in the regulation of rDNA transcription. © The Author(s) 2013. Published by Oxford University Press.


Yuan Q.-Z.,East China Normal University
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2015

We present a scheme to generate an all-range long repulsive Casimir-Polder potential between a perfect negative reflecting surface and a ground-state atom. The repulsive potential is stable and does not decay with time. The Casimir-Polder potential is proportional to z-2 at short atom-surface distances and to z-4 at long atom-surface distances. Because of these advantages, this potential can help in building quantum reflectors, quantum levitating devices, and waveguides for matter waves. © 2015 American Physical Society. ©2015 American Physical Society.


Sebastianelli F.,New York University | Xu M.,New York University | Bacic Z.,East China Normal University | Bacic Z.,New York University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2010

Recent synthesis of the endohedral complexes of C70 and its open-cage derivative with one and two H2 molecules has opened the path for experimental and theoretical investigations of the unique dynamic, spectroscopic, and other properties of systems with multiple hydrogen molecules confined inside a nanoscale cavity. Here we report a rigorous theoretical study of the dynamics of the coupled translational and rotational motions of H 2 molecules in C70 and C60, which are highly quantum mechanical. Diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) calculations were performed for up to three para-H2 (p-H2) molecules encapsulated in C70 and for one and two p-H2 molecules inside C 60. These calculations provide a quantitative description of the ground-state properties, energetics, and the translation-rotation (T-R) zero-point energies (ZPEs) of the nanoconfined p-H2 molecules and of the spatial distribution of two p-H2 molecules in the cavity of C70. The energy of the global minimum on the intermolecular potential energy surface (PES) is negative for one and two H2 molecules in C70 but has a high positive value when the third H2 is added, implying that at most two H2 molecules can be stabilized inside C70. By the same criterion, in the case of C60, only the endohedral complex with one H2 molecule is energetically stable. Our results are consistent with the fact that recently both (H 2)n@C70 (n = 1, 2) and H2@C 60 were prepared, but not (H2)3@C70 or (H2)2@C60. The ZPE of the coupled T-R motions, from the DMC calculations, grows rapidly with the number of caged p-H2 molecules and is a significant fraction of the well depth of the intermolecular PES, 11% in the case of p-H2@C70 and 52% for (p-H2)2@C70. Consequently, the T-R ZPE represents a major component of the energetics of the encapsulated H2 molecules. The inclusion of the ZPE nearly doubles the energy by which (p-H2)3@C70 is destabilized and increases by 66% the energetic destabilization of (p-H2)2@C 60. For these reasons, the T-R ZPE has to be calculated accurately and taken into account for reliable theoretical predictions regarding the stability of the endohedral fullerene complexes with hydrogen molecules and their maximum H2 content. © 2010 American Chemical Society.


Zhang B.,Peking University | Xiang S.-K.,Peking University | Zhang L.-H.,Peking University | Cui Y.,Peking University | And 2 more authors.
Organic Letters | Year: 2011

An organocatalytic enantioselective intermolecular oxidative dehydrogenative α-alkylation of aldehydes via benzylic C-H bond activation has been developed. The asymmetric reaction is smoothly fulfilled by using simple and green molecular oxygen as the oxidant. Two hydrogen dissociations make this transformation more environmentally benign because of high atom efficiency. © 2011 American Chemical Society.


He M.,Wuhan University | Xu M.,East China Normal University | Zhang L.,Wuhan University
ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces | Year: 2013

A novel, highly hydrophobic cellulose composite film (RCS) with biodegradability was fabricated via solvent-vaporized controllable crystallization of stearic acid in the porous structure of cellulose films (RC). The interface structure and properties of the composite films were investigated with wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), FT-IR, solid-state 13C NMR, water uptake, tensile testing, water contact angle, and biodegradation tests. The results indicated that the RCS films exhibited high hydrophobicity (water contact angle achieved to 145), better mechanical properties in the humid state and lower water uptake ratio than RC. Interestingly, the stearic acid crystallization was induced by the pore wall of the cellulose matrix to form a micronano binary structure, resulting in a rough surface. The rough surface with a hierarchical structure containing micronanospace on the RCS film surface could trap abundant air, leading to the high hydrophobicity. Moreover, the RCS films were flexible, biodegradable, and low-cost, showing potential applications in biodegradable water-proof packaging. © 2013 American Chemical Society.


Yu Y.,Xuzhou Medical College | Zhang L.,Xuzhou Medical College | Li C.,Xuzhou Medical College | Sun X.,Xuzhou Medical College | And 2 more authors.
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2014

In the present work, a new electrochemical strategy for the sensitive and specific detection of soluble β-amyloid Aβ(1-40/1-42) peptides in a rat model of Alzheimers disease (AD) is described. In contrast to previous antibody-based methods, β-amyloid(1-40/1-42) was quantified based on its binding to gelsolin, a secretory protein present in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma. The level of soluble β-amyloid peptides in the CSF and various brain regions were found with this method to be lower in rats with AD than in normal rats. © 2014 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Wang T.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Wang T.,East China Normal University
Classical and Quantum Gravity | Year: 2015

In this paper we aim to provide new examples of the application and the generality of the membrane paradigm. The membrane paradigm is a formalism for studying the event horizon of black holes. After analyzing it with some technical details and realizing it in the Reissner-Nordström black hole, we apply the paradigm to cosmological horizons, first to the pure de Sitter horizon, and then to the trapping horizon of the Friedmann-Lemai tre-Robertson-Walker Universe. In the latter case, the cosmological stretched horizon is oblique, thus the running of the renormalization parameter is nonzero in the timelike direction and gives a correction to the membrane pressure. In this paradigm, the cosmological equations come from continuity equations of the membrane fluid and the bulk fluid respectively. © 2015 IOP Publishing Ltd.


Wen Y.,East China Normal University | He L.,Tongji University
Bio-Medical Materials and Engineering | Year: 2014

The aim of this study is to design a statistical segmentation technique to allow extraction of grey matter, white matter and cerebral spinal fluid volumes from diffusion tensor imaging. Four channel maps of the DTI are used as the input features, which provide more information for brain tissue segmentation compared with single channel map. An Improved Bayesian decision in the subspace spanned by the eigenvectors which are associated with the smaller eigenvalues in each class is adopted as the brain tissue segmentation criterion. Our method performed well, giving an average segmentation accuracy of about 0.88, 0.85 and 0.76 for white matter, gray matter and cerebrospinal fluid respectively in terms of volume overlap. © 2014 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.


Fan N.,East China Normal University
Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision | Year: 2011

In this paper, a robust regression method is proposed for human age estimation, in which, outlier samples are corrected by their neighbors, through asymptotically increasing the correlation coefficients between the desired distances and the distances of sample labels. As another extension, we adopt a nonlinear distance function and approximate it by neural network. For fair comparison, we also experiment on the regression problem of age estimation from face images, and the results are very competitive among the state of the art. © 2011 IEEE.


Li M.,Zhejiang University | Li Y.,East China Normal University | Leng J.,Zhejiang University
Entropy | Year: 2015

This paper gives the quantitative relationship between prediction error and given past sample size in our research of sea level time series. The present result exhibits that the prediction error of sea level time series in terms of given past sample size follows decayed power functions, providing a quantitative guideline for the quality control of sea level prediction. © 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


Chen Q.,East China Normal University | Zhu Y.,Shanghai JiaoTong University
Sedimentary Geology | Year: 2012

Coastline shifts due to transgression and regression can remodel tidal fields of continental shelves, and this can control transport of sediments and modulate sediment distribution accordingly. Tidal currents have become the dominant hydrodynamic processes on the continental shelves of the Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea and East China Sea (BYECS) since the transgression after the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). To examine the evolution of the bottom sediment distributions on the continental shelves of the BYECS, we simulated patterns of tides and tidal currents, sediment transport, and bottom sediment types (sand, mud and mixed sediments) for five periods, corresponding to sea level lowstands of 80. m, 52. m and 30. m below present, the Holocene transgression maximum (HTM), and the present. The simulation shows that both sediment transport and shelf sediment distribution patterns were controlled by the strength, type and asymmetry of tidal currents in the BYECS since the LGM. Evolution of shelf sediment distribution patterns occurred in two stages: (1) sediment emplacement and formation stage before the HTM, and (2) local adjustment after the HTM. The marked changes in coastline configuration since the LGM are the dominant factor controlling tide and tidal current evolution. Distribution of shelf sediment types in the BYECS is closely related to tidal current fields during transgression after the LGM. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Zhang H.,Chongqing Technology and Business University | Zou Y.,Chongqing Technology and Business University | Wang Y.-M.,East China Normal University | Shen Y.,Chongqing Technology and Business University | Zheng X.,Chongqing Technology and Business University
Chemistry - A European Journal | Year: 2014

Immobilised Mn(salen) catalysts with two different linkages were studied in the asymmetric epoxidation of cis/trans-β-methylstyrene using NaClO as oxidant. The immobilised Mn(salen) complexes inside nanopores can lead to different catalytic behaviour compared with that of homogeneous Jacobsen catalyst. The rigidity of the linkage was found to be a key factor affecting the catalytic performance of immobilised catalysts. The immobilised catalyst with a rigid linkage exhibited comparable chemical selectivity, enantioselectivity and cis/trans ratio of product formation to that obtained with homogeneous Jacobsen catalysts. In contrast, the immobilised catalyst with a flexible linkage gave remarkably lower chemical selectivity, enantioselectivity and inverted cis/trans ratio compared with the results obtained with the homogeneous Jacobsen catalyst and the immobilised catalyst with rigid linkage. Thus, for immobilised Mn(salen) catalysts, a rigid linkage connecting active centres to the support is essential to obtain activity and enantioselectivity as high as those obtained in homogeneous systems. Getting it fixed: For immobilised Mn(salen) catalysts, a rigid linkage connecting active centres to a support surface is essential to obtain activity and enantioselectivity as high as those obtained in homogeneous systems (see scheme). © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Xu X.,University of Maryland University College | Hu W.-H.,East China Normal University | Doyle M.P.,University of Maryland University College
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2011

In addition: The Mukaiyama-Michael addition in the presence of a chiral copper(II) Lewis acid is a highly enantioselective and efficient method for the construction of a broad range of chiral γ-functionalized diazoacetoacetates. These products can be conveniently transformed into useful enantiomer-enriched 1,5-diesters (see scheme, Np=1-naphthyl, TBS=tert-butyldimethylsilyl). Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Han G.,Chongqing University | Xu J.,East China Normal University
Environmental Management | Year: 2013

Using SPOT/VGT NDVI time series images (2002-2009) and MODIS/LST images (2002-2009) smoothed by a Savitzky-Golay filter, the land surface phenology (LSP) and land surface temperature (LST), respectively, are extracted for six cities in the Yangtze River Delta, China, including Shanghai, Hangzhou, Nanjing, Changzhou, Wuxi, and Suzhou. The trends of the averaged LSP and LST are analyzed, and the relationship between these values is revealed along the urban-rural gradient. The results show that urbanization advances the start of the growing season, postpones the end of the growing season, prolongs the growing season length (GSL), and reduces the difference between maximal NDVI and minimal NDVI in a year (NDVIamp). More obvious changes occur in surface vegetation phenology as the urbanized area is approached. The LST drops monotonously and logarithmically along the urban-rural gradient. Urbanization generally affects the LSP of the surrounding vegetation within 6 km to the urban edge. Except for GSL, the difference in the LSP between urban and rural areas has a significant logarithmic relationship with the distance to the urban edge. In addition, there is a very strong linear relationship between the LSP and the LST along the urban-rural gradient, especially within 6 km to the urban edge. The correlations between LSP and gross domestic product and population density reveal that human activities have considerable influence on the land surface vegetation growth. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Hu Y.,East China Normal University | Ericsson K.A.,Florida State University
Cognitive Psychology | Year: 2012

In a recent paper, Hu, Ericsson, Yang, and Lu (2009) found that an ability to memorize very long lists of digits is not mediated by the same mechanisms as exceptional memory for rapidly presented lists, which has been the traditional focus of laboratory research. Chao Lu is the holder of the Guinness World Record for reciting the most decimal positions of pi, yet he lacks an exceptional memory span for digits. In the first part of this paper we analyzed the reliability and structure of his reported encodings for lists of 300 digits and his application of the story mnemonic. Next, his study and recall times for lists of digits were analyzed to test hypotheses about his detailed encoding processes, and cued-recall performance was used to assess the structure of his encodings. Three experiments were then designed to interfere with the uniqueness of Chao Lu's story encodings, and evidence was found for his remarkable ability to adapt his encoding processes to reduce the interference. Finally, we show how his skills for encoding and recalling long lists can be accounted for within the theoretical framework of Ericsson and Kintsch's (1995) Long-Term Working Memory. © 2012 Elsevier Inc..


Wei M.,Shanghai Normal University | Wang Q.,East China Normal University | Cheng X.,Ludong University
Automatica | Year: 2010

In a related article, we derived a canonical decomposition of the right invertible system {C, A, B} and applied this canonical decomposition to study the Smith form of the matrix pencil P (s) = ((A - s I, B; C, 0)) and findout the finite zeros and infinite zeros of P (s), the range of the ranks of P (s) for s ∈ C, and the controllability of the right invertible system. In this paper, we will apply this canonical decomposition of the right invertible system {C, A, B} to deduce the triangular decouple upon to row permutation, provide some new results of the row-by-row decoupling, and associated pole assignment problems. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Dong G.,Zhejiang Normal University | Lin X.,Zhejiang Normal University | Hu Y.,University of Reading | Xie C.,Nanjing Southeast University | Du X.,East China Normal University
Scientific Reports | Year: 2015

Literatures have shown that Internet gaming disorder (IGD) subjects show impaired executive control and enhanced reward sensitivities than healthy controls. However, how these two networks jointly affect the valuation process and drive IGD subjects' online-game-seeking behaviors remains unknown. Thirty-five IGD and 36 healthy controls underwent a resting-states scan in the MRI scanner. Functional connectivity (FC) was examined within control and reward network seeds regions, respectively. Nucleus accumbens (NAcc) was selected as the node to find the interactions between these two networks. IGD subjects show decreased FC in the executive control network and increased FC in the reward network when comparing with the healthy controls. When examining the correlations between the NAcc and the executive control/reward networks, the link between the NAcc - executive control network is negatively related with the link between NAcc - reward network. The changes (decrease/increase) in IGD subjects' brain synchrony in control/reward networks suggest the inefficient/overly processing within neural circuitry underlying these processes. The inverse proportion between control network and reward network in IGD suggest that impairments in executive control lead to inefficient inhibition of enhanced cravings to excessive online game playing. This might shed light on the mechanistic understanding of IGD.


Cheng J.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry | Jiang X.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry | Ma S.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry | Ma S.,East China Normal University
Organic Letters | Year: 2011

A three-component Pd(0)-catalyzed reaction of 1,5-bisallenes with organic halides in the presence of primary amines was observed to afford stereodefined not readily available ten-membered cyclic compounds highly chemo- and regioselectively. A mechanism involving two π-allylic palladium intermediates was proposed to account for the observed regio- and stereoselectivity. © 2011 American Chemical Society.


Seo S.,Yonsei University | Kim Y.,Yonsei University | Zhou Q.,CNRS Supramolecular and Macromolecular Photophysics and Photochemistry | Zhou Q.,East China Normal University | And 3 more authors.
Advanced Functional Materials | Year: 2012

A fluorescent naphthalimide-tetrazine dyad (NITZ) was examined for electrofluorochromism. The reversible electrochemistry of the tetrazine was accompanied by the fluorescence change through a quasi-complete energy transfer in an electrochemical cell prepared by the mixture of polymer electrolyte and naphthalimide-tetrazine dyad. Owing to the energy transfer within the dyad (naphthalimide and tetrazine), the fluorescence efficiency of NITZ was much enhanced and the effective fluorophore concentration in this system was much less than other tetrazine based electrofluorochromic device (EFD). Thus the yellow fluorescence of NITZ was switched on and off remarkably even with small quantity of NITZ (1 wt.%) in an EFD upon application of step potentials for different redox state. Furthermore, multi-color fluorescence switching was achieved by blending a naphthalimide to the electrofluorochromic layer, to show white-blue-dark state of fluorescence. Since the tetrazine and naphthalimide units have their emission quenched at different potentials, the emission color could be tuned by quenching emission at selected wavelengths, reversibly, under low working potentials. Multi-color fluorescence switching is achieved by blending a naphthalimide to the electrofluorochromic layer, to show white-blue-dark state of fluorescence. The reversible electrochemistry of the tetrazine and naphthalimide is accompanied by the fluorescence change in an electrochemical cell. The emission color can be tuned by quenching emission at selected wavelengths, reversibly, under low working potentials. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Zhang C.,Peking University | Tang C.,Peking University | Jiao N.,Peking University | Jiao N.,East China Normal University
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2012

Copper salts have been developed as versatile catalysts for oxidative coupling reactions in organic synthesis. During these processes, Cu-catalysts are often proposed to serve as a one-electron oxidant to promote the single-electron transfer process. Recently, the transition-metal catalyzed direct dehydrogenative transformation has attracted considerable attention. This tutorial review summarizes the recent advances in the copper-catalyzed dehydrogenative functionalization via a single electron transfer (SET) process achieving C-C, C-N, C-O, C-halogen atoms, C-P, and N-N bond formation. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012.


Yan Z.,East China Normal University | Yan Z.,City University of Hong Kong | Tam N.F.Y.,City University of Hong Kong
Aquatic Toxicology | Year: 2013

The effects of short-term (1 day) and long-term (49 days) of lead (Pb) stress on growth and physiological responses in the leaves and roots of two mangrove plants, Kandelia obovata and Acanthus ilicifolius, were compared. The growth of both species was affected by Pb at Day 49, whereas the root to shoot ratio of K. obovata remained unchanged. Compared with A. ilicifolius, less Pb accumulated in leaves of K. obovata, which indicates that this species is a typical Pb-excluder. Significant linear relationships were observed between the Pb concentrations in the roots and leaves and the Pb treatment concentrations in the sediments in A. ilicifolius but not in K. obovata. The proline concentration increased in both mangrove species at Day 49, especially in A. ilicifolius, but no changes were observed at Day 1. The tolerant species K. obovata tended to acclimate to metal stress by restricting the translocation of toxic metals and by increasing and/or maintaining high superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, minimizing lipid peroxidation, and exhibiting prolonged unaltered growth (49 days) under Pb treatment. The non-tolerant species, A. ilicifolius, did not acclimate to metal stress, its leaves were seriously damaged with significant increased MDA content, and its SOD activity was decreased. An increase of endogenous jasmonic acid concentration was observed only in K. obovata, both at Day 1 and at Day 49, which suggests that this hormone plays an important role in metal tolerance under short-term and long-term metal treatment. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Xiong L.-H.,Zhejiang Institute of Hydraulics and Estuary | Lu J.-J.,East China Normal University
Wilson Journal of Ornithology | Year: 2013

We studied exploitation of reedbeds by two specialist passerines, Reed Parrotbill (Paradoxornis heudei, listed as Near Threatened by the IUCN) and Oriental Reed Warbler (Acrocephalus orientalis), nesting in a tidal reedbed in the Changjiang River Estuary. Reed Parrotbills have significantly shorter, wider, and deeper bills than Oriental Reed Warblers. We distinguished >12 nest material categories in four groups (Phragmites, Zizania, artificial, and other) in nests of the two species. Reed Parrotbills used significantly fewer nest material categories, and had lower nest material diversity and a narrower nest material niche than Oriental Reed Warblers. More than 89% of the nest mass of Reed Parrotbills was Phragmites and was obtained from within the nesting habitat. More than 71% of the nest mass of Oriental Reed Warblers was Zizania from outside the nesting habitat. Most Phragmites material used by Reed Parrotbills was living tissue from reed leaf sheathes and stems. The large bill of the Reed Parrotbill facilitates exploitation of tissues from living reed shoots for nest materials, while the relatively long and slender bill of the Oriental Reed Warbler constrains it to use living reed shoots and exploit nest material from outside of nesting habitats. This is similar to their exploitation of food resources in reedbeds: Reed Parrotbills extract concealed insects within reed shoots while Oriental Reed Warblers glean exposed arthropods on a variety of plants. We confirm that food resource exploitation by Reed Parrotbills and Oriental Reed Warblers demonstrates a relationship between bill morphology and feeding as well as nest building. © 2013 by the Wilson Ornithological Society.


Hu K.L.,East China Normal University
Dong wu xue yan jiu = Zoological research / "Dong wu xue yan jiu" bian ji wei yuan hui bian ji | Year: 2011

We investigated food (insect) availability in foraging areas utilized by the long-fingered bat Miniopterus fuliginosus using light traps, fish netting and fecal analysis. The dominant preys of M. fuliginosus were Lepidoptera (55%, by volume percent) and Coleoptera (38%) of a relatively large body size. M. fuliginosus has relatively long, narrow wings and a wing span of 6.58+/-0.12 and high wing loading of 9.85+/-0.83 N/m2. The echolocation calls of free flying M. fuliginosus were FM signals, with a pulse duration of 1.45+/-0.06 ms, interpulse interval of 63.08+/-21.55 ms, and low dominant frequency of 44.50+/-2.26 kHz. This study shows that the morphological characteristics and echolocation calls of long-fingered bats are closely linked to their predatory behavior.


Xu A.,Wenzhou University | Tang Y.,East China Normal University
Computational Statistics and Data Analysis | Year: 2011

In Bayesian analysis with objective priors, it should be justified that the posterior distribution is proper. In this paper, we show that the reference prior (or independent Jeffreys prior) of a two-parameter BirnbaumSaunders distribution will result in an improper posterior distribution. However, the posterior distributions are proper based on the reference priors with partial information (RPPI). Based on censored samples, slice sampling is utilized to obtain the Bayesian estimators based on RPPI. Monte Carlo simulations are used to compare the efficiencies of different RPPIs, to assess the sensitivity of the choice of the priors, and to compare the Bayesian estimators with the maximum likelihood estimators, for various scales of sample size and degree of censoring. A real data set is analyzed for illustrative purpose. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Lu X.M.,China Institute of Technology | Huang M.S.,East China Normal University
International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2012

The purifying tank containing Pontederia cordata was used to treat heavily polluted river water. The relationship between the diurnal variation of plant physiology and water quality was investigated. The study took place from 0800 to 1800 hours and in that period the physiological parameters of the plant and the water quality were analysed. Results indicated that the activity of peroxidase and catalase, the content of soluble protein and the rate of photosynthesis and transpiration were negatively correlated to the concentration of nitrogen and phosphorus in the river water, respectively. Higher sunlight intensity increased the activity of peroxidase and catalase, the content of soluble protein, rate of photosynthesis and transpiration. Sunlight also decreased the concentration of nitrogen and phosphorus, the cations (Al 3+, Fe 2+ and Ca 2+), the anions (Cl -, NO 3 - and SO 4 2-) and the oxidation-reduction potential and electrical conductivity of the river water. During the treatment from 0800 to 1800 hours, soluble protein content, photosynthesis rate of the plant and dissolved oxygen concentration of the river water showed a bimodal distribution, with peaks at 1200 and 1400 hours and a decrease at 1300 hours due to decrease in photosynthesis at midday. Peroxidase and catalase activity, soluble protein content, photosynthesis and transpiration rate were highest between 1000 and 1400 hours, while nitrogen and phosphorus concentration of the polluted water decreased significantly during this time. The correlation between plant physiology and water quality provided valuable data on the role of this plant in the ecological restoration of polluted water. © 2012 CEERS, IAU.


Luo J.,East China Normal University
Nature Medicine | Year: 2016

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily member 11 (TNFSF11, also known as RANKL) regulates multiple physiological or pathological functions, including osteoclast differentiation and osteoporosis. TNFRSF11A (also called RANK) is considered to be the sole receptor for RANKL. Herein we report that leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor 4 (LGR4, also called GPR48) is another receptor for RANKL. LGR4 competes with RANK to bind RANKL and suppresses canonical RANK signaling during osteoclast differentiation. RANKL binding to LGR4 activates the Gαq and GSK3-β signaling pathway, an action that suppresses the expression and activity of nuclear factor of activated T cells, cytoplasmic, calcineurin-dependent 1 (NFATC1) during osteoclastogenesis. Both whole-body (Lgr4-/-) and monocyte conditional knockout mice of Lgr4 (Lgr4 CKO) exhibit osteoclast hyperactivation (including elevation of osteoclast number, surface area, and size) and increased bone erosion. The soluble LGR4 extracellular domain (ECD) binds RANKL and inhibits osteoclast differentiation in vivo. Moreover, LGR4-ECD therapeutically abrogated RANKL-induced bone loss in three mouse models of osteoporosis. Therefore, LGR4 acts as a second RANKL receptor that negatively regulates osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption. © 2016 Nature Publishing Group, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited. All Rights Reserved.


Zhang K.,East China Normal University | Zhang K.,University of Arizona | Bariani F.,University of Arizona | Meystre P.,University of Arizona
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2014

We investigate theoretically a quantum optomechanical realization of a heat engine. In a generic optomechanical arrangement the optomechanical coupling between the cavity field and the oscillating end mirror results in polariton normal mode excitations whose character depends on the pump detuning and the coupling strength. By varying that detuning it is possible to transform their character from phononlike to photonlike, so that they are predominantly coupled to the thermal reservoir of phonons or photons, respectively. We exploit the fact that the effective temperatures of these two reservoirs are different to produce an Otto cycle along one of the polariton branches. We discuss the basic properties of the system in two different regimes: in the optical domain it is possible to extract work from the thermal energy of a mechanical resonator at finite temperature, while in the microwave range one can in principle exploit the cycle to extract work from the blackbody radiation background coupled to an ultracold atomic ensemble. © 2014 American Physical Society.


Lin X.,Zhejiang Normal University | Dong G.,Zhejiang Normal University | Wang Q.,Zhejiang Normal University | Du X.,East China Normal University
Addictive Behaviors | Year: 2015

Internet gaming addiction (IGA) is usually defined as the inability of an individual to control his/her use of the Internet with serious negative consequences. It is becoming a prevalent mental health concern around the world. To understand whether Internet gaming addiction contributes to cerebral structural changes, the present study examined the brain gray matter density and white matter density changes in participants suffering IGA using voxel-based morphometric analysis. Compared with the healthy controls (N. =. 36, 22.2. ±. 3.13. years), IGA participants (N. =. 35, 22.28. ±. 2.54. years) showed significant lower gray matter density in the bilateral inferior frontal gyrus, left cingulate gyrus, insula, right precuneus, and right hippocampus (all p<. 0.05). IGA participants also showed significant lower white matter density in the inferior frontal gyrus, insula, amygdala, and anterior cingulate than healthy controls (all p<. 0.05). Previous studies suggest that these brain regions are involved in decision-making, behavioral inhibition and emotional regulation. Current findings might provide insight in understanding the biological underpinnings of IGA. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Liu X.,East China Normal University
International Journal of Bifurcation and Chaos | Year: 2014

The aim of this paper is to show the bifurcation phenomena near the weak type heterodimensional cycle when the orbit flip and inclination flip occur simultaneously in its nontransversal heteroclinic orbit. With the aid of a suitable local coordinate system, the Poincaré map is constructed. By means of the bifurcation equations, the persistence of heterodimensional cycles, the coexistence of the heterodimensional cycle and periodic orbits or homoclinic orbits, and the existence of bifurcation surfaces of homoclinic orbits or the periodic orbits are discussed under small perturbations. Moreover, an example is given to show the existence of the system which has a heterodimensional cycle with orbit flip and inclination flip. © 2014 World Scientific Publishing Company.


Lu X.M.,China Institute of Technology | Huang M.S.,East China Normal University
International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2010

To analyze the variation of physiological responses between Nymphaea tetragona Georgi. and Pontederia cordata L. and the water qualities under aeration conditions, the selected plants were cultivated in 12 purifying-tanks (aeration, non aeration), to treat heavily polluted river water. The characteristics of both plants were investigated, which included contents of chlorophyll and soluble protein, activities of peroxidase and catalase, accumulations of nitrogen and phosphorus, densities of tillers and roots, lengths of roots, culms and leaves, biomass of roots and shoots. The water qualities were analyzed correspondingly. Results indicated that aeration affected morphological and physiological characteristics of the plants and the water qualities and effects became more significant on N. tetragona than P. cordata. Biomass and length of roots, culms and leaves under the non aeration conditions exceeded that under the aeration conditions. Aeration contributed to the activities increase of peroxidase and catalase of the roots and the contents decrease of chlorophyll and soluble protein of the leaves. Nitrogen and phosphorus contents of the roots, culms and leaves increased under the non aeration conditions. Aeration resulted in tillers and roots densities of N. tetragona decreased, while they increased for P. cordata. Total phosphorus and soluble phosphorus removals decreased 8.42% and 8.05% in the tank with N. tetragona under the aeration conditions. In the tank with P. cordata, total nitrogen and NH4+ -N removals increased 14.44% and 16.06% under the aeration conditions. This work provided valuable data for optimizing the plants allocation in the ecological restoration project of the polluted water. © IRSEN, CEERS, IAU.


Yue F.,Max Born Institute For Nichtlineare Optik Und Kurzzeitspektroskopie | Yue F.,East China Normal University | Tomm J.W.,Max Born Institute For Nichtlineare Optik Und Kurzzeitspektroskopie | Kruschke D.,Institute fur Angewandte Photonik E.V. | Glas P.,Institute for Scientific Instruments GmbH
Laser and Photonics Reviews | Year: 2013

The luminescence behavior of PbS-quantum dots in glass matrix (PbS:Glass) is investigated. Steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence are applied in a wide range of excitation densities up to pulse energies exceeding 50 μJ/cm2. While perfect linear recombination is observed across four orders of magnitude, an additional radiative recombination mechanism emerges at an excitation density of 1 μ J/cm2 per pulse at 390 nm excitation and increases the external quantum efficiency. The time constant of this process is ~20-40 ps. It is ascribed to stimulated emission. No hint to any non-linear non-radiative processes such as Auger recombination is observed. Thermal effects, however, still set limits. This is encouraging news for PbS:Glass as potential laser material. © 2012 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Shi M.-M.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research | Michalski S.G.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research | Chen X.-Y.,East China Normal University | Durka W.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Background: The distribution of genetic diversity among plant populations growing along elevational gradients can be affected by neutral as well as selective processes. Molecular markers used to study these patterns usually target neutral processes only, but may also be affected by selection. In this study, the effects of elevation and successional stage on genetic diversity of a dominant tree species were investigated controlling for neutrality of the microsatellite loci used. Methodology/Principal Findings: Diversity and differentiation among 24 populations of Castanopsis eyrei from different elevations (251-920 m) and successional stages were analysed by eight microsatellite loci. We found that one of the loci (Ccu97H18) strongly deviated from a neutral model of differentiation among populations due to either divergent selection or hitchhiking with an unknown selected locus. The analysis showed that C. eyrei populations had a high level of genetic diversity within populations (AR = 7.6, HE = 0.82). Genetic variation increased with elevation for both the putatively selected locus Ccu97H18 and the neutral loci. At locus Ccu97H18 one allele was dominant at low elevations, which was replaced at higher elevations by an increasing number of other alleles. The level of genetic differentiation at neutral loci was similar to that of other Fagaceae species (FST = 0.032, F′ST = 0.15). Population differentiation followed a model of isolation by distance but additionally, strongly significant isolation by elevation was found, both for neutral loci and the putatively selected locus. Conclusions/Significance: The results indicate higher gene flow among similar elevational levels than across different elevational levels and suggest a selective influence of elevation on the distribution of genetic diversity in C. eyrei. The study underlines the importance to check the selective neutrality of marker loci in analyses of population structure. © 2011 Shi et al.


Bai X.,East China Normal University
Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Mathematik und Physik | Year: 2014

This paper mainly considers the coupled parabolic system in a bounded domain: u t = Δu + u α v p, v t = Δv + u q v β in Ω × (0, T) with null Dirichlet boundary value condition which had been discussed by Wang in (Z Angew Math Phys 51:160-167, 2000). The aim of this paper is to solve the open problem mentioned in the Remark of Wang (Z Angew Math Phys 51:160-167, 2000). © 2013 Springer Basel.


Dong G.,Zhejiang Normal University | Huang J.,Zhejiang Normal University | Du X.,East China Normal University
Journal of Psychiatric Research | Year: 2011

As the world's fastest growing " addiction" , Internet addiction should be studied to unravel the potential heterogeneity. The present study is set to examine reward and punishment processing in Internet addicts as compared to healthy controls while they subjectively experience monetary gain and loss during the performance of a guessing task. The results showed that Internet addicts associated with increased activation in orbitofrontal cortex in gain trials and decreased anterior cingulate activation in loss trials than normal controls. The results suggested that Internet addicts have enhanced reward sensitivity and decreased loss sensitivity than normal comparisons. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Li M.,East China Normal University | Li M.,University of Macau
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine | Year: 2012

The contributions in this paper are in two folds. On the one hand, we propose a general approach for approximating ideal filters based on fractional calculus from the point of view of systems of fractional order. On the other hand, we suggest that the Paley and Wiener criterion might not be a necessary condition for designing physically realizable ideal filters. As an application of the present approach, we show a case in designing ideal filters for suppressing 50-Hz interference in electrocardiogram (ECG) signals. Copyright © 2012 Ming Li.


Zhu G.,East China Normal University | Zhu G.,University of Pittsburgh | Singh C.,University of Pittsburgh
Physical Review Special Topics - Physics Education Research | Year: 2012

We describe the difficulties that advanced undergraduate and graduate students have with quantum measurement within the standard interpretation of quantum mechanics. We explore the possible origins of these difficulties by analyzing student responses to questions from both surveys and interviews. Results from this research are applied to develop research-based learning tutorials to improve students' understanding of quantum measurement. Published by the American Physical Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License. Further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the published article's title, journal citation, and DOI.


Zhu G.,East China Normal University | Zhu G.,University of Pittsburgh | Singh C.,University of Pittsburgh
Physical Review Special Topics - Physics Education Research | Year: 2012

We describe the development and implementation of research-based learning tools such as the Quantum Interactive Learning Tutorials and peer-instruction tools to reduce students' common difficulties with issues related to measurement in quantum mechanics. A preliminary evaluation shows that these learning tools are effective in improving students' understanding of concepts related to quantum measurement. Published by the American Physical Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License. Further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the published article's title, journal citation, and DOI.


Wang T.,East China Normal University
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2011

The spherically symmetric static solutions are searched for in some f(T) models of gravity theory with a Maxwell term. To do this, we demonstrate that reconstructing the Lagrangian of f(T) theories is sensitive to the choice of frame, and then we introduce a particular frame based on the conformally Cartesian coordinates. In this particular frame, the existence conditions of various solutions are presented. Our results imply that only a limited class of f(T) models can be solved in this frame. For more general models, the search for spherically symmetric static solutions is still an open and challenging problem, hopefully solvable in other frames. © 2011 American Physical Society.


Chen B.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry | Ma S.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry | Ma S.,East China Normal University
Organic Letters | Year: 2013

A series of isocoumarin derivatives have been synthesized via the reaction of 2-(o-(methoxycarbonyl)phenyl)-2,3-allenoates with organozincs in CH 2Cl2 at room temperature (for dialkylzinc) or 100 C (for Ph2Zn) through a tandem Michael addition/intramolecular cyclization process. © 2013 American Chemical Society.


Walsh A.,University of Bath | Scanlon D.O.,University College London | Scanlon D.O.,Diamond Light Source | Chen S.,East China Normal University | And 2 more authors.
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2015

Hybrid halide perovskites such as methylammonium lead iodide (CH3NH3PbI3) exhibit unusually low free-carrier concentrations despite being processed at low-temperatures from solution. We demonstrate, through quantum mechanical calculations, that an origin of this phenomenon is a prevalence of ionic over electronic disorder in stoichiometric materials. Schottky defect formation provides a mechanism to selfregulate the concentration of charge carriers through ionic compensation of charged point defects. The equilibrium charged vacancy concentration is predicted to exceed 0.4% at room temperature. This behavior, which goes against established defect conventions for inorganic semiconductors, has implications for photovoltaic performance. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


He M.,Sinopec | He M.,East China Normal University | Sun Y.,CAS Shanghai Advanced Research Institute | Sun Y.,Shanxi Institute of Coal CAS Chemistry | Han B.,CAS Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2013

How green was my valley: Green carbon science focuses on the transformations of carbon-containing compounds in the entire carbon cycle. The ultimate aim is to use carbon resources efficiently and minimize the net CO 2 emission. This holistic view also has ramifications for related fields including petroleum refining and the production of liquid fuels and chemicals from coal, methane, CO2, and biomass. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Li X.,East China Normal University | Claramunt C.,French Naval Academy Research Institute | Ray C.,French Naval Academy Research Institute
Computers, Environment and Urban Systems | Year: 2010

While recent years have witnessed noticeable development of indoor GIS, there is still a lack of clear consensus on the modeling principles that should support such applications. The objective of the research presented in this paper is to represent two-dimensional (2D) indoor spaces with a grid graph-based model that takes into account the structural and spatial properties of an indoor space. The model developed considers a built environment as a frame of reference at different levels of granularity using a grid graph-based representation. The advantage of the modeling approach is that it combines structural and topological properties as well as implicitly taking into account the metric of space, this being often overlooked by most existing indoor space models. Several types of indoor space analysis are employed to illustrate the potential of the proposed model, such as route and diffusion analysis, centrality and topological analysis. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Sun S.,East China Normal University
Neural Computing and Applications | Year: 2013

A central task of Bayesian machine learning is to infer the posterior distribution of hidden random variables given observations and calculate expectations with respect to this distribution. However, this is often computationally intractable so that people have to seek approximation schemes. Deterministic approximate inference techniques are an alternative of the stochastic approximate inference methods based on numerical sampling, namely Monte Carlo techniques, and during the last 15 years, many advancements in this field have been made. This paper reviews typical deterministic approximate inference techniques, some of which are very recent and need further explorations. With an aim to promote research in deterministic approximate inference, we also attempt to identify open problems that may be helpful for future investigations in this field. © 2013 Springer-Verlag London.


Sun S.,East China Normal University
Neural Computing and Applications | Year: 2013

Multi-view learning or learning with multiple distinct feature sets is a rapidly growing direction in machine learning with well theoretical underpinnings and great practical success. This paper reviews theories developed to understand the properties and behaviors of multi-view learning and gives a taxonomy of approaches according to the machine learning mechanisms involved and the fashions in which multiple views are exploited. This survey aims to provide an insightful organization of current developments in the field of multi-view learning, identify their limitations, and give suggestions for further research. One feature of this survey is that we attempt to point out specific open problems which can hopefully be useful to promote the research of multi-view machine learning. © 2013 Springer-Verlag London.


He X.,University of Helsinki | Sun Y.,University of Helsinki | Zhu R.-L.,East China Normal University
Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences | Year: 2013

Oil bodies of liverworts are intracellular organelles bounded by a single unit membrane containing lipophilic globules suspended in a proteinaceous matrix. They are a prominent and highly distinctive organelle uniquely found in liverworts. Although they have been widely used in taxonomy and chemosystematics, and many of their secondary metabolites are known to be bioactive and are considered as potential sources of medicines, their origin, development and function still remain poorly understood. Recently, biochemical studies have indicated that the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathways in liverworts are similar to those of the seed plants and that oil bodies of Marchantia polymorpha contain a protein complex immunologically related to plastid and cytosolic enzymes of isoprenoid synthesis. Cytoplasmic lipid droplets lacking a bounding membrane have recently been recognized as important dynamic organelles playing active roles in cell physiology. Structural proteins, covering the surface of the lipid droplets and preventing them coalescing during desiccation, have been found in seed plants and also in the moss Physcomitrella patens. However, whether liverwort oil bodies play a dynamic role in cell metabolism, in addition to their role as sites of essential oil accumulation and sequestration, has not been formally tested. In this review, we present current knowledge on the oil bodies of liverworts on their origin and development, their role in taxonomy, chemosystematics and potential pharmaceutical applications leading to their functional significance, and we also identify avenues for future studies on this important but long-overlooked organelle. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Li M.,East China Normal University | Zhao W.,University of Macau
Mathematical Problems in Engineering | Year: 2012

Cyber-physical networking systems (CPNSs) are made up of various physical systems that are heterogeneous in nature. Therefore, exploring universalities in CPNSs for either data or systems is desired in its fundamental theory. This paper is in the aspect of data, aiming at addressing that power laws may yet be a universality of data in CPNSs. The contributions of this paper are in triple folds. First, we provide a short tutorial about power laws. Then, we address the power laws related to some physical systems. Finally, we discuss that power-law-type data may be governed by stochastically differential equations of fractional order. As a side product, we present the point of view that the upper bound of data flow at large-time scaling and the small one also follows power laws.


Yuan Q.,East China Normal University | Ding F.,Hong Kong Polytechnic University
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2015

Owing to the unique structure of zigzag (ZZ) carbon nanotubes (CNTs), their ring-by-ring growth behavior is different from that of chiral or armchair (AC) CNTs, on the rims of which kinks serve as active sites for carbon attachment. Through first-principle calculations, we found that, because of the high energy barrier of initiating a new carbon ring at the rim of a ZZ CNT, the growth rate of a ZZ CNT is proportional to its diameter and significantly (10-1000 times) slower than that of other CNTs. This study successfully explained the broad experimental observation of the lacking of ZZ CNTs in CNT samples and completed the theory of CNT growth. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Li M.,East China Normal University | Zhao W.,University of Macau
Mathematical Problems in Engineering | Year: 2012

Due to the fact that 1 / f noise gains the increasing interests in the field of biomedical signal processing and living systems, we present this introductive survey that may suffice to exhibit the elementary and the particularities of 1 / f noise in comparison with conventional random functions. Three theorems are given for highlighting the particularities of 1 / f noise. The first says that a random function with long-range dependence (LRD) is a 1 / f noise. The secondindicates that a heavy-tailed random function is in the class of 1 / f noise. The third provides a type of stochastic differential equations that produce 1 / f noise. © 2012 Ming Li and Wei Zhao.


Wu S.,Zhejiang University | Zeng R.,Zhejiang University | Fu C.,Zhejiang University | Yu Y.,East China Normal University | And 3 more authors.
Chemical Science | Year: 2015

A Rh(iii) catalyzed formal [4 + 2 + 2] cyclization of N-pivaloyloxybenzamides 1 with 1,6-allene-enes 2 by C-H functionalization is reported. The reactions occur at room temperature and are compatible with air and moisture with a tolerance of many synthetically useful functional groups. The follow-up modifications of the products have been demonstrated. After careful mechanistic studies and DFT calculation, a reaction mechanism was proposed. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Li L.,East China Normal University | Li S.-M.,Hong Kong Baptist University
Habitat International | Year: 2013

This study investigates the interaction between the homeowners of commodity housing and the Internet in transitional urban China. It examines how the homeowners make use the Internet and weave it into their everyday life in the commodity housing estates to improve their positions in both home purchase and neighborhood management. The study analyzes the emergence and use of online neighborhood forums with a special reference to Guangzhou. It argues that the neighborhood forums provide a platform within which information exchange, organization of collective actions, social interactions, and community building take place simultaneously. In the course of both online and offline interactions, users have adopted four kinds of strategies of mobilizing and organizing: common grievances, common threats, common amenities, and common attributes. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Yu M.,East China University of Science and Technology | Zhu Y.-A.,East China University of Science and Technology | Lu Y.,East China Normal University | Tong G.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | And 2 more authors.
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental | Year: 2015

The catalytic performance of Ag promoted Ni/CeO2 catalyst has been investigated in methane and carbon dioxide dry reforming reaction. The temperature-dependent catalytic activity and time-on-stream catalytic performance at 760°C under different feeding conditions have been explored. Pristine Ni/CeO2 is not stable as a result of coke deposition and surface reconstruction. In addition, co-feeding of H2 can adversely influence the long-term stability of Ni/CeO2. Ag severely reduces the intrinsic catalytic activity of Ni/CeO2 catalyst, while enhances the long-term stability by diminishing coke deposition. Ag is applicable as a promoter under various reaction conditions, from N2 diluted feedstock to H2 co-fed and carrier-gas free feedstock. Kinetic studies show that Ag elevates the activation energy from 91 to ca. 140kJ/mol by a loading of 0.3mol.%, excessive Ag loading does not affect activation energy. The role of Ag is to block step sites on Ni surface that is associated with carbon nucleation and growth, and to promote gasification of coke formed. Besides, Ag alters the type of coke formed over Ni surface from recalcitrant whisker/encapsulating carbon to easily gasifiable amorphous carbonaceous species. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Li M.,East China Normal University | Zhao W.,University of Macau
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine | Year: 2012

Network calculus is a theory initiated primarily in computer communication networks, especially in the aspect of real-time communications, where min-plus algebra plays a role. Cyber-physical networking systems (CPNSs) are recently developing fast and models in data flows as well as systems in CPNS are, accordingly, greatly desired. Though min-plus algebra may be a promising tool to linearize any node in CPNS as can be seen from its applications to the Internet computing, there are tough problems remaining unsolved in this regard. The identity in min-plus algebra is one problem we shall address. We shall point out the confusions about the conventional identity in the min-plus algebra and present an analytical expression of the asymptotic identity that may not cause confusions. Copyright © 2012 Ming Li and Wei Zhao.


Yuan Q.,East China Normal University | Yuan Q.,Hong Kong Polytechnic University | Ding F.,Hong Kong Polytechnic University
Nanoscale | Year: 2014

The electronic and geometric structures of carbyne on various transition metal surfaces were investigated by theoretical calculations. It was found that carbyne on non-active metal surfaces has a polyynic structure, while a polycumulenic structure is more stable on active catalyst surfaces. The self-assembly of carbyne on a metal substrate could lead to the synthesis of graphyne. © 2014 the Partner Organisations.


Qu Q.,Tongji University | Zhu A.,Tongji University | Shao X.,Tongji University | Shi G.,East China Normal University | Tian Y.,Tongji University
Chemical Communications | Year: 2012

An efficient strategy for selective fluorescent detection of Cu 2+ was developed based on the carbon quantum dots (CQDs) nanoconjugated with a specific organic molecule, amino TPEA, and further applied to intracellular sensing and imaging of Cu 2+ as a consequence of the fluorescence properties and the established low cytotoxicity of CQDs. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Ning L.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Ma L.-Q.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Wang Z.-R.,East China Normal University | Wang Y.-W.,Shanghai JiaoTong University
Pain Physician | Year: 2013

Background: Neuropathic pain induction by nerve injury has been shown by in vitro studies to be accompanied by synaptic strengthening in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and has been shown by pharmacological studies in vivo to be prevented by blocking N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-dependent ACC plasticity. These findings indicate that ACC neurons undergo nerve injury-induced synaptic modifications and further raise a new question about neuropathic pain-associated changes in neuronal activity in the ACC in vivo, particularly spontaneous neuronal oscillations - a process believed to be fundamental for many forms of brain function. Objective: In this study, we examined the change of spontaneous membrane-potential (MP) oscillations in the ACC in vivo in a neuropathic pain animal model of chronic constriction injury (CCI), which may account for neuropathic pain development, as well as pain hypersensitivity and spontaneous pain. Study Design: Experimental trial in rats. Methods: Neuropathic pain rats were produced by CCI surgery on the common sciatic nerve. Neuropathic pain-related behaviors were accessed by evoked responses to both mechanical and thermal stimuli, as well as spontaneous pain indicated by spontaneous foot lifting. In vivo whole- cell recording was performed in both control and neuropathic pain rats under anaesthesia. MP and action-potential (AP) changes of layer II/III ACC pyramidal cells were measured in current-clamp mode. The level of anaesthesia was evaluated by monitoring respiratory and heart rates in some experiments. Results: Within 7 to 14 days after CCI surgery, the frequency of MP oscillations of ACC neurons was found to be significantly higher than that in control rats. Such an increase in oscillation frequency after surgery was not due to periphery transmission via the sciatic nerve subjected to CCI surgery and was indicated to be accounted for by neuronal modifications in the central nervous system. Furthermore, this increase was found to result in a higher overall level of MP excitation as well as an increase in spontaneous AP firing. Limitations: Our findings in MP and AP changes were obtained in anaesthetized brains; this issue remains to be further examined by using whole-cell recording in awake behaving animals. Conclusions: Neuropathic pain is accompanied by the increase in rates of spontaneous oscillations of ACC neurons. This change may be critical for neuropathic pain development, as well as pain hypersensitivity and spontaneous pain in neuropathic pain animals.


Lin X.,Zhejiang Normal University | Zhou H.,Zhejiang Normal University | Dong G.,Zhejiang Normal University | Du X.,East China Normal University
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry | Year: 2015

This study examined how Internet gaming disorder (IGD) subjects modulating reward and risk at a neural level under a probability-discounting task with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Behavioral and imaging data were collected from 19 IGD subjects (22.2. ±. 3.08. years) and 21 healthy controls (HC, 22.8. ±. 3.5. years). Behavior results showed that IGD subjects prefer the probabilistic options to fixed ones and were associated with shorter reaction time, when comparing to HC. The fMRI results revealed that IGD subjects show decreased activation in the inferior frontal gyrus and the precentral gyrus when choosing the probabilistic options than HC. Correlations were also calculated between behavioral performances and brain activities in relevant brain regions. Both of the behavioral performance and fMRI results indicate that people with IGD show impaired risk evaluation, which might be the reason why IGD subjects continue playing online games despite the risks of widely known negative consequence. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.


Pan T.,East China Normal University
Advances in Intelligent and Soft Computing | Year: 2012

The emergence of cloud computing provide the medium enterprises many low-cost mass data analysis solutions. Decision tree algorithm in which one of the biggest problems is its computational complexity is proportional to the size and training data, resulting in a large number of computing time in constructing Data Set. The article aim at the SPRINT algorithm based on the Hadoop platform, presenting a parallel method of constructing a decision tree and then solving the parallel problem in Hadoop platform. © 2012 Springer-Verlag GmbH.


Ye J.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry | Ma S.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry | Ma S.,East China Normal University
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2013

Pass the baton: The title reaction affords synthetically attractive bicyclo[4.3.0] skeletons in up to 85 % yield by three consecutive C-C bond formations in a single operation (see scheme; DMF=N,N-dimethylformamide, DMSO=dimethyl sulfoxide, Ts=4-toluenesulfonyl). The challenge of efficient axial-to-central chirality transfer involving π-allyl palladium intermediates has been also realized. Mechanistic studies are discussed. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Singh R.,Chennai Mathematical Institute | Xu J.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Xu J.,East China Normal University | Garnier N.G.,French National Center for Scientific Research | And 2 more authors.
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2012

Synchronized oscillations are of critical functional importance in many biological systems. We show that such oscillations can arise without centralized coordination in a disordered system of electrically coupled excitable and passive cells. Increasing the coupling strength results in waves that lead to coherent periodic activity, exhibiting cluster, local and global synchronization under different conditions. Our results may explain the self-organized transition in a pregnant uterus from transient, localized activity initially to system-wide coherent excitations just before delivery. © 2012 American Physical Society.


Wang T.,East China Normal University
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2010

Two-field slow-roll inflation is the most conservative modification of a single-field model. The main motivations to study it are its entropic mode and non-Gaussianity. Several years ago, for a two-field model with additive separable potentials, Vernizzi and Wands invented an analytic method to estimate its non-Gaussianities. Later on, Choi et al. applied this method to the model with multiplicative separable potentials. In this note, we design a larger class of models whose non-Gaussianity can be estimated by the same method. Under some simplistic assumptions, roughly these models are unlikely able to generate a large non-Gaussianity. We look over some specific models of this class by scanning the full parameter space, but still no large non-Gaussianity appears in the slow-roll region. These models and scanning techniques would be useful for a future model hunt if observational evidence shows up for two-field inflation. © 2010 The American Physical Society.


Liu Z.,East China Normal University
EPL | Year: 2012

Based on the recent observation that a neuron in the local network of the mouse primary visual cortex receives convergent input from nearby neurons (Nature, 471 (2011) 177), we present a hierarchical organization network model to stress the aspect of directional coupling in neurons and study how an external signal can be transmitted in this network model. By taking numerical simulations on the paradigmatic Rössler oscillator and Hindmarsh-Rose neuron, we show that the oscillators in the network will lock in phase and frequency over a range that is much larger than one driven oscillator would, indicating the enhanced signal detectability of the hierarchical organization network. To guarantee the successful transmission of phase-lockings, a self-tuning mechanism is introduced where the weights of those links along the signal transmission path will be adaptively increased, with the total weight of network keeping constant. Moreover, we find that the organization network is in favor of the phase-locking transmission than the star-like network. © Copyright EPLA, 2012.


Xu N.,Anhui University of Science and Technology | Zhu J.,Anhui University of Science and Technology | Zhu J.,East China Normal University | Lu D.,Anhui University of Science and Technology | And 3 more authors.
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2012

Quantum algorithms could be much faster than classical ones in solving the factoring problem. Adiabatic quantum computation for this is an alternative approach other than Shor's algorithm. Here we report an improved adiabatic factoring algorithm and its experimental realization to factor the number 143 on a liquid-crystal NMR quantum processor with dipole-dipole couplings. We believe this to be the largest number factored in quantum-computation realizations, which shows the practical importance of adiabatic quantum algorithms. © 2012 American Physical Society.


Mony L.,Ecole Normale Superieure de Paris | Zhu S.,Ecole Normale Superieure de Paris | Zhu S.,East China Normal University | Carvalho S.,Ecole Normale Superieure de Paris |