Shanghai, China

East China Normal University , commonly referred to as ECNU, is a comprehensive research university in Shanghai, China. Established in 1951, it is the first national normal university of the People's Republic of China.Originally founded to train school teachers, the University is now an institution training researchers, professors, high-level civil servants, as well as business and political leaders. Sponsored by the national program "Project 211" and "Project 985", the university is a staunch force in the nation's research in the humanities, social science and technology innovation, and is reputed to be the "Columbia of the East". ECNU is ranked 67th in Asia according to the Times Higher Education Asia University Rankings in 2014, while the Leiden Ranking considered it 280th worldwide in 2013.ECNU is an institution of higher education with global impact. China's first Sino-US higher education institute – New York University Shanghai – is jointly operated by New York University and ECNU. King's College London, the University of California, as well as the University of Manchester hold their international summer schools at ECNU each year.Since 2013, the University officially changed its French name to École normale supérieure de l'Est de la Chine, to put forward the academic cooperation between ECNU and the École Normale Supérieure Group in France. And the ENS-ECNU Joint Graduate School was formally established in June 2005. Wikipedia.

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Wang X.,East China Normal University | Cai X.,Shanghai University | Hu J.,Dalian University of Technology | Shao N.,East China Normal University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2013

Polymeric nanoparticles that can stably load anticancer drugs and release them in response to a specific trigger such as glutathione are of great interest in cancer therapy. In the present study, dendrimer-encapsulated gold nanoparticles (DEGNPs) were synthesized and used as carriers of thiolated anticancer drugs. Thiol-containing drugs such as captopril and 6-mercaptopurine loaded within DEGNPs showed an "Off-On" release behavior in the presence of thiol-reducing agents such as glutathione and dithiothreitol. Thiolated doxorubicin and cisplatin, loaded within the nanoparticle, showed much reduced cytotoxicity as compared to the free anticancer compounds. The toxicity of drug-loaded DEGNPs can be enhanced by improving the intracellular glutathione. Glutathione-triggered release of thiolated doxorubicin within cancer cells is further confirmed by flow cytometry and confocal laser scan microscopy studies. In addition, DEGNPs showed excellent biocompatibility on several cell lines. This study provides a new insight into biomedical applications of dendrimers and dendrimer-encapsulated nanoparticles. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

Liu Y.,East China Normal University | Pan L.,East China Normal University | Xu X.,East China Normal University | Lu T.,East China Normal University | And 2 more authors.
Electrochimica Acta | Year: 2014

A modified membrane capacitive deionization (m-MCDI) device was proposed with high desalination efficiency. The m-MCDI electrodes were fabricated by introducing the anion exchange polymer (dimethyl diallyl ammonium chloride) and cation exchange (polyethyleneimine) polymer into carbon nanotubes (CNTs) electrodes and their desalination performance in NaCl solutions was investigated. The m-MCDI unit cell based on both anion and cation exchange polymers exhibits a high NaCl removal of 93%, much higher than that of conventional capacitive deionization cell with CNTs electrode (25%) or MCDI cell with commercial anion and cation exchange membranes (74%) in a certain experiment at 1.2 V and for an initial conductivity of 50 μS/cm. The large improvement in desalination performance is mainly due to the reduced co-ion expulsion effect by introducing ion exchange polymers and the better contact adhesion between ion exchange polymers and electrodes than between commercial ion exchange membranes and electrodes. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Yao Y.,East China Normal University | Jiang S.,East China Normal University | Rastogi S.,Loughborough University
Macromolecules | Year: 2014

The ultimate draw ratio in semicrystalline polymers, and the resultant mechanical properties of the polymer, strongly depends on entanglement density in the amorphous region of the polymer. The influence of entanglement density becomes more pronounced with the increasing molar mass, for an example in the ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMW-PE, having weight-average molar mass greater than a million g/mol) the solid-state deformation (draw ratio >7) is feasible on crystallization of the polymer from dilute solution or during controlled polymerization using a single-site catalytic system. Here we address the influence of the molar mass distribution, associated with the polymerization conditions, on structural changes during solid-state deformation in the crystalline and the noncrystalline regions of UHMW-PE. With the help of various solid state NMR methods, differences in the deformation behavior of the mobile-amorphous, rigid-amorphous, and crystalline polymorphs have been followed in the broad and narrow molar mass UHMW-PEs. Orientation parameters arising at the segmental length scales, within different regions of the semicrystalline polymers, have been addressed. 2D 13C exchange NMR methods have been employed to follow the spatial proximity between the methylene segments of the noncrystalline regions (mobile- and rigid-amorphous phases) with the crystalline regions (crystalline core and crystal surface) during deformation of the two polymers. Distinct differences in the orientation parameters of the methylene segments in the noncrystalline and the crystalline regions, arising with the deformation of the broad and the narrow molar mass distributed UHMW-PE, have been observed and addressed. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

Liu H.,East China Normal University | Wang Y.,Shanghai University | Wang M.,East China Normal University | Xiao J.,Shanghai University | Cheng Y.,East China Normal University
Biomaterials | Year: 2014

The use of poly(propylenimine) (PPI) dendrimers as gene delivery vectors is limited by their low transfection efficacy and serious cytotoxicity. In this study, we prepare a series of efficient and low cytotoxic gene vectors based on PPI dendrimers using a facile fluorination strategy. Fluorinated G3, G4, and G5 PPI dendrimers show comparable or superior transfection efficacies to six representative transfection reagents such as Lipofectamine 2000, jetPEI, branched poly(ethyleneimine), SuperFect, PolyFect, as well as arginine-modified dendrimer on both HEK293 and HeLa cells. These fluorinated PPI dendrimers exhibit low cytotoxicity on the transfected cells because they achieve optimal transfection efficacy at extremely low nitrogen to phosphorus (N/P) ratios. In addition, the synthesized materials show high transfection efficacy on 3D multicellular spheroids. These results demonstrate that fluorination is a promising strategy to improve the transfection efficacy of PPI dendrimers while reducing the cytotoxicity of these cationic polymers. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Chen W.,Shanghai University | Zhang Y.,East China Normal University | Li J.,Shanghai University | Lou X.,Shanghai University | And 4 more authors.
Chemical Communications | Year: 2013

A novel positively charged pillar[6]arene derivative bearing twelve pyridinium moieties has been synthesized. Its efficient complexation behavior towards two anionic naphthalenesulfonate substrates in aqueous media is described. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Huang X.,Peking University | Li X.,Peking University | Zou M.,Peking University | Song S.,Peking University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2014

The Cu-catalyzed aerobic oxidative esterification of simple ketones via C-C bond cleavage has been developed. Varieties of common ketones, even inactive aryl long-chain alkyl ketones, are selectively converted into esters. The reaction tolerates a wide range of alcohols, including primary and secondary alcohols, chiral alcohols with retention of the configuration, electron-deficient phenols, as well as various natural alcohols. The usage of inexpensive copper catalyst, broad substrate scope, and neutral and open air conditions make this protocol very practical. 18O labeling experiments reveal that oxygenation occurs during this transformation. Preliminary mechanism studies indicate that two novel pathways are mainly involved in this process. (Chemical Equation Presented) © 2014 American Chemical Society.

Li Z.-Y.,East China Normal University | Zhang Y.,East China Normal University | Zhang C.-W.,East China Normal University | Chen L.-J.,East China Normal University | And 5 more authors.
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2014

A new family of discrete hexakis-pillar[5]arene metallacycles with different sizes have been successfully prepared via coordination-driven self-assembly, which presented very few successful examples of preparation of discrete multiple pillar[n]arene derivatives. These newly designed hexakis-pillar[5]arene metallacycles were well characterized with one-dimensional (1-D) multinuclear NMR (1H and 31 P NMR), two-dimensional (2-D) 1H-1H COSY and NOESY, ESI-TOF-MS, elemental analysis, and PM6 semiempirical molecular orbital methods. Furthermore, the host-guest complexation of such hexakis-pillar[5]arene hosts with a series of different neutral ditopic guests G1-6 were well investigated. Through host-guest interactions of hexakis-pillar[5]arene metallacycles H2 or H3 with the neutral dinitrile guest G5, the cross-linked supramolecular polymers H2⊃(G5)3 or H3⊃(G5)3 were successfully constructed at the high-concentration region, respectively. Interestingly, these cross-linked supramolecular polymers transformed into the stable supramolecular gels upon increasing the concentrations to a relatively high level. More importantly, by taking advantage of the dynamic nature of metal-ligand bonds and host-guest interactions, the reversible multiple stimuli-responsive gel-sol phase transitions of such polymer gels were successfully realized under different stimuli, such as temperature, halide, and competitive guest, etc. The mechanism of such multiple stimuli-responsive processes was well illustrated by in situ multinuclear NMR investigation. This research not only provides a highly efficient approach to the preparation of discrete multiple pillar[n]arene derivatives but also presents a new family of multiple stimuli-responsive "smart" soft matters. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

Li M.,East China Normal University | Zhao W.,University of Macau
Mathematical Problems in Engineering | Year: 2012

Reliable distinguishing DDOS flood traffic from aggregated traffic is desperately desired by reliable prevention of DDOS attacks. By reliable distinguishing, we mean that flood traffic can be distinguished from aggregated one for a predetermined probability. The basis to reliably distinguish flood traffic from aggregated one is reliable detection of signs of DDOS flood attacks. As is known, reliably distinguishing DDOS flood traffic from aggregated traffic becomes a tough task mainly due to the effects of flash-crowd traffic. For this reason, this paper studies reliable detection in the underlying DiffServ network to use static-priority schedulers. In this network environment, we present a method for reliable detection of signs of DDOS flood attacks for a given class with a given priority. There are two assumptions introduced in this study. One is that flash-crowd traffic does not have all priorities but some. The other is that attack traffic has all priorities in all classes, otherwise an attacker cannot completely achieve its DDOS goal. Further, we suppose that the protected site is equipped with a sensor that has a signature library of the legitimate traffic with the priorities flash-crowd traffic does not have. Based on those, we are able to reliably distinguish attack traffic from aggregated traffic with the priorities that flash-crowd traffic does not have according to a given detection probability.

Liu Q.,Fudan University | Sun Y.,Fudan University | Li C.,Fudan University | Zhou J.,Fudan University | And 5 more authors.
ACS Nano | Year: 2011

A novel method of rare-earth cation-assisted ligand assembly has been developed to provide upconversion nanophosphors with T1-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR), radioactivity, and targeted recognition properties, making these nanoparticles potential candidates for multimodal bioimaging. The process of modifying the surface of the nanophosphors has been confirmed by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, proton nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, and so on. The versatility of this surface modification approach for incorporating functional molecules and fabricating fluorine-18-labeled magnetic-upconversion nanophosphors as multimodal bioprobes has been demonstrated by targeted cell imaging, in vivo upconversion luminescence, MR imaging, and positron emission tomography imaging of whole-body small animals. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

Zhu C.,East China Normal University | Huang G.,East China Normal University | Huang G.,Zhejiang Normal University
Optics Express | Year: 2011

We propose a scheme to generate superluminal optical solitons in a four-level atomic system with two control fields via an active Raman gain. We derive a modified nonlinear Schr̈dinger equation with high-order corrections contributed from linear and differential absorption, nonlinear dispersion, and delay response of nonlinear refractive index of the system. We predict various optical solitons in different regimes of system parameters, and show that these optical solitons have superluminal propagating velocity and very low generation power. © 2011 Optical Society of America.

Dong G.,Zhejiang Normal University | DeVito E.E.,Yale University | Du X.,East China Normal University | Cui Z.,East China Normal University
Psychiatry Research - Neuroimaging | Year: 2012

'Internet addiction disorder' (IAD) is rapidly becoming a prevalent mental health concern in many countries around the world. The neurobiological underpinnings of internet addiction should be studied to unravel the potential heterogeneity in the disorder. The present study examines the neural correlates of response inhibition in males with and without IAD using an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) Stroop task. The IAD group demonstrated significantly greater 'Stroop effect'-related activity in the anterior and posterior cingulate cortices compared with their healthy peers. These results may suggest diminished efficiency of response-inhibition processes in the IAD group relative to healthy controls. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Li M.,East China Normal University | Li M.,University of Macau | Lim S.C.,Multimedia University | Cattani C.,University of Salerno | Scalia M.,University of Rome La Sapienza
Advances in High Energy Physics | Year: 2013

The fundamental theorem of algebra determines the number of characteristic roots of an ordinary differential equation of integer order. This may cease to be true for a differential equation of fractional order. The results given in this paper suggest that the number of the characteristic roots of a class of oscillators of fractional order may in general be infinitely great. Further, we infer that it may also be the case for the characteristic roots of a differential equation of fractional order greater than 1. The relationship between the range of the fractional order and the locations of characteristic roots of oscillators in the complex plane is considered. © 2013 Ming Li et al.

Dong G.,Zhejiang Normal University | DeVito E.,Yale University | Huang J.,Zhejiang Normal University | Du X.,East China Normal University
Journal of Psychiatric Research | Year: 2012

Internet gaming addiction (IGA) is increasingly recognized as a widespread disorder with serious psychological and health consequences. Diminished white matter integrity has been demonstrated in a wide range of other addictive disorders which share clinical characteristics with IGA. Abnormal white matter integrity in addictive populations has been associated with addiction severity, treatment response and cognitive impairments. This study assessed white matter integrity in individuals with internet gaming addiction (IGA) using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). IGA subjects (N = 16) showed higher fractional anisotropy (FA), indicating greater white matter integrity, in the thalamus and left posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) relative to healthy controls (N = 15). Higher FA in the thalamus was associated with greater severity of internet addiction. Increased regional FA in individuals with internet gaming addiction may be a pre-existing vulnerability factor for IGA, or may arise secondary to IGA, perhaps as a direct result of excessive internet game playing. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Li M.,East China Normal University | Zhao W.,University of Macau
Advances in High Energy Physics | Year: 2013

The golden ratio is an astonishing number in high-energy physics, neutrino physics, and cosmology. The Kolmogorov -5/3 law plays a role in describing energy transfer of random data or random functions. The contributions of this essay are in twofold. One is to express the Kolmogorov -5/3 law by using the golden ratio. The other is to represent the fractal dimension of random data following the Kolmogorov -5/3 law with the golden ratio. It is our hope that this essay may be helpful to provide a new outlook of the Kolmogorov -5/3 law from the point of view of the golden ratio. © 2013 Ming Li and Wei Zhao.

Zhang C.,Peking University | Jiao N.,Peking University | Jiao N.,East China Normal University
Organic Chemistry Frontiers | Year: 2014

A novel and efficient approach to α-ketoesters has been developed with wide functional group tolerance. This copper-catalyzed oxidative dehydrogenative coupling reaction of alcohols and α-carbonyl aldehydes employs air as the oxidant and generates H2O as the only by-product. Broad substrate scope, high atom economy and mild reaction conditions make this chemistry very practical. © 2015 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Zhao Y.,East China Normal University | Jiangyong H.,National University of Singapore | Chen H.,Tongji University
Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry | Year: 2010

β-FeOOH loaded resin (β-FeOOH/resin) was synthesized through in situ hydrolysis of Fe(III)-exchanged resin and its physiochemical properties were characterized. The typical environmental endocrine disruptor, natural hormone 17β-estradiol (E2) was removed by heterogeneous photo-Fenton reaction in presence of β-FeOOH/resin and H2O2 under weak UV irradiation. E2 degradation was effectively achieved by hydroxyl radicals that were generated in the heterogeneous photo-Fenton process. pH was an important factor that affected efficiency of E2 degradation and catalyst's surface activity which were determined by X-ray photoelectron spectrum (XPS). The mechanical stability and photo activity of β-FeOOH/resin were tested by several cycles of photo catalytic degradation and FTIR. The reduction of estrogenicity of E2 would be very important to the safety of treated water so as to avoid secondary pollution. It seems that the heterogeneous Fenton oxidation would be a promising method to eliminate the steroid estrogenic compounds. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Zhang C.,Peking University | Jiao N.,Peking University | Jiao N.,East China Normal University
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2010

In the air tonight: A novel approach to symmetric and unsymmetric aromatic azo compounds from simple anilines catalyzed by inexpensive CuBr has been disclosed. Air (or dioxygen) was used as an oxidant under mild reaction conditions, with H2O as the byproduct, to make this transformation environmentally benign and very easy to handle. © 2010 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Tinsley B.A.,University of Texas at Dallas | Zhou L.,University of Texas at Dallas | Zhou L.,East China Normal University
Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology | Year: 2014

Fletcher's simple model for the electric force between charged conducting spheres (with reference to cloud droplets) is compared with an exact model and also with another approximate model. His results for the charge ratio as a function of the distance at which the force of attraction changes to one of repulsion differs from that of the other treatments by a factor of 4 at large separations (where the effects of approximations should be negligible) and by a factor of 8 at small separations. The reasons for the discrepancy are explored, and the other treatments are found to be reliable. The attractive force is present for a much larger range of separations, and for more meteorologically plausible charge ratios, than in Fletcher's results. The general results are discussed in the context of confounding effects of droplet inertia, which is the dominant factor in collisions unless there are very high droplet charges. Inertia is much less important for collisions of charged aerosol particles and cloud droplets, and an important application of models of electric-force calculations is in electrically enhanced scavenging in clouds that are weakly charged by current flow in the global atmospheric electric circuit. © 2014 American Meteorological Society.

Zhang Y.,Beijing Normal University | Linlin X.,Beijing Normal University | Weining X.,East China Normal University
Landscape and Urban Planning | Year: 2014

Analyzing the spatial pattern of a city's carbon metabolism can provide insights into the spatial adjustments required to mitigate the greenhouse effect. Using GIS software and empirical coefficients, we analyzed the spatial distribution of Beijing's carbon metabolism in 5 years (1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2008), and analyzed both temporal and spatial changes in this pattern. Our results highlight the importance of the expansion of built-up areas in defining the patterns of Beijing's carbon metabolism, and let us explore options for changing these patterns. Carbon emission was high in the highly urbanized southeastern parts of the city and low in the less-urbanized northwestern parts, whereas carbon sequestration showed the opposite pattern (low in southeastern parts and high in northwestern parts). During the study period, carbon sequestration only offset 2.4% of carbon emission, indicating a serious imbalance of the city's carbon metabolism. The city's core built-up area expanded along eight axes, and its form fluctuated between simpler and more complex. From a small-scale perspective, the spatial pattern mainly showed expansion and aggregation of patches with high carbon emission and shrinkage and fragmentation of patches with high carbon sequestration. These results provide insights that will guide the development of more effective management of the spatial patterns of carbon emission and sequestration. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Wan X.,Nanjing University | Wan X.,University of California at Davis | Ding H.-C.,East China Normal University | Savrasov S.Y.,University of California at Davis | And 2 more authors.
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2013

We discuss the electronic structure, lattice dynamics, and electron-phonon interaction of the newly discovered superconductor LaO0.5F 0.5BiS2 using density-functional-based calculations. A strong Fermi surface nesting at k=(π,π,0) suggests a proximity to charge-density-wave instability and leads to imaginary harmonic phonons at this k point associated with in-plane displacements of S atoms. Total energy analysis resolves only a shallow double-well potential well preventing the appearance of static long-range order. Both harmonic and anharmonic contributions to electron-phonon coupling are evaluated and give a total coupling constant 0.85, prompting this material to be a conventional superconductor contrary to structurally similar FeAs materials. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Wu J.,Beijing Normal University | Wu J.,Arizona State University | Wei-Ning Xiang,East China Normal University | Wei-Ning Xiang,University of North Carolina at Charlotte | Zhao J.,Chinese Institute of Urban Environment
Landscape and Urban Planning | Year: 2014

China has the largest population and the longest urban development history in the world, with primitive cities first occurring along the Yellow River in northern China more than 4000 years ago. After a long period of stagnation during recent centuries, urbanization has revived again in China since the economic reform in 1978. Strongly influenced by national land use policy and the history of urbanization after 1949, China's urban ecology has gone through three development periods: the emergent period (1983-1989), the early growth period (1990-1999), and the rapid development period (2000-present). In this paper, we first provide a historical review of urbanization and urban ecology in China; based on this retrospective analysis, we further identify the main characteristics of, and missing links in, China's urban ecological research; and finally we suggest future research directions. The amount and scope of research in urban ecology and environment conducted in China since the 1980s are impressive. Not only did Chinese scholars import Western ideas to develop urban ecological science, but also they have promoted a holistic, use-inspired, transdisciplinary philosophy for studying and managing urban systems - which has unique Chinese characteristics. After more than 5000 years of being predominantly agrarian, China is now urban, and will become only more urban in the future. This continued fast urbanization makes China a living laboratory for studying urbanization, and China's urban ecology seems poised to make strides in the coming decades. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Liu X.,Southwest University for Nationalities | Liu X.,University of Electronic Science and Technology of China | Yu W.,East China Normal University | Wang L.,Peking University
IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control | Year: 2010

This note addresses the stability problem of continuous-time positive systems with time-varying delays. It is shown that such a system is asymptotically stable for any continuous and bounded delay if and only if the sum of all the system matrices is a Hurwitz matrix. The result is a time-varying version of the widely-known asymptotic stability criterion for constant-delay positive systems. A numerical example illustrates the correctness of our result. © 2006 IEEE.

Li M.,East China Normal University | Zhao W.,University of Macau
IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems | Year: 2010

This paper presents a theoretical representation of a stochastic traffic bound (σ′, ρ′) that consists of two items, the burstiness bound σ′ and the bound of long-term average rate ρ′. The novelty of the suggested representation is that the burstiness bound and the bound of long-term average rate are separately connected to the fractal dimension D that is the measure of the local self-similarity together with the small-scale factor r and the Hurst parameter H that is the measure of the long-range dependence (LRD) together with the large-scale factor a of traffic. More precisely, we obtain σ′ = r2D-5 σ and ρ′ = a-H ρ, where σ is the conventional bound of burstiness and ρ the conventional bound of long-term average rate, respectively. Thus, the present bound (σ′, ρ′) takes the conventional bound, say (σ, ρ), as a special case when r = 1 and a = 1. Hence, the proposed representation provides us with a flexible way to tighten a traffic bound. Since we study the stochastically bounded modeling of traffic by taking into account the parameters in stochastic modeling, namely, D, H, r, and a, as well as the parameters in the deterministic modeling of traffic, i.e., σ and ρ, a new outlook regarding the stochastically bounded modeling of traffic is revealed. In addition, we open a problem to estimate r and a with respect to the possible applications of the proposed bound to the practice. © 2010 IEEE.

Li J.,East China Normal University | Li J.,Shanghai Key Laboratory of Urbanization and Ecological Restoration | Song C.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Cao L.,East China Normal University | And 3 more authors.
Remote Sensing of Environment | Year: 2011

Urbanization is taking place at an unprecedented rate around the world, particularly in China in the past few decades. One of the key impacts of rapid urbanization on the environment is the effect of urban heat island (UHI). Understanding the effects of landscape pattern on UHI is crucial for improving the ecology and sustainability of cities. This study investigated how landscape composition and configuration would affect UHI in the Shanghai metropolitan region of China, based on the analysis of land surface temperature (LST) in relation to normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), vegetation fraction (Fv), and percent impervious surface area (ISA). Two Landsat ETM+ images acquired on March 13 and July 2, 2001 were used to estimate LST, Fv, and percent ISA. Landscape metrics were calculated from a high spatial resolution (2.5 × 2.5. m) land-cover/land-use map. Our results have showed that, although there are significant variations in LST at a given fraction of vegetation or impervious surface on a per-pixel basis, NDVI, Fv, and percent ISA are all good predictors of LST on the regional scale. There is a strong negative linear relationship between LST and positive NDVI over the region. Similar but stronger negative linear relationship exists between LST and Fv. Urban vegetation could mitigate the surface UHI better in summer than in early spring. A strong positive relationship exists between mean LST and percent ISA. The residential land is the biggest contributor to UHI, followed by industrial land. Although industrial land has the highest LST, it has limited contribution to the overall surface UHI due to its small spatial extend in Shanghai. Among the residential land-uses, areas with low- to-middle-rise buildings and low vegetation cover have much high temperatures than areas with high-rise buildings or areas with high vegetation cover. A strong correlation between the mean LST and landscape metrics indicates that urban landscape configuration also influences the surface UHI. These findings are helpful for understanding urban ecology as well as land use planning to minimize the potential environmental impacts of urbanization. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

Yang F.,Shanghai University | Li B.,East China Normal University
Visual Computer | Year: 2012

Learning from unlabeled images that contain various objects that change in pose, scale, and degree of occlusion is a challenging task in computer vision. Shared structures embody the consistence and coherence of features that repeatedly cooccur at an object class. They can be used as discriminative information to separate the various objects contained in unlabeled images. In this paper, we propose a maximum likelihood algorithm for unsupervised shared structure learning, where shared structures are represented as the strongly connected clusters of consistent pairwise relationships and shared structures of different order are learned through exploring and combining consistent pairwise spatial relationships. Two routines of sampling data, namely densely sampling and sparsely sampling, are also discussed in our work. We test our algorithm on a diverse set of data to verify its merits. © Springer-Verlag 2011.

Li H.-J.,Zhejiang Normal University | Li H.-J.,East China Normal University | Dou J.P.,Zhejiang Normal University | Huang G.,East China Normal University
Optics Express | Year: 2013

We propose a scheme to realize parity-time (PT) symmetry via electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). The system we consider is an ensemble of cold four-level atoms with an EIT core. We show that the cross-phase modulation contributed by an assisted field, the optical lattice potential provided by a far-detuned laser field, and the optical gain resulted from an incoherent pumping can be used to construct a PT-symmetric complex optical potential for probe field propagation in a controllable way. Comparing with previous study, the present scheme uses only a single atomic species and hence is easy for the physical realization of PT-symmetric Hamiltonian via atomic coherence. © 2013 Optical Society of America.

Hang C.,East China Normal University | Huang G.,East China Normal University
Optics Letters | Year: 2013

We propose a scheme of creating a tunable highly nonlinear defect in a one-dimensional photonic crystal. The defect consists of an atomic cell filled in with two isotopes of three-level atoms. The probe-field refractive index of the defect can be made parity-time (PT) symmetric, which is achieved by proper combination of a control field and of Stark shifts induced by a far-off-resonance field. In the PT-symmetric system, families of stable nonlinear defect modes can be formed by the probe field. © 2013 Optical Society of America.

Fang T.,Shanghai University | Tan Q.,Shanghai University | Ding Z.,Shanghai University | Liu B.,Shanghai University | And 3 more authors.
Organic Letters | Year: 2014

An efficient palladium-catalyzed oxidative annulation reaction was developed through sequential isocyanide insertions into N-H and O-H bonds of hydrazides, which provides an efficient access to valuable 2-amino-1,3,4- oxadiazoles and their derivatives. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

Li G.,Shanghai University | Ding Z.,Shanghai University | Xu B.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry | Xu B.,East China Normal University
Organic Letters | Year: 2012

An efficient rhodium-catalyzed tandem C-H bond olefination and annulation approach was developed to afford 1,2-dihydrophthalazines in good to excellent yields from easily accessible sulfonylhydrazones and alkenes. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Chen F.,Peking University | Shen T.,Peking University | Cui Y.,Peking University | Jiao N.,Peking University | Jiao N.,East China Normal University
Organic Letters | Year: 2012

A novel and efficient copper or nickel catalyzed highly selective denitrogenative annulation of vinyl azides with aryl acetaldehydes has been developed. 2,4- and 3,4-diaryl substituted pyrroles, which are difficult to synthesize by the reported methods, can be highly regioselectively prepared by this protocol simply switched by the selection of the transition metal catalysts. Compared with the reported acidic or basic conditions for polysubstituted pyrrole synthesis, the present reaction conditions are mild, neutral, and very simple without any additives. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Xu S.,Shanghai University | Huang X.,Shanghai University | Hong X.,Shanghai University | Xu B.,Shanghai University | And 2 more authors.
Organic Letters | Year: 2012

A palladium-catalyzed regioselective C-H cyanation of heteroarenes was achieved using tert-butyl isocyanide as "CN" source, which provides a new and unique strategy for the preparation of (hetero)aryl nitriles. Indoles, pyrroles, and aromatic rings could be efficiently cyanated through C-H bond activation with high regioselectivity. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Zhang C.,Peking University | Xu Z.,Peking University | Zhang L.,Peking University | Jiao N.,Peking University | Jiao N.,East China Normal University
Tetrahedron | Year: 2012

A novel Et 3N-catalyzed oxidative dehydrogenative coupling of α-unsubstituted carbonyl compounds with aryl diamines leading to quinoxaline derivatives using molecular oxygen as oxidant has been developed. Six hydrogen dissociations involving 2 sp 3 C-H bonds activation are realized under mild conditions in this approach. Plausible mechanism is proposed for this novel Et 3N-catalyzed transformation on the basis of the aboratively designed mechanistic studies including the radical detection by EPR. ©2012 Elsevier Science. All rights reserved. © 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Dai Z.,East China Normal University | Liu J.T.,National Sun Yat - sen University | Fu G.,Yangtze Estuary Waterway Administration Bureau | Xie H.,East China Normal University
Geomorphology | Year: 2013

The mouths of major rivers in the world have always been important waterways and as a result, subject to significant human intervention. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the coupling of natural processes and human intervention in the sediment movement and deposition to determine long-term morphodynamic evolution in the mouth regions of major rivers. A multivariate technique was used to analyze high-resolution bathymetric data from the North Passage of Changjiang (Yangtze River), which is the vital shipping channel in the mouth region and for the entire Changjiang waterway. Our findings show that there are two modes of bathymetric changes. The first mode represents 85% of the variability, which includes the deposition in the peripheral groin fields along the shipping channel and deepening of the shipping channel, which is primarily due to the channel maintenance. The second mode represents 6% of the variability of the river-mouth shoal (seaward migration and size reduction), attributable to the declining sediment discharge of the Changjiang due to the Three Gorges Dam, and the enhancement of the ebb flow as the result of dredging. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Li M.,East China Normal University | Zhao W.,University of Macau | Cattani C.,University of Salerno
Mathematical Problems in Engineering | Year: 2013

Delay analysis plays a role in real-time systems in computer communication networks. This paper gives our results in the aspect of delay analysis of fractal traffic passing through servers. There are three contributions presented in this paper. First, we will explain the reasons why conventional theory of queuing systems ceases in the general sense when arrival traffic is fractal. Then, we will propose a concise method of delay computation for hard real-time systems as shown in this paper. Finally, the delay computation of fractal traffic passing through severs is presented. © 2013 Ming Li et al.

Ou Y.,Peking University | Jiao N.,Peking University | Jiao N.,East China Normal University
Chemical Communications | Year: 2013

A novel A21-CuI catalyzed direct nitrogenation of biphenyl halides for the direct synthesis of carbazoles via a direct C-H amination process has been developed. A recyclable and inexpensive Cu-catalyst was successfully employed in N-heterocyclic compound synthesis via tandem azidation and C-H amination, which makes this protocol very practical and easy to handle. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Li C.,Shanghai University | Li C.,Fudan University | Ma J.,Shanghai University | Zhao L.,Shanghai University | And 5 more authors.
Chemical Communications | Year: 2013

Highly selective binding of basic amino acids, i.e. lysine, arginine, and histidine, by a negatively charged carboxylatopillar[5]arene (CP5A) is reported. And the complexation behavior of the CP5A host towards lysine metabolites including cadaverine (Cad), acetyl-l-lysine (AcLys) and trimethyl-l-lysine (TMLys) is also described. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2013.

Hang C.,East China Normal University | Hang C.,University of Lisbon | Huang G.,East China Normal University | Huang G.,Zhejiang Normal University
Optics Express | Year: 2010

We consider an active-Raman-gain scheme for realizing giant Kerr nonlinearity and superluminal optical solitons in a four-state atomic system with a gain doublet. We show that this scheme, which is fundamentally different from those based on electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT), is capable of working at room temperature and eliminating nearly all attenuation and distortion. We demonstrate that, due to the appearance of a gain spectrum hole induced by the quantum interference effect induced by a signal field, a significant enhancement of Kerr nonlinearity of probe field can be realized effectively, which can be more than ten times larger than that arrived by the EIT-based scheme with the same energy-level configuration. Based on these important features, we obtain a giant cross-phase modulation effect and hence a stable long-distance propagation of optical solitons, which have superluminal propagating velocity and very low generating power. © 2010 Optical Society of America.

Wang L.,National University of Singapore | Huang J.,National University of Singapore | Peng S.,National University of Singapore | Liu H.,East China Normal University | And 2 more authors.
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2013

Rings beget rings: Benzazepines, well-known structural design elements in medicinal chemistry, are readily prepared by a one-pot palladium-catalyzed oxidative cycloaddition of isatins with various alkynes. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Xiao N.,East China Normal University | Li H.,East China Normal University | Luo J.,East China Normal University | Wang R.,Fudan University | And 3 more authors.
Biochemical Journal | Year: 2012

TRAF [TNF (tumour necrosis factor)-receptor-associated factor] 2 and 6 are essential adaptor proteins for the NF-κB (nuclear factor κB) signalling pathway, which play important roles in inflammation and immune response. Polyubiquitination of TRAF2 and TRAF6 is critical to their activities and functions in TNFα- and IL (interleukin)-1β-induced NF-κB activation. However, the regulation of TRAF2 and TRAF6 by deubiquitination remains incompletely understood. In the present study, we identified USP (ubiquitin-specific protease) 4 as a novel deubiquitinase targeting TRAF2 and TRAF6 for deubiquitination. We found that USP4 specifically interacts with TRAF2 and TRAF6, but not TRAF3. Moreover, USP4 associates with TRAF6 both in vitro and in vivo, independent of its deubiquitinase activity. The USP domain is responsible for USP4 to interact with TRAF6. Ectopic expression of USP4 inhibits the TRAF2- and TRAF6-stimulated NF-κB reporter gene and negatively regulates the TNFα-induced IκBα (inhibitor of NF-κBα) degradation and NF-κB activation. Knockdown of USP4 significantly increased TNFα-induced cytokine expression. Furthermore, we found that USP4 deubiquitinates both TRAF2 and TRAF6 in vivo and in vitro in a deubiquitinase activity-dependent manner. Importantly, the results of the present study showed that USP4 is a negative regulator of TNFα- and IL-1β-induced cancer cell migration. Taken together, the present study provides a novel insight into the regulation of the NF-κB signalling pathway and uncovers a previously unknown function of USP4 in cancer. © The Authors Journal compilation © 2012 Biochemical Society.

Liu Y.,East China Normal University | Li Z.,Shanghai University | Zhang M.,University of Sichuan | Deng Y.,Rush University Medical Center | And 2 more authors.
BMC Medical Genomics | Year: 2013

Background: Schizophrenia (SCZ) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) are both complex diseases. Accumulated studies indicate that schizophrenia patients are prone to present the type 2 diabetes symptoms, but the potential mechanisms behind their association remain unknown. Here we explored the pathogenetic association between SCZ and T2D based on pathway analysis and protein-protein interaction. Results: With sets of prioritized susceptibility genes for SCZ and T2D, we identified significant pathways (with adjusted p-value < 0.05) specific for SCZ or T2D and for both diseases based on pathway enrichment analysis. We also constructed a network to explore the crosstalk among those significant pathways. Our results revealed that some pathways are shared by both SCZ and T2D diseases through a number of susceptibility genes. With 382 unique susceptibility proteins for SCZ and T2D, we further built a protein-protein interaction network by extracting their nearest interacting neighbours. Among 2,104 retrieved proteins, 364 of them were found simultaneously interacted with susceptibility proteins of both SCZ and T2D, and proposed as new candidate risk factors for both diseases. Literature mining supported the potential association of partial new candidate proteins with both SCZ and T2D. Moreover, some proteins were hub proteins with high connectivity and interacted with multiple proteins involved in both diseases, implying their pleiotropic effects for the pathogenic association. Some of these hub proteins are the components of our identified enriched pathways, including calcium signaling, g-secretase mediated ErbB4 signaling, adipocytokine signaling, insulin signaling, AKT signaling and type II diabetes mellitus pathways. Through the integration of multiple lines of information, we proposed that those signaling pathways, which contain susceptibility genes for both diseases, could be the key pathways to bridge SCZ and T2D. AKT could be one of the important shared components and may play a pivotal role to link both of the pathogenetic processes. Conclusions: Our study is the first network and pathway-based systematic analysis for SCZ and T2D, and provides the general pathway-based view of pathogenetic association between two diseases. Moreover, we identified a set of candidate genes potentially contributing to the linkage between these two diseases. This research offers new insights into the potential mechanisms underlying the co-occurrence of SCZ and T2D, and thus, could facilitate the inference of novel hypotheses for the co-morbidity of the two diseases. Some etiological factors that exert pleiotropic effects shared by the significant pathways of two diseases may have important implications for the diseases and could be therapeutic intervention targets. © 2013 Liu et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Su Y.,Peking University | Sun X.,Peking University | Wu G.,Peking University | Jiao N.,Peking University | Jiao N.,East China Normal University
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2013

Oxygen? That's radical! A method for the direct synthesis of substituted alcohols, ketones, and diketones through a catalyst-controlled highly chemoselective coupling and oxygenation of olefins has been developed. The method is simple and practical, can be switched by the selection of different catalysts, and employs molecular oxygen as both an oxidant and a reagent. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Cao L.,East China Normal University | Zheng Y.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Zheng Y.,Shanghai University | Zhou Q.,East China Normal University
IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control | Year: 2011

The average consensus problem of continuous-time agents in undirected time-varying networks is studied. The network is allowed to be disconnected. A notion called infinite integral connectivity is proposed. Based on the notion, a necessary and sufficient condition for achieving consensus is given. That is, when the network topology is described by an undirected time-varying graph G(t), the agents achieve consensus if and only if the infinite integral graph of G(t) over [0,∞) is connected. This criterion does not hold for directed networks. © 2010 IEEE.

Li L.,East China Normal University | Huang G.,East China Normal University | Huang G.,Zhejiang Normal University
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2010

We present a systematic theoretical study to deal with linear and nonlinear light propagations in a Doppler-broadened three-level Λ system via electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT), with incoherent population exchange between two lower energy levels taken into account. Through a careful analysis of base state and linear excitation, we show that the EIT condition of the system is given by |Ωc|2γ31 2γ21ΔωD2, where Ωc is half the Rabi frequency of the control field, ΔωD is the Doppler width, and γjl is the decay rate of the coherence between states |j and|l. Under this condition, the effect of incoherent population exchange is insignificant, while dephasing dominates the decoherence of the system. This condition also ensures the validity of the weak nonlinear perturbation theory used in this work for solving the Maxwell-Bloch equations with inhomogeneous broadening. We then investigate the nonlinear propagation of the probe field and show that it is possible to form temporal optical solitons in the Doppler-broadened medium. Such solitons have ultraslow propagating velocity and can be generated in very low light power. The possibility of realizing (1+1)-dimensional and (2+1)-dimensional spatial optical solitons in the adiabatic regime of the system is also discussed. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

Zhou J.,Fudan University | Yu M.,Fudan University | Sun Y.,Fudan University | Zhang X.,Beijing Normal University | And 4 more authors.
Biomaterials | Year: 2011

Molecular imaging modalities provide a wealth of information that is highly complementary and rarely redundant. To combine the advantages of molecular imaging techniques, 18F-labeled Gd3+/Yb3+/Er3+ co-doped NaYF4 nanophosphors (NPs) simultaneously possessing with radioactivity, magnetic, and upconversion luminescent properties have been fabricated for multimodality positron emission tomography (PET), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and laser scanning upconversion luminescence (UCL) imaging. Hydrophilic citrate-capped NaY0.2Gd0.6Yb0.18Er0.02F4 nanophosphors (cit-NPs) were obtained from hydrophobic oleic acid (OA)-coated nanoparticles (OA-NPs) through a process of ligand exchange of OA with citrate, and were found to be monodisperse with an average size of 22 × 19 nm. The obtained hexagonal cit-NPs show intense UCL emission in the visible region and paramagnetic longitudinal relaxivity (r1 = 0.405 s-1·(mM)-1). Through a facile inorganic reaction based on the strong binding between Y3+ and F-, 18F-labeled NPs have been fabricated in high yield. The use of cit-NPs as a multimodal probe has been further explored for T1-weighted MR and PET imaging in vivo and UCL imaging of living cells and tissue slides. The results indicate that 18F-labeled NaY0.2Gd0.6Yb0.18Er0.02 is a potential candidate as a multimodal nanoprobe for ultra-sensitive molecular imaging from the cellular scale to whole-body evaluation. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Li M.,East China Normal University | Zhao W.,University of Macau
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine | Year: 2012

Network calculus is a theory initiated primarily in computer communication networks, especially in the aspect of real-time communications, where min-plus algebra plays a role. Cyber-physical networking systems (CPNSs) are recently developing fast and models in data flows as well as systems in CPNS are, accordingly, greatly desired. Though min-plus algebra may be a promising tool to linearize any node in CPNS as can be seen from its applications to the Internet computing, there are tough problems remaining unsolved in this regard. The identity in min-plus algebra is one problem we shall address. We shall point out the confusions about the conventional identity in the min-plus algebra and present an analytical expression of the asymptotic identity that may not cause confusions. Copyright © 2012 Ming Li and Wei Zhao.

Li M.,East China Normal University | Zhao W.,University of Macau
Mathematical Problems in Engineering | Year: 2012

Cyber-physical networking systems (CPNSs) are made up of various physical systems that are heterogeneous in nature. Therefore, exploring universalities in CPNSs for either data or systems is desired in its fundamental theory. This paper is in the aspect of data, aiming at addressing that power laws may yet be a universality of data in CPNSs. The contributions of this paper are in triple folds. First, we provide a short tutorial about power laws. Then, we address the power laws related to some physical systems. Finally, we discuss that power-law-type data may be governed by stochastically differential equations of fractional order. As a side product, we present the point of view that the upper bound of data flow at large-time scaling and the small one also follows power laws.

Chen H.,Shanghai University | Fan J.,Shanghai University | Hu X.,East China Normal University | Ma J.,Shanghai University | And 6 more authors.
Chemical Science | Year: 2015

To design and exploit novel macrocyclic synthetic receptors is a permanent and challenging topic in supramolecular chemistry. Here we describe the one-pot synthesis, unique geometries and intriguing host-guest properties of a new class of supramolecular macrocycles-biphen[n]arenes (n = 3, 4), which are made up of 4,4′-biphenol or 4,4′-biphenol ether units linked by methylene bridges at the 3- and 3′- positions. The biphenarene macrocycles are conveniently accessible/modifiable and extremely guest-friendly. Particularly, biphen[4]arene is capable of forming inclusion complexes with not only organic cationic guests but also neutral π-electron deficient molecules. Compared with calixarenes, resorcinarenes, cyclotriveratrylenes and pillararenes with substituted mono-benzene units, the biphen[n]arenes reported here possess significantly different characteristics in both their topologic structures and their recognition properties, and thus can find broad applications in supramolecular chemistry and other areas. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015.

Li M.,East China Normal University | Zhao W.,University of Macau
Mathematical Problems in Engineering | Year: 2012

Due to the fact that 1 / f noise gains the increasing interests in the field of biomedical signal processing and living systems, we present this introductive survey that may suffice to exhibit the elementary and the particularities of 1 / f noise in comparison with conventional random functions. Three theorems are given for highlighting the particularities of 1 / f noise. The first says that a random function with long-range dependence (LRD) is a 1 / f noise. The secondindicates that a heavy-tailed random function is in the class of 1 / f noise. The third provides a type of stochastic differential equations that produce 1 / f noise. © 2012 Ming Li and Wei Zhao.

Xu K.,East China Normal University | Zhang H.,East China Normal University | Blumwald E.,University of California at Davis | Xia T.,East China Normal University
Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2010

Plant vacuolar Na+/H+ antiporters play important roles in maintaining cellular ion homeostasis and mediating the transport of Na+ out of the cytosol and into the vacuole. Vacuolar antiporters have been shown to play significant roles in salt tolerance; however the relatively low Vmax of the Na+/H+ exchange of the Na+/H+ antiporters identified could limit its application in the molecular breeding of salt tolerant crops. In this study, we applied DNA shuffling methodology to generate and recombine the mutations of Arabidopsis thaliana vacuolar Na+/H+ antiporter gene AtNHX1. Screening using a large scale yeast complementation system identified AtNHXS1, a novel Na+/H+ antiporter. Expression of AtNHXS1 in yeast showed that the antiporter localized to the vacuolar membrane and that its expression improved the tolerance of yeast to NaCl, KCl, LiCl, and hygromycin B. Measurements of the ion transport activity across the intact yeast vacuole demonstrated that the AtNHXS1 protein showed higher Na +/H+ exchange activity and a slightly improved K +/H+ exchange activity. © 2010 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

Lu X.M.,China Institute of Technology | Huang M.S.,East China Normal University
International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2012

The purifying tank containing Pontederia cordata was used to treat heavily polluted river water. The relationship between the diurnal variation of plant physiology and water quality was investigated. The study took place from 0800 to 1800 hours and in that period the physiological parameters of the plant and the water quality were analysed. Results indicated that the activity of peroxidase and catalase, the content of soluble protein and the rate of photosynthesis and transpiration were negatively correlated to the concentration of nitrogen and phosphorus in the river water, respectively. Higher sunlight intensity increased the activity of peroxidase and catalase, the content of soluble protein, rate of photosynthesis and transpiration. Sunlight also decreased the concentration of nitrogen and phosphorus, the cations (Al 3+, Fe 2+ and Ca 2+), the anions (Cl -, NO 3 - and SO 4 2-) and the oxidation-reduction potential and electrical conductivity of the river water. During the treatment from 0800 to 1800 hours, soluble protein content, photosynthesis rate of the plant and dissolved oxygen concentration of the river water showed a bimodal distribution, with peaks at 1200 and 1400 hours and a decrease at 1300 hours due to decrease in photosynthesis at midday. Peroxidase and catalase activity, soluble protein content, photosynthesis and transpiration rate were highest between 1000 and 1400 hours, while nitrogen and phosphorus concentration of the polluted water decreased significantly during this time. The correlation between plant physiology and water quality provided valuable data on the role of this plant in the ecological restoration of polluted water. © 2012 CEERS, IAU.

Zhang C.,Peking University | Tang C.,Peking University | Jiao N.,Peking University | Jiao N.,East China Normal University
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2012

Copper salts have been developed as versatile catalysts for oxidative coupling reactions in organic synthesis. During these processes, Cu-catalysts are often proposed to serve as a one-electron oxidant to promote the single-electron transfer process. Recently, the transition-metal catalyzed direct dehydrogenative transformation has attracted considerable attention. This tutorial review summarizes the recent advances in the copper-catalyzed dehydrogenative functionalization via a single electron transfer (SET) process achieving C-C, C-N, C-O, C-halogen atoms, C-P, and N-N bond formation. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012.

Tan Y.,University of Melbourne | Dai H.-H.,East China Normal University | Huang D.,National University of Singapore | Xu J.-X.,National University of Singapore
Automatica | Year: 2012

In many ILC algorithms, nonlinear input uncertainties such as saturation, dead-zone and hysteresis, which do exist due to practical implementations, are always ignored. Although various ILC algorithms have been proposed to compensate various nonlinear input uncertainties, a systematic design framework is still missing. This note presents a unified design framework to deal with very general nonlinear input uncertainties. The concept of a dual-loop ILC is introduced. One ILC loop (ILC Loop 1) is designed for the nominal model without nonlinear input uncertainties. The other ILC loop (ILC Loop 2) uses some iterative algorithms to handle nonlinear input uncertainties. Two ILC loops can be designed independently and are connected by a proper time-scale separation. Our first result shows that by using time-scale separation, the overall system semi-globally practically converges to the desired trajectory if ILC Loop 2 uniformly converges. Furthermore, if ILC Loop 2 converges "almost" monotonically, ILC Loop 1 and ILC Loop 2 can update simultaneously to achieve uniform convergence of the overall system. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Lu X.M.,China Institute of Technology | Huang M.S.,East China Normal University
International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2010

To analyze the variation of physiological responses between Nymphaea tetragona Georgi. and Pontederia cordata L. and the water qualities under aeration conditions, the selected plants were cultivated in 12 purifying-tanks (aeration, non aeration), to treat heavily polluted river water. The characteristics of both plants were investigated, which included contents of chlorophyll and soluble protein, activities of peroxidase and catalase, accumulations of nitrogen and phosphorus, densities of tillers and roots, lengths of roots, culms and leaves, biomass of roots and shoots. The water qualities were analyzed correspondingly. Results indicated that aeration affected morphological and physiological characteristics of the plants and the water qualities and effects became more significant on N. tetragona than P. cordata. Biomass and length of roots, culms and leaves under the non aeration conditions exceeded that under the aeration conditions. Aeration contributed to the activities increase of peroxidase and catalase of the roots and the contents decrease of chlorophyll and soluble protein of the leaves. Nitrogen and phosphorus contents of the roots, culms and leaves increased under the non aeration conditions. Aeration resulted in tillers and roots densities of N. tetragona decreased, while they increased for P. cordata. Total phosphorus and soluble phosphorus removals decreased 8.42% and 8.05% in the tank with N. tetragona under the aeration conditions. In the tank with P. cordata, total nitrogen and NH4+ -N removals increased 14.44% and 16.06% under the aeration conditions. This work provided valuable data for optimizing the plants allocation in the ecological restoration project of the polluted water. © IRSEN, CEERS, IAU.

Lin X.,Zhejiang Normal University | Dong G.,Zhejiang Normal University | Wang Q.,Zhejiang Normal University | Du X.,East China Normal University
Addictive Behaviors | Year: 2015

Internet gaming addiction (IGA) is usually defined as the inability of an individual to control his/her use of the Internet with serious negative consequences. It is becoming a prevalent mental health concern around the world. To understand whether Internet gaming addiction contributes to cerebral structural changes, the present study examined the brain gray matter density and white matter density changes in participants suffering IGA using voxel-based morphometric analysis. Compared with the healthy controls (N. =. 36, 22.2. ±. 3.13. years), IGA participants (N. =. 35, 22.28. ±. 2.54. years) showed significant lower gray matter density in the bilateral inferior frontal gyrus, left cingulate gyrus, insula, right precuneus, and right hippocampus (all p<. 0.05). IGA participants also showed significant lower white matter density in the inferior frontal gyrus, insula, amygdala, and anterior cingulate than healthy controls (all p<. 0.05). Previous studies suggest that these brain regions are involved in decision-making, behavioral inhibition and emotional regulation. Current findings might provide insight in understanding the biological underpinnings of IGA. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Li W.,National University of Singapore | Liu H.,East China Normal University | Jiang X.,National University of Singapore | Jiang X.,East China Normal University | Wang J.,National University of Singapore
ACS Catalysis | Year: 2012

We disclose a new efficient enantioselective organocatalytic conjugate addition method for the preparation of 2-amino-4H-chromenes in high to excellent yields (75-95%) and with high to excellent enantioselectivities (86-97% ee). It is noteworthy that the 2-iminochromene was first disclosed as an active electrophile. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Kwok S.C.,East China Normal University | Kwok S.C.,Shanghai University | Kwok S.C.,Instituto Of Ricovero E Cura A Carattere Scientifico Irccs | Macaluso E.,East China Normal University | Macaluso E.,Shanghai University
Human Brain Mapping | Year: 2015

We investigated the neural correlates supporting three kinds of memory judgments after very short delays using naturalistic material. In two functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments, subjects watched short movie clips, and after a short retention (1.5-2.5 s), made mnemonic judgments about specific aspects of the clips. In Experiment 1, subjects were presented with two scenes and required to either choose the scene that happened earlier in the clip ("scene-chronology"), or with a correct spatial arrangement ("scene-layout"), or that had been shown ("scene-recognition"). To segregate activity specific to seen versus unseen stimuli, in Experiment 2 only one probe image was presented (either target or foil). Across the two experiments, we replicated three patterns underlying the three specific forms of memory judgment. The precuneus was activated during temporal-order retrieval, the superior parietal cortex was activated bilaterally for spatial-related configuration judgments, whereas the medial frontal cortex during scene recognition. Conjunction analyses with a previous study that used analogous retrieval tasks, but a much longer delay (>1 day), demonstrated that this dissociation pattern is independent of retention delay. We conclude that analogous brain regions mediate task-specific retrieval across vastly different delays, consistent with the proposal of scale-invariance in episodic memory retrieval. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Un H.-I.,East China Normal University | Wu S.,Shanghai University | Huang C.-B.,East China Normal University | Xu Z.,Chongqing University of Arts and Sciences | Xu L.,East China Normal University
Chemical Communications | Year: 2015

A naphthalimide-based fluorescent ensemble probe NPC for selectively detecting His in aqueous solution (10 mM HEPES, pH 7.4) has been reported. Moreover, the application of NPC in in vivo (both in Hela cells and in C. elegans) fluorescence imaging was carried out as well. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015.

Zhang B.,Peking University | Xiang S.-K.,Peking University | Zhang L.-H.,Peking University | Cui Y.,Peking University | And 2 more authors.
Organic Letters | Year: 2011

An organocatalytic enantioselective intermolecular oxidative dehydrogenative α-alkylation of aldehydes via benzylic C-H bond activation has been developed. The asymmetric reaction is smoothly fulfilled by using simple and green molecular oxygen as the oxidant. Two hydrogen dissociations make this transformation more environmentally benign because of high atom efficiency. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

Li M.,East China Normal University | Zhao W.,University of Macau | Chen S.,Zhejiang University of Technology
Mathematical Problems in Engineering | Year: 2011

Scaling phenomena of the Internet traffic gain peoples interests, ranging from computer scientists to statisticians. There are two types of scales. One is small-time scaling and the other large-time one. Tools to separately describe them are desired in computer communications, such as performance analysis of network systems. Conventional tools, such as the standard fractional Brownian motion (fBm), or its increment process, or the standard multifractional fBm (mBm) indexed by the local Hlder function H(t) may not be enough for this purpose. In this paper, we propose to describe the local scaling of traffic by using D(t) on a point-by-point basis and to measure the large-time scaling of traffic by using E [H(t) ] on an interval-by-interval basis, where E implies the expectation operator. Since E [H(t) ] is a constant within an observation interval while D(t) is random in general, they are uncorrelated with each other. Thus, our proposed method can be used to separately characterize the small-time scaling phenomenon and the large one of traffic, providing a new tool to investigate the scaling phenomena of traffic. © 2011 Ming Li et al.

Li M.,East China Normal University | Li M.,University of Macau
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine | Year: 2012

The contributions in this paper are in two folds. On the one hand, we propose a general approach for approximating ideal filters based on fractional calculus from the point of view of systems of fractional order. On the other hand, we suggest that the Paley and Wiener criterion might not be a necessary condition for designing physically realizable ideal filters. As an application of the present approach, we show a case in designing ideal filters for suppressing 50-Hz interference in electrocardiogram (ECG) signals. Copyright © 2012 Ming Li.

Lu D.-Q.,East China Normal University | Srivastava H.M.,University of Victoria
Computers and Mathematics with Applications | Year: 2011

A unification (and generalization) of various Apostol type polynomials was introduced and investigated recently by Luo and Srivastava [Q.-M. Luo, H.M. Srivastava, Some generalizations of the ApostolGenocchi polynomials and the Stirling numbers of the second kind, Appl. Math. Comput. 217 (2011) 57025728]. In this paper, we prove several symmetry identities for these generalized Apostol type polynomials by using their generating functions. As special cases and consequences of our results, we obtain the corresponding symmetry identities for the ApostolEuler polynomials of higher order, the ApostolBernoulli polynomials of higher order and the ApostolGenocchi polynomials of higher order, and also for another family of generalized Apostol type polynomials which were investigated systematically by Ozden et al. [H. Ozden, Y. Simsek, H.M. Srivastava, A unified presentation of the generating functions of the generalized Bernoulli, Euler and Genocchi polynomials, Comput. Math. Appl. 60 (2010) 27792787]. We also derive several relations between the Apostol type polynomials, the generalized sum of integer powers and the generalized alternating sum. It is shown how each of these results would extend the corresponding known identities. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Li C.,Shanghai University | Li C.,CAS Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular | Han K.,Shanghai University | Li J.,Shanghai University | And 4 more authors.
Chemistry - A European Journal | Year: 2013

Neutral and efficient: A neutral guest with a cyano site and a triazole site, which can be easily prepared and modified, is demonstrated to strongly bind with pillar[5]arene (see figure). Based on this new recognition motif, two neutral supramolecular polymers in organic media, which are currently unfeasible by means of host-guest interactions of crown ethers and calixarenes, were fabricated. One is AA/BB-type, and the other is A2/B 3-type. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Wen W.,East China Normal University | Shen S.-Q.,University of Hong Kong | Huang G.,East China Normal University | Huang G.,Zhejiang Normal University
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2010

We investigate the linear and nonlinear sound propagations in a cigar-shaped superfluid Fermi gas with a large particle number. We first solve analytically the eigenvalue problem of linear collective excitations and provide explicit expressions of all eigenvalues and eigenfunctions, which are valid for all superfluid regimes in the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer-Bose-Einstein condensation (BCS-BEC) crossover. The linear sound speed obtained agrees well with that of a recent experimental measurement. We then consider a weak nonlinear excitation and show that the time evolution of the excitation obeys a Korteweg de Vries equation. Different from the result obtained in quasi-one-dimensional case studied previously, where subsonic dark solitons are obtained via the balance between quantum pressure and nonlinear effect, we demonstrate that bright solitons with supersonic propagating velocity can be generated in the present three-dimensional system through the balance between a waveguidelike dispersion and the interparticle interaction. The supersonic bright solitons obtained display different physical properties in different superfluid regimes and hence can be used to characterize superfluid features of the BCS-BEC crossover. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

Zhou A.,East China Normal University | Qu B.-Y.,Nanyang Technological University | Li H.,Xi'an Jiaotong University | Zhao S.-Z.,Nanyang Technological University | And 2 more authors.
Swarm and Evolutionary Computation | Year: 2011

A multiobjective optimization problem involves several conflicting objectives and has a set of Pareto optimal solutions. By evolving a population of solutions, multiobjective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs) are able to approximate the Pareto optimal set in a single run. MOEAs have attracted a lot of research effort during the last 20 years, and they are still one of the hottest research areas in the field of evolutionary computation. This paper surveys the development of MOEAs primarily during the last eight years. It covers algorithmic frameworks such as decomposition-based MOEAs (MOEA/Ds), memetic MOEAs, coevolutionary MOEAs, selection and offspring reproduction operators, MOEAs with specific search methods, MOEAs for multimodal problems, constraint handling and MOEAs, computationally expensive multiobjective optimization problems (MOPs), dynamic MOPs, noisy MOPs, combinatorial and discrete MOPs, benchmark problems, performance indicators, and applications. In addition, some future research issues are also presented. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Dong G.,Zhejiang Normal University | Huang J.,Zhejiang Normal University | Du X.,East China Normal University
Journal of Psychiatric Research | Year: 2011

As the world's fastest growing " addiction" , Internet addiction should be studied to unravel the potential heterogeneity. The present study is set to examine reward and punishment processing in Internet addicts as compared to healthy controls while they subjectively experience monetary gain and loss during the performance of a guessing task. The results showed that Internet addicts associated with increased activation in orbitofrontal cortex in gain trials and decreased anterior cingulate activation in loss trials than normal controls. The results suggested that Internet addicts have enhanced reward sensitivity and decreased loss sensitivity than normal comparisons. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Li H.-J.,Zhejiang Normal University | Wu Y.-P.,Zhejiang Normal University | Huang G.,East China Normal University
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2011

We propose a scheme to generate stable ultraslow three-dimensional spatiotemporal optical solitons, or ultraslow optical bullets, at very low light levels via atomic coherence. The system we consider is an ensemble of resonant, lifetime-broadened N-type four-level atoms, working in a regime of electromagnetically induced transparency. Due to the quantum interference effect induced by a control field, the absorption of a probe field is largely suppressed. Moreover, the Kerr nonlinearity is greatly enhanced, and the dispersion property of the probe field is drastically changed. Using a method of multiple scales, we derive two coupled nonlinear envelope equations controlling the evolution of the envelopes of the probe field and an assisted field. We show that under certain conditions the envelope of the probe field satisfies a three-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger equation and the envelope of the assisted field obeys a linear Helmholtz equation. We obtain various optical bullet solutions for the probe-field envelope and demonstrate that such optical bullets have many novel features, including very slow propagating velocity and very low generation power. In addition, they can be actively controlled and manipulated by adjusting system parameters. The stabilization of the optical bullets obtained can be easily realized by the trapping potential contributed by the assisted field, which is also investigated in detail. © 2011 American Physical Society.

Shi Z.,Peking University | Cui Y.,Peking University | Jiao N.,Peking University | Jiao N.,East China Normal University
Organic Letters | Year: 2010

A palladium-catalyzed direct dehydrogenative annulation (DDA) of indolecarboxamides with internal alkynes via C-H and N-H bond cleavage using air as the oxidant was developed. With this method, both β- and γ-carbolinones can be easily prepared under the mild conditions. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

Chen T.,East China Normal University | Pan L.,East China Normal University | Lu T.,East China Normal University | Fu C.,East China Normal University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Materials Chemistry A | Year: 2014

A fast microwave-assisted approach was developed to fabricate carbon microspheres (CSs) using sucrose as the precursor in a microwave system. After thermal treatment at 300, 500, 700 and 1000 °C, the CSs were used as anode materials for sodium ion batteries (SIBs). The results show that CSs treated at 500 °C exhibit a maximum capacity of 183 mA h g-1 at a current density of 30 mA g-1 after 50 cycles, and even at a high current density of 1000 mA g-1 a capacity of 83 mA h g-1 is maintained. The high capacity, good cycling stability and excellent rate performance of CSs, due to their unique spherical structure, make them a promising candidate for anode materials for SIBs. © 2014 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Dong G.,Zhejiang Normal University | Shen Y.,Liaoning Normal University | Huang J.,Zhejiang Normal University | Du X.,East China Normal University
European Addiction Research | Year: 2013

Background: Internet addiction disorder (IAD) is rapidly becoming a prevalent mental health concern around the world. The neurobiological underpinnings of IAD should be studied to unravel the potential heterogeneity. This study was set to investigate the error-monitoring ability in IAD subjects. Methods: Fifteen IAD subjects and 15 healthy controls (HC) participated in this study. Participants were asked to perform a fast Stroop task that may show error responses. Behavioral and neurobiological results in relation to error responses were compared between IAD subjects and HC. Results: Compared to HC, IAD subjects showed increased activation in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and decreased activation in the orbitofrontal cortex following error responses. Significant correlation was found between ACC activation and the Internet addiction test scores. Conclusions: IAD subjects show an impaired error-monitoring ability compared to HC, which can be detected by the hyperactivation in ACC in error responses. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Lu G.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology | Wu T.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology | Yuan Q.,East China Normal University | Wang H.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology | And 6 more authors.
Nature Communications | Year: 2015

Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) has attracted significant attention because of its superior properties as well as its potential as an ideal dielectric layer for graphene-based devices. The h-BN films obtained via chemical vapour deposition in earlier reports are always polycrystalline with small grains because of high nucleation density on substrates. Here we report the successful synthesis of large single-crystal h-BN grains on rational designed Cu-Ni alloy foils. It is found that the nucleation density can be greatly reduced to 60permm2 by optimizing Ni ratio in substrates. The strategy enables the growth of single-crystal h-BN grains up to 7,500μm2, approximately two orders larger than that in previous reports. This work not only provides valuable information for understanding h-BN nucleation and growth mechanisms, but also gives an effective alternative to exfoliated h-BN as a high-quality dielectric layer for large-scale nanoelectronic applications. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Lin X.,Zhejiang Normal University | Zhou H.,Zhejiang Normal University | Dong G.,Zhejiang Normal University | Du X.,East China Normal University
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry | Year: 2015

This study examined how Internet gaming disorder (IGD) subjects modulating reward and risk at a neural level under a probability-discounting task with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Behavioral and imaging data were collected from 19 IGD subjects (22.2. ±. 3.08. years) and 21 healthy controls (HC, 22.8. ±. 3.5. years). Behavior results showed that IGD subjects prefer the probabilistic options to fixed ones and were associated with shorter reaction time, when comparing to HC. The fMRI results revealed that IGD subjects show decreased activation in the inferior frontal gyrus and the precentral gyrus when choosing the probabilistic options than HC. Correlations were also calculated between behavioral performances and brain activities in relevant brain regions. Both of the behavioral performance and fMRI results indicate that people with IGD show impaired risk evaluation, which might be the reason why IGD subjects continue playing online games despite the risks of widely known negative consequence. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Xu J.,East China Normal University | Harrar S.W.,University of Montana
Biometrical Journal | Year: 2012

In this paper, we consider mean comparisons for paired samples in which a certain portion of the observations are missing. This type of data commonly arises in medical researches where the outcomes are assessed at two time points after the application of treatments. New methods for statistical inference are proposed by making finiteness correction based on asymptotic expansions of some intuitive statistics. The comparison methods naturally extend to the two-group case after some suitable manipulations. Simulation study is carried out to demonstrate the numerical accuracy of the proposed methods. Data from a smoking-cessation trial are used to illustrate the application of the methods. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Jin L.,Zhejiang Normal University | Guo Z.,East China Normal University
Nonlinear Analysis: Real World Applications | Year: 2010

We consider a two-component DegasperisProcesi system which arises in shallow water theory. We analyze some aspects of blow up mechanism, traveling wave solutions and the persistence properties. Firstly, we discuss the local well-posedness and blow up criterion; a new blow up criterion for this system with the initial odd condition will be established. Finally, the persistence properties of strong solutions will also be investigated. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Li M.,East China Normal University | Zhao W.,University of Macau
Mathematical Problems in Engineering | Year: 2010

This paper discusses the estimation of autocorrelation function (ACF) of fractional Gaussian noise (fGn) with long-range dependence (LRD). A variance bound of ACF estimation of one block of fGn with LRD for a given value of the Hurst parameter (H) is given. The present bound provides a guideline to require the block size to guarantee that the variance of ACF estimation of one block of fGn with LRD for a given H value does not exceed the predetermined variance bound regardless of the start point of the block. In addition, the present result implies that the error of ACF estimation of a block of fGn with LRD depends only on the number of data points within the sample and not on the actual sample length in time. For a given block size, the error is found to be larger for fGn with stronger LRD than that with weaker LRD. Copyright © 2010.

Zhang B.,Peking University | Feng P.,Peking University | Cui Y.,Peking University | Jiao N.,Peking University | Jiao N.,East China Normal University
Chemical Communications | Year: 2012

Simple and efficient NHC-catalyzed transformations of bromoenal or α,β-dibromoenal into α,β-unsaturated esters or amides with high stereoselectivity through C-O or C-N bond formation have been demonstrated. The NHC-catalyzed processes occur under mild conditions. The ready availability of the starting materials, avoidance of external oxidants and the usefulness of the products all make the strategy attractive. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Zhang B.,Peking University | Cui Y.,Peking University | Jiao N.,Peking University | Jiao N.,East China Normal University
Chemical Communications | Year: 2012

An efficient TEMPO-catalyzed oxidative C-C bond formation with two Csp 3-H bonds using molecular oxygen as the oxidant has been developed. The novel transformation provides a new strategy for the TEMPO-O 2 catalysis to construct C-C bonds. The advantages of this method include: (1) relatively mild and neutral conditions; (2) simplicity and safety of operation; (3) a stoichiometric amount of dangerous oxidants, any transition metals, additives, even solvent, is not required. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Li M.,East China Normal University | Zhao W.,University of Macau
Advances in Mathematical Physics | Year: 2013

This paper gives a novel explanation of the integral equation of Abel's type from the point of view of Mikusinski's operational calculus. The concept of the inverse of Mikusinski's operator of fractional order is introduced for constructing a representation of the solution to the integral equation of Abel's type. The proof of the existence of the inverse of the fractional Mikusinski operator is presented, providing an alternative method of treating the integral equation of Abel's type. © 2013 Ming Li and Wei Zhao.

Li M.,East China Normal University | Zhao W.,University of Macau
Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications | Year: 2013

The contributions of this short paper are two-fold. We shall show two interesting properties of fractional Gaussian noise (fGn), namely, its bandlimitedness and lag-limitedness. The computation formulas for the maximum frequency of bandlimited fGn and the maximum lag of lag-limited fGn are proposed. In addition, we will give a new explanation of the statistical dependences of fGn based on the present bandlimitedness and lag-limitedness of fGn. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Jia W.,Peking University | Jiao N.,Peking University | Jiao N.,East China Normal University
Organic Letters | Year: 2010

Figure presented A Cu-catalyzed aerobic oxidative amidation of propiolic acids via decarboxylation under air has been developed. Only carbon dioxide is produced as byproduct in this approach. The use of air as oxidant makes this method more useful and easy to handle. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

Koh A.T.T.,National University of Singapore | Foong Y.M.,National University of Singapore | Pan L.,East China Normal University | Sun Z.,East China Normal University | Chua D.H.C.,National University of Singapore
Applied Physics Letters | Year: 2012

Large area graphene field emitters were fabricated using electrophoretic deposition. By varying the deposition time, we were able to fabricate emitters with varied field enhancement factors. The turn-on field increased when the deposition time increased, and it was observed that a monolayer of graphene flakes covered on the substrate gave the best results. The low emission turn-on field obtained from the graphene field emitters was attributed to the random orientation of graphene flakes which give protruded edges that acted as field enhancing spots. Graphene emitters produced by this method present a low cost cold cathode that can be mass produced. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.

Liu X.,Southwest University for Nationalities | Yu W.,East China Normal University | Wang L.,Peking University
IET Control Theory and Applications | Year: 2011

This study addresses the stability problem of two-dimensional (2-D) positive systems described by Roesser model and involving delays in the states. The delays are time varying and bounded. A necessary and sufficient stability condition is established for such systems. It is shown that a 2-D positive system with time-varying delays is asymptotically stable for any bounded delays if and only if the corresponding constantly delayed system is asymptotically stable, or equivalently, if and only if the sum of the system matrices is a Schur matrix. An example illustrates the theoretical result. © 2011 The Institution of Engineering and Technology.

Li M.,East China Normal University | Li M.,University of Macau | Zhao W.,University of Macau
Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications | Year: 2012

We suggest that there exists a critical point H=0.70 of the local Hölder exponent H(t) for describing the weak stationary (stationary for short) property of the modified multifractional Gaussian noise (mmGn) from the point of view of engineering. More precisely, when H(t)>0.70 for t∈[0,∞], the stationarity of mmGn is conditional, relying on the variation ranges of H(t). When H(t)≤0.70, on the other side, mmGn is unconditionally stationary, yielding a consequence that short-memory mmGn is stationary. In addition, for H(t)>0.70, we introduce the concept of stationary range denoted by ( Hmin, Hmax). It means that Corr[r(τ;H( t1)),r(τ;H( t2))]<0.70 if H( t1), H( t2)∈( Hmin, Hmax), where r(τ;H( t1)) and r(τ;H( t2)) are the autocorrelation functions of mmGn with H( t1) and H( t2) for t1≠ t2, respectively, and Corr[r(τ;H( t1)),r(τ;H( t2))] is the correlation coefficient between r(τ;H( t1)) and r(τ;H( t2)). We present a set of stationary ranges, which may be used for a quantitative description of the local stationarity of mmGn. A case study is demonstrated for applying the present method to testing the stationarity of a real-traffic trace. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: ENV.2009. | Award Amount: 8.53M | Year: 2009

Coastal areas are vital economic hubs in terms of settlement, industry, agriculture, trade and tourism to mention some key sectors. There are already many coastal problems including erosion, flood risk and long-term habitat deterioration. As economies continue to develop the asset base at risk will grow, while accelerating climate change will increase the likelihood of damaging extreme events, as well as accelerate habitat decline. Existing coastal management and defence approaches are not well tuned to these challenges as they assume a static situation. THESEUS will develop a systematic approach to delivering both a low-risk coast for human use and healthy habitats for evolving coastal zones subject to multiple change factors. The innovative combined mitigation and adaptation technologies to be considered will include ecologically-based mitigation measures (such as restoration and/or creation of habitats), hydro-morphodynamic techniques (such as wave energy converters, sediment reservoirs, multi-purpose structures, overtop resistant dikes), actions to reduce the impact on society and economy (such as promotion of risk awareness or spatial planning) and GIS-based software to support defence planning. To integrate the best of these technical measures in a strategic policy context we will develop overarching THESEUS guidelines which will considers the environmental, social and economic issues raised in any coastal area. It is in this spirit that THESEUS will advance European and international experience in applying innovative technologies to reducing coastal risks. THESEUS activities will be carried out within a multidisciplinary framework using 8 study sites across Europe, with specific attention to the most vulnerable coastal environments such as deltas, estuaries and wetlands, where many large cities and industrial areas are located.

Zhu H.,Jülich Research Center | Zhu H.,East China Normal University | Hupkes J.,Jülich Research Center | Bunte E.,Jülich Research Center | And 2 more authors.
Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells | Year: 2011

Highly transparent and conductive aluminum-doped zinc oxide thin films (ZnO:Al) were reactively sputtered from metallic targets at high rate of up to 90 nm m/min. For the application as transparent light scattering front contact in silicon thin film solar cells, a texture etching process is applied. Typically, it is difficult to achieve appropriate etch features in hydrochloric acid as the deposition process must be tuned and the interrelation is not well understood. We thus introduce a novel two-step etching method based on hydrofluoric acid. By tuning the etch parameters we varied the surface morphology and achieved a regular distribution of large craters with the feature size of 12 μm in diameter and about 250 nm in depth. Microcrystalline silicon single junction solar cells (μc-Si:H) and amorphous/microcrystalline silicon (a-Si:H/μc-Si:H) tandem solar cells with high efficiency of up to 8.2% and 11.4%, respectively, were achieved with optimized ZnO:Al films as light scattering transparent front contact. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Du S.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Lv J.,East China Normal University
International Journal of Production Economics | Year: 2013

Though traditional control charts have been widely used as effective tools in statistical process control (SPC), they are not applicable in many industrial applications where the process variables are highly auto-correlated. In this study, one new minimal Euclidean distance (MED) based monitoring approach is proposed for enhancing the monitoring mean shifts of auto-correlated processes. Support vector regression (SVR) is used to predict the values of a variable in time series. Through calculating minimal Euclidean distance (MED) values over time series, a novel MED chart is developed for monitoring mean shifts, and it can provide a comprehensive and quantitative assessment for the current process state. The performance of the proposed MED control chart is evaluated based on average run length (ARL). Simulation experiments are conducted and one industrial case is illustrated to validate the effectiveness of the developed MED control chart. The analysis results indicate that the developed MED control chart is more effective than other control charts for small process mean shifts in auto-correlated processes, and it can be used as a promising tool for SPC. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Ng F.F.-Y.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | Pomerantz E.M.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Deng C.,East China Normal University
Child Development | Year: 2014

Chinese parents exert more control over children than do American parents. The current research examined whether this is due in part to Chinese parents' feelings of worth being more contingent on children's performance. Twice over a year, 215 mothers and children (Mage = 12.86 years) in China and the United States (European and African American) reported on psychologically controlling parenting. Mothers also indicated the extent to which their worth is contingent on children's performance. Psychologically controlling parenting was higher among Chinese than American mothers, particularly European (vs. African) American mothers. Chinese (vs. American) mothers' feelings of worth were more contingent on children's performance, with this contributing to their heightened psychological control relative to American mothers. © 2013 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

Moore B.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Sun H.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Sun H.,East China Normal University | Govind N.,Pacific Northwest National Laboratory | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation | Year: 2015

Criteria to assess charge-transfer (CT) and CT-like character of electronic excitations are examined. Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations with non-hybrid, hybrid, and tuned long-range corrected (LC) functionals are compared with coupled-cluster (CC) benchmarks. The test set comprises an organic CT complex, two push-pull donor-acceptor chromophores, a cyanine dye, and several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Proper CT is easily identified. Excitations with significant density changes upon excitation within regions of close spatial proximity can also be diagnosed. For such excitations, the use of LC functionals in TDDFT sometimes leads to dramatic improvements of the singlet energies, similar to proper CT. It is shown that such CT-like excitations do not have the characteristics of physical charge transfer, and improvements with LC functionals may not be obtained for the right reasons. The TDDFT triplet excitation energies are underestimated for all systems, often severely. For the CT-like candidates, the singlet-triplet (S/T) separation changes from negative with a non-hybrid functional to positive with a tuned LC functional. For the cyanine, the S/T separation is systematically too large with TDDFT, leading to better error compensation for the singlet energy with a non-hybrid functional. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

Dehaene S.,Collège de France | Dehaene S.,University Paris - Sud | Meyniel F.,University Paris - Sud | Wacongne C.,Collège de France | And 4 more authors.
Neuron | Year: 2015

A sequence of images, sounds, or words can be stored at several levels of detail, from specific items and their timing to abstract structure. We propose a taxonomy of five distinct cerebral mechanisms for sequence coding: transitions and timing knowledge, chunking, ordinal knowledge, algebraic patterns, and nested tree structures. In each case, we review the available experimental paradigms and list the behavioral and neural signatures of the systems involved. Tree structures require a specific recursive neural code, as yet unidentified by electrophysiology, possibly unique to humans, and which may explain the singularity of human language and cognition. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

Fan F.-J.,Hefei University of Technology | Wu L.,Hefei University of Technology | Gong M.,Hefei University of Technology | Liu G.,CAS Institute of Physics | And 5 more authors.
ACS Nano | Year: 2013

The wurtzite-derived Cu2ZnSn(S1-xSex) 4 alloys are studied for the first time through combining theoretical calculations and experimental characterizations. Ab initio calculations predict that wurtzite-derived Cu2ZnSnS4 and Cu 2ZnSnSe4 are highly miscible, and the band gaps of the mixed-anion alloys can be linearly tuned from 1.0 to 1.5 eV through changing the composition parameter x from 0 to 1. A synthetic procedure for the wurtzite-derived Cu2ZnSn(S1-xSex)4 alloy nanocrystals with tunable compositions has been developed. A linear tunable band-gap range of 0.5 eV is observed in the synthesized alloy nanocrystals, which shows good agreement with the ab initio calculations. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

Hirata S.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Gilliard K.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | He X.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | He X.,East China Normal University | And 3 more authors.
Accounts of Chemical Research | Year: 2014

ConspectusMolecular crystals are chemists' solids in the sense that their structures and properties can be understood in terms of those of the constituent molecules merely perturbed by a crystalline environment. They form a large and important class of solids including ices of atmospheric species, drugs, explosives, and even some organic optoelectronic materials and supramolecular assemblies. Recently, surprisingly simple yet extremely efficient, versatile, easily implemented, and systematically accurate electronic structure methods for molecular crystals have been developed. The methods, collectively referred to as the embedded-fragment scheme, divide a crystal into monomers and overlapping dimers and apply modern molecular electronic structure methods and software to these fragments of the crystal that are embedded in a self-consistently determined crystalline electrostatic field. They enable facile applications of accurate but otherwise prohibitively expensive ab initio molecular orbital theories such as Møller-Plesset perturbation and coupled-cluster theories to a broad range of properties of solids such as internal energies, enthalpies, structures, equation of state, phonon dispersion curves and density of states, infrared and Raman spectra (including band intensities and sometimes anharmonic effects), inelastic neutron scattering spectra, heat capacities, Gibbs energies, and phase diagrams, while accounting for many-body electrostatic (namely, induction or polarization) effects as well as two-body exchange and dispersion interactions from first principles. They can fundamentally alter the role of computing in the studies of molecular crystals in the same way ab initio molecular orbital theories have transformed research practices in gas-phase physical chemistry and synthetic chemistry in the last half century.In this Account, after a brief summary of formalisms and algorithms, we discuss applications of these methods performed in our group as compelling illustrations of their unprecedented power in addressing some of the outstanding problems of solid-state chemistry, high-pressure chemistry, or geochemistry. They are the structure and spectra of ice Ih, in particular, the origin of two peaks in the hydrogen-bond-stretching region of its inelastic neutron scattering spectra, a solid-solid phase transition from CO2-I to elusive, metastable CO2-III, pressure tuning of Fermi resonance in solid CO2, and the structure and spectra of solid formic acid, all at the level of second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory or higher. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

Qiao Y.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Xie B.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Du X.,East China Normal University
European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry | Year: 2012

The objective of the study is to explore the characteristics of emotional stimulus in adolescents with violent behavior and to identify the correlated dysfunctional regions of the brain. An event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging was obtained while the participants passively viewed pictures with neutral or negative affective valence. 15 male adolescents with violent behavior, ranging in age from 12 to 18 years old, and 16 healthy age-matched control subjects were enrolled in the study. While looking at neutral pictures, several brain regions were activated more intensely in the violent group than the control one. After digitally subtracting the control group, these areas included the bilateral amygdala, left orbital gyrus, bilateral fusiform gyrus, and left visual cortex. While passively viewing negative pictures, the right inferior frontal gyrus and the middle frontal gyrus were less activated in the violent group than the control group. Male adolescents with violent behaviors have some dysfunctions during the processing and evaluation of information from external emotional stimulus. These individuals are inclined to interpret neutral information as threatening stimulus. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

Zhou X.,East China Normal University | Merzenich M.M.,University of California at San Francisco
Nature Communications | Year: 2012

To date, the functional and physiological impact on the mature brain of moderate-level environmental noises that do not cause noticeable peripheral deficits remains largely unstudied. Here we show that exposing adult rats to structured noise at a sound pressure level of 65 dB, which is markedly below the broadly accepted safety level standard, results in behavioural impairments and substantially impairs the function of the auditory cortex. The strong deterioration in cortical processing of acoustic inputs is independent of the modulation rates of structured noises. Almost equally strong effects result from 10-h daily versus 24-h daily exposure regimens. These results indicate that there can be substantial negative consequences for the auditory system documented at the cortical level, attributable to environmental exposure to structured noises delivered under conditions that do not directly impact hearing sensitivity. These noises are deemed to be 'safe' and are often present in modern human environments. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Ning L.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Ma L.-Q.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Wang Z.-R.,East China Normal University | Wang Y.-W.,Shanghai JiaoTong University
Pain Physician | Year: 2013

Background: Neuropathic pain induction by nerve injury has been shown by in vitro studies to be accompanied by synaptic strengthening in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and has been shown by pharmacological studies in vivo to be prevented by blocking N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-dependent ACC plasticity. These findings indicate that ACC neurons undergo nerve injury-induced synaptic modifications and further raise a new question about neuropathic pain-associated changes in neuronal activity in the ACC in vivo, particularly spontaneous neuronal oscillations - a process believed to be fundamental for many forms of brain function. Objective: In this study, we examined the change of spontaneous membrane-potential (MP) oscillations in the ACC in vivo in a neuropathic pain animal model of chronic constriction injury (CCI), which may account for neuropathic pain development, as well as pain hypersensitivity and spontaneous pain. Study Design: Experimental trial in rats. Methods: Neuropathic pain rats were produced by CCI surgery on the common sciatic nerve. Neuropathic pain-related behaviors were accessed by evoked responses to both mechanical and thermal stimuli, as well as spontaneous pain indicated by spontaneous foot lifting. In vivo whole- cell recording was performed in both control and neuropathic pain rats under anaesthesia. MP and action-potential (AP) changes of layer II/III ACC pyramidal cells were measured in current-clamp mode. The level of anaesthesia was evaluated by monitoring respiratory and heart rates in some experiments. Results: Within 7 to 14 days after CCI surgery, the frequency of MP oscillations of ACC neurons was found to be significantly higher than that in control rats. Such an increase in oscillation frequency after surgery was not due to periphery transmission via the sciatic nerve subjected to CCI surgery and was indicated to be accounted for by neuronal modifications in the central nervous system. Furthermore, this increase was found to result in a higher overall level of MP excitation as well as an increase in spontaneous AP firing. Limitations: Our findings in MP and AP changes were obtained in anaesthetized brains; this issue remains to be further examined by using whole-cell recording in awake behaving animals. Conclusions: Neuropathic pain is accompanied by the increase in rates of spontaneous oscillations of ACC neurons. This change may be critical for neuropathic pain development, as well as pain hypersensitivity and spontaneous pain in neuropathic pain animals.

Gao X.N.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Lou S.Y.,East China Normal University | Lou S.Y.,Ningbo University | Tang X.Y.,Shanghai JiaoTong University
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2013

Assuming that there exist at least two fermionic parameters, the classical N=1 supersymmetric Korteweg-de Vries (SKdV) system can be transformed to some coupled bosonic systems. The boson fields in the bosonized SKdV (BSKdV) systems are defined on even Grassmann algebra. Due to the intrusion of other Grassmann parameters, the BSKdV systems are different from the usual non-supersymmetric integrable systems, and many more abundant solution structures can be unearthed. With the help of the singularity analysis, the Painlevé property of the BSKdV system is proved and a Bäcklund transformation (BT) is found. The BT related nonlocal symmetry, we call it as residual symmetry, is used to find symmetry reduction solutions of the BSKdV system. Hinted from the symmetry reduction solutions, a more generalized but much simpler method is established to find exact solutions of the BSKdV and then the SKdV systems, which actually can be applied to any fermionic systems. © 2013 SISSA, Trieste, Italy.

Yu M.,East China University of Science and Technology | Zhu Y.-A.,East China University of Science and Technology | Lu Y.,East China Normal University | Tong G.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | And 2 more authors.
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental | Year: 2015

The catalytic performance of Ag promoted Ni/CeO2 catalyst has been investigated in methane and carbon dioxide dry reforming reaction. The temperature-dependent catalytic activity and time-on-stream catalytic performance at 760°C under different feeding conditions have been explored. Pristine Ni/CeO2 is not stable as a result of coke deposition and surface reconstruction. In addition, co-feeding of H2 can adversely influence the long-term stability of Ni/CeO2. Ag severely reduces the intrinsic catalytic activity of Ni/CeO2 catalyst, while enhances the long-term stability by diminishing coke deposition. Ag is applicable as a promoter under various reaction conditions, from N2 diluted feedstock to H2 co-fed and carrier-gas free feedstock. Kinetic studies show that Ag elevates the activation energy from 91 to ca. 140kJ/mol by a loading of 0.3mol.%, excessive Ag loading does not affect activation energy. The role of Ag is to block step sites on Ni surface that is associated with carbon nucleation and growth, and to promote gasification of coke formed. Besides, Ag alters the type of coke formed over Ni surface from recalcitrant whisker/encapsulating carbon to easily gasifiable amorphous carbonaceous species. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Wang T.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Wang T.,East China Normal University
Classical and Quantum Gravity | Year: 2015

In this paper we aim to provide new examples of the application and the generality of the membrane paradigm. The membrane paradigm is a formalism for studying the event horizon of black holes. After analyzing it with some technical details and realizing it in the Reissner-Nordström black hole, we apply the paradigm to cosmological horizons, first to the pure de Sitter horizon, and then to the trapping horizon of the Friedmann-Lemai tre-Robertson-Walker Universe. In the latter case, the cosmological stretched horizon is oblique, thus the running of the renormalization parameter is nonzero in the timelike direction and gives a correction to the membrane pressure. In this paradigm, the cosmological equations come from continuity equations of the membrane fluid and the bulk fluid respectively. © 2015 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Li M.,East China Normal University | Lim S.C.,Multimedia University
Telecommunication Systems | Year: 2010

The generalized Cauchy process was recently applied to modeling long-range dependent traffic. However, the closed form of the power spectrum density of the generalized Cauchy process is a problem that remains unsolved. This paper gives the solution to that problem. The property of the power-law-type power spectrum density for the generalized Cauchy process is pointed out and discussed. © Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2009.

Wang D.V.,East China Normal University | Tsien J.Z.,Georgia Regents University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

The ventral tegmental area (VTA) plays an essential role in reward and motivation. How the dopamine (DA) and non-DA neurons in the VTA engage in motivation-based locomotor behaviors is not well understood. We recorded activity of putative DA and non-DA neurons simultaneously in the VTA of awake mice engaged in motivated voluntary movements such as wheel running. Our results revealed that VTA non-DA neurons exhibited significant rhythmic activity that was correlated with the animal's running rhythms. Activity of putative DA neurons also correlated with the movement behavior, but to a lesser degree. More importantly, putative DA neurons exhibited significant burst activation at both onset and offset of voluntary movements. These findings suggest that VTA DA and non-DA neurons conjunctively process locomotor- elated motivational signals that are associated with movement initiation, maintenance and termination. © 2011 Wang.

Chen Q.,East China Normal University | Zhu Y.,Shanghai JiaoTong University
Sedimentary Geology | Year: 2012

Coastline shifts due to transgression and regression can remodel tidal fields of continental shelves, and this can control transport of sediments and modulate sediment distribution accordingly. Tidal currents have become the dominant hydrodynamic processes on the continental shelves of the Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea and East China Sea (BYECS) since the transgression after the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). To examine the evolution of the bottom sediment distributions on the continental shelves of the BYECS, we simulated patterns of tides and tidal currents, sediment transport, and bottom sediment types (sand, mud and mixed sediments) for five periods, corresponding to sea level lowstands of 80. m, 52. m and 30. m below present, the Holocene transgression maximum (HTM), and the present. The simulation shows that both sediment transport and shelf sediment distribution patterns were controlled by the strength, type and asymmetry of tidal currents in the BYECS since the LGM. Evolution of shelf sediment distribution patterns occurred in two stages: (1) sediment emplacement and formation stage before the HTM, and (2) local adjustment after the HTM. The marked changes in coastline configuration since the LGM are the dominant factor controlling tide and tidal current evolution. Distribution of shelf sediment types in the BYECS is closely related to tidal current fields during transgression after the LGM. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Zhang H.,East China Normal University | Ma Y.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Gu J.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Liao B.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | And 3 more authors.
Biomaterials | Year: 2012

Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) holds great promise to regenerative medicine. However, before this technology can be applied for clinical purpose, the issues of iPSC efficiency and safety need to be addressed. In this study, we have compared a simple TAT- and 11 arginine (R)-protein transduction domain (PTD) for somatic cell reprogramming and explored the optimal conditions for the PTD to transduce reprogramming factors (RFs). We show that all recombinant TAT- and 11R-fused RFs are transcriptionally active as they activate their corresponding reporter genes in reporter assays. The TAT-RFs are in general transcriptionally more active than the corresponding 11R-RFs, but less active than the corresponding retroviral transduced RFs. Furthermore, each of TAT-RFs can substitute for their corresponding retrovirus in reprogramming. Finally, using five TAT-RFs together with an HDAC inhibitor, we can generate iPSC-like colonies from human fibroblast cells with high efficiency approximately 2 weeks after the first protein transduction. These colonies exhibit unique features of pluripotent stem cells including the morphology and the expression of pluripotency-associated markers. This characterization of recombinant RFs in reprogramming should facilitate the generation of clinically useful and genetic material-free human iPSCs. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Xie B.,East China Normal University | Xiong S.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Liang S.,East China Normal University | Hu C.,East China Normal University | And 2 more authors.
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2012

Aged landfill leachates become more refractory over time and difficulty to treat. Recently, aged refuse bioreactors show great promise in treating leachates. In this study, aged refuse bioreactors were constructed to simulate landfill leachate degradation process. The characteristics of leachate were: COD cr, ∼2200mg/L; BOD 5, ∼280mg/L; total nitrogen, ∼2030mg/L; and ammonia, ∼1900mg/L. Results showed that bioreactor could remove leachate pollutants effectively at hydraulic loading of 20L/m 3d. The removal rate reduced when hydraulic loading doubled or temperature lowered. Effluent recirculation could alleviate the temperature effect. Combining aged refuse and slag biofilters could treat leachate more efficiently. Pyrosequencing analysis indicated that bacteria from Pseudomonas, Lysobacter, Bacillus and δ-proteobacter, Flexibacteraceae were more abundant in the samples. The Shannon index decreased at lower temperature, while evenness and equitability increased with recirculation. We suggest that filter medium and temperature may be the main factors for shaping bacterial community structure. © 2011.

Xue R.,East China Normal University | Fang Z.,East China Normal University | Zhang M.,University of Sichuan | Yi Z.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | And 2 more authors.
Nucleic Acids Research | Year: 2013

As an alternative to modern western medicine, Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is receiving increasingly attention worldwide. Great efforts have been paid to TCM's modernization, which tries to bridge the gap between TCM and modern western medicine. As TCM and modern western medicine share a common aspect at molecular level that the compound(s) perturb human's dysfunction network and restore human normal physiological condition, the relationship between compounds (in herb, refer to ingredients) and their targets (proteins) should be the key factor to connect TCM and modern medicine. Accordingly, we construct this Traditional Chinese Medicine Integrated Database (TCMID,, which records TCM-related information collected from different resources and through text-mining method. To enlarge the scope of the TCMID, the data have been linked to common drug and disease databases, including Drugbank, OMIM and PubChem. Currently, our TCMID contains ∼47 000 prescriptions, 8159 herbs, 25210 compounds, 6828 drugs, 3791 diseases and 17 521 related targets, which is the largest data set for related field. Our web-based software displays a network for integrative relationships between herbs and their treated diseases, the active ingredients and their targets, which will facilitate the study of combination therapy and understanding of the underlying mechanisms for TCM at molecular level. © The Author(s) 2012.

Hu X.-R.,East China Normal University | Lou S.-Y.,Ningbo University | Lou S.-Y.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Chen Y.,East China Normal University | Chen Y.,Ningbo University
Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics | Year: 2012

In nonlinear science, it is very difficult to find exact interaction solutions among solitons and other kinds of complicated waves such as cnoidal waves and Painlevé waves. Actually, even if for the most well-known prototypical models such as the Kortewet-de Vries (KdV) equation and the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (KP) equation, this kind of problem has not yet been solved. In this paper, the explicit analytic interaction solutions between solitary waves and cnoidal waves are obtained through the localization procedure of nonlocal symmetries which are related to Darboux transformation for the well-known KdV equation. The same approach also yields some other types of interaction solutions among different types of solutions such as solitary waves, rational solutions, Bessel function solutions, and/or general Painlevé II solutions. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Xiao X.-Q.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Liu J.-M.,East China Normal University | Zeng G.,Shanghai JiaoTong University
Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics | Year: 2011

We present a scheme for joint remote preparation of an arbitrary two-qubit pure state in a probabilistic manner from a spatially separated multi-sender to one receiver; the scheme is then extended to the arbitrary three-qubit case. We show that by adding some classical communication and local operations, the success probability of preparation can be increased to four times for two-qubit states and eight times for three-qubit states, and can reach one under certain conditions. © 2011 IOP Publishing Ltd.

He P.-L.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Takemoto N.,Max Planck Institute For Physik Komplexer Systeme | He F.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | He F.,East China Normal University
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2015

Photoelectron momentum distributions of a hydrogen atom in an elliptically polarized laser field and a hydrogen molecular ion in a circularly polarized laser field are studied by simulating the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. We demonstrate that, in both systems, the Coulomb interaction between a liberated electron and its parent ion is essential for the photoelectron momentum angular drift in a laser polarization plane. By decomposing the wave packet into the rescattered and directly ionized components in the case of a hydrogen molecular ion, we reveal that the rescattered component drifts by a larger angle. The drift angle of the photoelectron of the hydrogen atom decreases monotonically with longer wavelength, while a nonmonotonic dependence is shown for H2+. We attribute such nonmonotonicity to the fluctuation of the instant of ionization for H2+ as the laser wavelength is changed. © 2015 American Physical Society.

Shanghai Ic R&D Center Co. and East China Normal University | Date: 2012-11-21

A silicon nanowire bio-chip structure and a manufacturing method thereof. The structure comprises a semiconductor substrate (1), a SiO_(2 )insulating layer (2) foamed on the semiconductor substrate, a polysilicon layer (3) foamed on the SiO_(2 )insulating layer (2) and a structural layer formed on the polysilicon layer (3); wherein, the polysilicon layer (3) comprises a patterned silicon nanowire array (4); the structural layer includes a SiON layer, a TaN and/or Ta_(2)O_(5 )layer (6) from bottom to top, the TaN and/or Ta_(2)O_(5 )layer only covers surface of each silicon nanowire in the silicon nanowire array. The silicon nanowire array is prevented from being polluted during preservation and use, and the pollutants of Na ions, K ions, Fe ions, Cu ions and Ca ions as well as the effects of chemical factors including the PH value are blocked during biological detection, thereby achieving the high stability of detection.

You X.-Y.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | He F.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | He F.,East China Normal University
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2014

Within the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, we build a multichannel model to simulate the dissociation of H2+ in strong laser fields. Two applications of this model are presented: first, orthogonally polarized UV and infrared pulses are used to dissociate H2+ into 2pπu and 3dπg states, whose superposition results in asymmetric electron localization after the dissociation; second, two orthogonally polarized UV pulses are introduced to trigger competing Rabi oscillations among 1sσg, 2pσu, 3dσg and 2pπu states. This study shows the dissociation of H2+ can be steered into selected electronic states with controllable probabilities with state-of-the-art laser technologies. © 2014 American Physical Society.

Bludov Y.V.,University of Minho | Hang C.,East China Normal University | Huang G.,East China Normal University | Konotop V.V.,University of Lisbon
Optics Letters | Year: 2014

We study the interaction of a soliton in a parity-time (PT ) symmetric coupler which has local perturbation of the coupling constant. This defect does not change the PT -symmetry of the system, but locally can achieve the exceptional point. We found that the symmetric solitons after interaction with the defect either transform into breathers or blow up. The dynamics of antisymmetric solitons are more complex, showing domains of successive broadening of the beam and of the beam splitting in two outward propagating solitons, in addition to the single breather generation and blowup. All the effects are preserved when the coupling strength in the center of the defect deviates from the exceptional point. If the coupling is strong enough, the only observable outcome of the soliton-defect interaction is the generation of the breather. © 2014 Optical Society of America.

Du S.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Huang D.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Lv J.,East China Normal University
Computers and Industrial Engineering | Year: 2013

Statistical process control charts have been widely utilized for monitoring process variation in many applications. Nonrandom patterns exhibited by control charts imply certain potential assignable causes that may deteriorate the process performance. Though some effective approaches to recognition of control chart patterns (CCPs) have been developed, most of them only focus on recognition and analysis of single patterns. A hybrid approach by integrating wavelet transform and improved particle swarm optimization-based support vector machine (P-SVM) for on-line recognition of concurrent CCPs is developed in this paper. A statistical correlation coefficient is used to determine whether the input pattern is a single or concurrent CCP. Based on wavelet transform, a raw concurrent pattern signal is decomposed into two basic pattern signals, which can be recognized by multiclass SVMs. The performance of the hybrid approach is evaluated by simulation experiments, and numerical and graphical results are provided to demonstrate that the proposed approach can perform effectively and efficiently in on-line CCP recognition task. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: ENV.2009. | Award Amount: 9.23M | Year: 2010

Past4Future will combine multidisciplinary paleoclimate records from ice cores, marine cores, speleothems, pollen and other records, concentrating on a global distribution of the records, to reconstruct climate change and variability during the present interglacial (the Holocene) and the last interglacial (known as the Eemian in northwestern Europe and as marine isotope stage 5e in the marine sediment records). The records will be combined in integrated analyses aided by proxy modeling and assimilation, to gain understanding of the climate processes involved in the dynamics of interglacial climates. Earth system models (ESM) including physical and biogeochemical processes will be applied to simulate the past and present interglacial climate, and to confront and intercompare the simulations with climate changes as observed from the palaeodata; this will both advance the models and our understanding of the dynamics and predictability of the climate system. Focus will be on the most recent two interglacial periods, as these provide the highest-resolved most comprehensive data records. Moreover the last interglacial represents a situation where the mean state was warmer than at present in large regions due to orbital forcing, thereby allowing tests of climate system sensitivity to constrain projections of potential future ice sheet, sea-level, circulation and biogeochemical changes. The data and Earth system model results will be used improve our capabilities to project future global and regional warming from a better understanding of relevant paleoclimates, especially in relation to sea level changes, sea ice changes and thermohaline circulation changes. The Past4Future program will draw together a world leading team of European and international partners in a concerted effort to advance our knowledge on the causes, processes and risks of abrupt changes in warm periods, such as those projected for the current and the next century. The program will inform the international debate on climate system stability and the dissemination of results will be targeted to both citizens and governmental and non-governmental stakeholders. It will leave a legacy of improved understanding of past drivers of sea level changes, changes of sea ice, and of greenhouse gas concentrations, and it will train a new generation of young climate researchers to further advance research and improved future predictions for the benefit of society and our capacity to mitigate and adapt to climate changes.

Wang Y.-G.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Yuan H.,East China Normal University
Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Mathematik und Physik | Year: 2015

In this paper, we study the stability of contact discontinuities that separate a C1 supersonic flow from a static gas, governed by the three-dimensional steady non-isentropic compressible Euler equations. The linear stability problem of this transonic contact discontinuity is formulated as a one-phase free boundary problem for a hyperbolic system with the boundary being characteristics. By calculating the Kreiss–Lopatinskii determinant for this boundary value problem, we conclude that this transonic contact discontinuity is always stable, but only in a weak sense because the Kreiss–Lopatinskii condition fails exactly at the poles of the symbols associated with the linearized hyperbolic operators. Both of the planar and nonplanar contact discontinuities are studied. We establish the energy estimates of solutions to the linearized problem at a contact discontinuity, by constructing the Kreiss symmetrizers microlocally away from the poles of the symbols, and studying the equations directly at each pole. The nonplanar case is studied by using the calculus of para-differential operators. The failure of the uniform Kreiss–Lopatinskii condition leads to a loss of derivatives of solutions in estimates. © 2014, Springer Basel.

East China Normal University, Nanjing Luyeskie Pharmaceutical Co. and CAS Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica | Date: 2012-04-13

Provided are a camptothecin compound containing 7-membered lactone ring, as shown in general formula I, and pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, as well as the preparation method and use thereof. In general formula I, R_(1 )is H, a C1C3 alkyl, acetyl or propionyl; R_(2 )is H, a C1C6 alkyl, a C3C6 cycloalkyl, piperidyl; or a C1C6 alkyl substituted by an amino; R_(3 )is H, a C1C3 alkyl, or a C1C6 alkyl substituted by an amino; R_(4 )is H, a hydroxyl, or a C1C6 alkoxy; R_(5 )is H, or a C1C6 alkoxyl; or R_(4 )and R_(5 )are linked to each other to form OCH_(2)O or OCH_(2)CH_(2)O. The compound has good anti-tumor activity, and can be clinically used via oral administration, intravenous injection, and intramuscular injection, among others.

Sha L.,East China Normal University | Jiang H.,East China Normal University | Knudsen K.L.,University of Aarhus
Holocene | Year: 2012

Diatom assemblages from Holsteinsborg Dyb on the West Greenland shelf were analysed with high temporal resolution for the last 1200 years. A high degree of consistency between changes in frequency of selected diatom species and instrumental data from the same area during the last 70 years confirms the reliability of diatoms (particularly sea-ice species and warm-water species) for the study of palaeoceanographic changes in this area. A general cooling trend with some fluctuations is marked by an increase in sea-ice species throughout the last 1200 years. A relatively warm period with increased influence of Atlantic water masses of the Irminger Current (IC) is found at ad 750-1330, although with some oceanographic variability after ad 1000. A pronounced oceanographic shift occurred at ad 1330, corresponding in time to the transition from the so-called 'Medieval Warm Period' (MWP) to the 'Little Ice Age' (LIA). The LIA cold episode is characterized by three intervals with particularly cold sea-surface conditions at ad 1330-1350, ad 1400-1575 and ad 1660-1710 as a result of variable influence of Polar waters in the area. During the last 70 years, two relatively warm periods and one cold period (the early 1960s to mid-1990s) are indicated by changes in the diatom components. Our study demonstrates that sedimentary records on the West Greenland shelf provide valuable palaeoenvironment data that confirm a linkage between local and large-scale North Atlantic oceanographic and atmospheric oscillations. © SAGE Publications 2011.

Liu M.,Hengyang Normal University | Luo C.,East China Normal University | Peng H.,East China Normal University
Talanta | Year: 2012

A polythiophene functionalized with methylene blue (PMT-MB) was synthesized and used as an indicator for electrochemical oligonucleotides (ODNs) hybridization detection. After hybridization with complementary ODNs, the current signal of PMT-MB increased, which illustrated that PMT-MB can effectively recognize complementary ODN targets as an indicator. Compared to MB, PMT-MB showed much better resistance to the concentration change of buffer solution. In all buffer solutions tested, the hybridization always resulted in the increased current signal of PMT-MB due to the electrostatic interaction. While, when MB was used as an indicator, the inconsistent current response was obtained after the hybridization. When high concentration of buffer solution was used for accumulation, the hybridization resulted in the decreased current signal, while at the low concentrations, the current signal increased. The interaction between PMT-MB and dsODNs was also studied by UV-vis spectroscopy. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Liu W.,East China Normal University | Zhai X.,Changhai Hospital | Li H.,Shanghai University of Sport | Ji L.,East China Normal University
Journal of Affective Disorders | Year: 2014

Major depressive disorder (MDD) and type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are highly co-morbid, and there may be a bi-directional connection between the two. Herein, we have described a mouse model of a depression-like and insulin-resistant (DIR) state induced by the co-treatment of high-fat diet (HFD) and corticosterone (CORT). 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-d- ribofuranoside (AICAR), a pharmacological activator of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), was originally used to improve insulin resistance (IR). Interestingly, our results show a clear potential for AICAR as a putative antidepressant with a chronic action on the DIR mice. In contrast to the traditional antidepressants, AICAR as a promising antidepressant avoids reducing insulin actions of skeletal muscle in the context of long-term HFD. Exercise also produced antidepressant effects. Our data suggest that the effects of AICAR and exercise on DIR may further increase our understanding on the link between depression and diabetes. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Hang C.,East China Normal University | Huang G.,East China Normal University | Konotop V.V.,University of Lisbon
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2013

We show that a vapor of multilevel atoms driven by far-off-resonant laser beams, with the possibility of interference of two Raman resonances, is highly efficient for creating parity-time symmetric profiles of the probe-field refractive index, whose real part is symmetric and imaginary part is antisymmetric in space. The spatial modulation of the probe-field susceptibility is achieved by a proper combination of standing-wave strong control fields and of Stark shifts induced by far-off-resonance laser fields. As particular examples we explore a mixture of isotopes of rubidium atoms and design a parity-time symmetric lattice and a parabolic refractive index with a linear imaginary part. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Ouyang X.,East China Normal University | Lin B.,Xiamen University | Lin B.,Minjiang University
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2015

Both energy consumption and the growth of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in China are attributed to the industrial sector. Energy conservation and CO2 emissions reduction in China's industrial sector is decisive for achieving a low-carbon transition. We analyze the change of energy-related CO2 emissions in China's industrial sector from 1991 to 2010 based on the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI) method. Results indicate that industrial activity is the major factor that contributes to the increase of industrial CO2 emissions while energy intensity is the major contributor to the decrease of CO2 emissions. Industry size shows a varying trend interchanging intervals of growth along the study period. Moreover, both energy mix and carbon intensity of energy use have negative effects on the increase of CO2 emissions. The cointegration method is adopted to further explore determinants of CO2 emissions in China's industrial sector. Results show that there exists a long-run relationship between industrial CO2 emissions and affecting factors such as CO2 emissions per unit of energy consumption, industrial value added, labor productivity and fossil fuel consumption. China's industrial CO2 emissions are mainly attributed to the coal-dominated energy structure. Policy suggestions are thus provided to reduce industrial CO2 emissions in China. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Gu F.,Shanghai Key Laboratory of Modern Optical Systems | Gu F.,Zhejiang University | Zeng H.,Shanghai Key Laboratory of Modern Optical Systems | Zeng H.,East China Normal University | And 2 more authors.
Optics Letters | Year: 2013

We demonstrated a general approach for plasmonic sensing using metal single nanowires based on an evanescent coupling technique, where light was efficiently launched into and picked up from the metal nanowires using silica fiber tapers. A high amplitude sensitivity of ∼13 dB to 1.2% hydrogen was obtained using palladium-coated Au nanowires for hydrogen sensing, and a fast response of ∼5 ms was obtained using a polyacrylamide filmsupported Ag nanowire for relative humidity sensing. Our results may help develop metal nanowire-based plasmonic sensors. © 2013 Optical Society of America.

Zou Y.,East China Normal University | Zou Y.,Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research | Pereira T.,Imperial College London | Pereira T.,London Mathematical Laboratory | And 4 more authors.
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2014

Spontaneous explosive emergent behavior takes place in heterogeneous networks when the frequencies of the nodes are positively correlated to the node degree. A central feature of such explosive transitions is a hysteretic behavior at the transition to synchronization. We unravel the underlying mechanisms and show that the dynamical origin of the hysteresis is a change of basin of attraction of the synchronization state. Our findings hold for heterogeneous networks with star graph motifs such as scale-free networks, and hence, reveal how microscopic network parameters such as node degree and frequency affect the global network properties and can be used for network design and control. © 2014 American Physical Society.

Ouyang X.,East China Normal University | Lin B.,Minjiang University | Lin B.,Xiamen University
Energy and Buildings | Year: 2014

Electricity consumption of the Chinese building materials industry accounted for 8.4% of industrial and 6.2% of national electricity usage in 2011. The purpose of this paper is to estimate the future electricity intensity and conservation potential of the Chinese building materials industry. This paper adopts a cointegration method to establish a long-run equilibrium relationship between electricity intensity and factors including technology, power tariff, enterprise scale and value-added per worker. Electricity conservation potential in the Chinese building materials industry is predicted to be 90.5 billion kW h in 2020 under the moderate scenario, which is more than the total electricity consumption of Malaysia in 2007; and 150.9 billion kW h under the advanced scenario, which is more than the total electricity consumption of Saudi Arabia in 2005. Conserved electricity in building materials industry would account for 1.2% and 2.0% of national electricity consumption under the two scenarios, respectively. More importantly, we find that the electricity intensity gap between Chinese and the world's leading building materials industries could be significantly narrowed by 2020 if aggressive energy conservation policies were implemented. Finally, based on the results of our study, future policy priorities and directions are suggested. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Chen J.F.,East China Normal University | Du S.,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology
Frontiers of Physics | Year: 2012

In this article, we review on narrowband photon pairs produced in nonlinear crystals, and especially in atomic ensembles. In atomic ensembles, "write-read" process in pulse mode and spontaneous four-wave mixing process (SFWM) in continuous mode are two popular photon pair generation schemes. We specifically discuss the experimental works with continuous SFWM scheme in cold atomic ensembles. Photon pairs produced in these systems are characteristic of controllable long coherence time, and therefore are accessible with direct temporal modulation. We elaborate on the recent techniques on modulation and waveform reshaping of narrow-band paired photons. © 2012 Higher Education Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Ran L.,State Oceanic Administration | Jiang H.,East China Normal University | Knudsen K.L.,University of Aarhus | Eiriksson J.,University of Iceland
Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology | Year: 2011

Pronounced palaeoceanographic changes during the last millennium are revealed by high-resolution diatom records from site MD99-2275 on the North Icelandic shelf. There is a high degree of consistency between the reconstructed summer sea surface temperature (SST) record based on diatoms and the instrumental and documentary data during the last 100. years. This confirms the reliability of this proxy for the study of palaeoceanographic and palaeoclimatic changes on the North Icelandic shelf. The present diatom-based summer SST reconstruction shows that the last millennium was characterized by a general cooling trend, but with some fluctuations. Warm and stable conditions with relatively strong influence of the Irminger Current on the North Icelandic shelf are indicated during the interval AD 940-1300, corresponding in time to the Medieval Warm Period (MWP). A considerable cooling at ?. AD 1300 indicates the transition to the Little Ice Age (LIA) with increased influence of Polar and Arctic water masses deriving from the East Greenland and East Icelandic currents. An extended cooling period between AD 1300 and 1910 is characterized by approximately century-scale oscillations, with marked cold intervals at AD 1325-1375, AD 1460-1500, AD 1610-1670 and AD 1810-1910, separated by relatively mild spells. A two-step warming during the last 100. years is interrupted by three cool events around AD 1920, in the AD 1960s and in the late AD 1990s. In general, the diatom-based indication of palaeoceanographic changes on the North Icelandic shelf during the last millennium corresponds to other proxy-based palaeoclimatic and palaeoceanographic records in the North Atlantic region. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Wang X.,Nanjing Southeast University | Dong P.,East China Normal University | He P.,East China Normal University | Fang Y.,East China Normal University
Analytica Chimica Acta | Year: 2010

A solid-state electrochemiluminescence sensing platform based on ferrocene-labeled structure-switching signaling aptamer (Fc-aptamer) for highly sensitive detection of small molecules is developed successfully using adenosine as a model analyte. Such special sensing platform included two main parts, an electrochemiluminescence (ECL) substrate and an ECL intensity switch. The ECL substrate was made by modifying the complex of Au nanoparticle and Ruthenium (II) tris-(bipyridine) (Ru(bpy)3 2+-AuNPs) onto Au electrode. An anti-adenosine aptamer labeled by ferrocene acted as the ECL intensity switch. A short complementary ssDNA for the aptamer was applied to hybridizing with the aptamer, yielding a double-stranded complex of the aptamer and the ssDNA on the electrode surface. The introduction of adenosine triggered structure switching of the aptamer. As a result, the ssDNA was forced to dissociate from the sensing platform. Such structural change of the aptamer resulted in an obvious ECL intensity decrease due to the increased quenching effect of Fc to the ECL substrate. The analytic results were sensitive and specific. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Hang C.,University of Lisbon | Hang C.,East China Normal University | Konotop V.V.,University of Lisbon
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2010

A standing-wave control field applied to a three-level atomic medium in a planar hollow-core photonic crystal waveguide creates periodic variations of linear and nonlinear refractive indexes of the medium. This property can be used for efficient steering of light. In this work, we study, both analytically and numerically, the dynamics of probe optical beams in such structures. By properly designing the spatial dependence of the nonlinearity, it is possible to induce long-living Bloch oscillations of spatial gap solitons, thus providing desirable change in the direction of the beam propagation without inducing appreciable diffraction. Due to the significant enhancement of the nonlinearity, such self-focusing of the probe beam can be reached at extremely weak light intensities. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

Hang C.,University of Lisbon | Hang C.,East China Normal University | Konotop V.V.,University of Lisbon
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2011

We investigate the existence and stability of various types of spatial solitons in a three-level atomic medium with Laguerre-Gaussian control beam. Radial and azimuthal modulations of the medium properties, introduced by the control beam, provide possibilities for existence of diverse soliton patterns and dynamics. Beam diffraction provides additional soliton controllability. All types of solitons can be generated at very low input energy at a few-photon level. © 2011 American Physical Society.

Miao Q.,East China Normal University | Wang Y.,East China Normal University | Chen Y.,East China Normal University | Yang Y.,Zhejiang Ocean University
Computer Physics Communications | Year: 2014

Based on the Bell polynomials scheme, this paper presents a Maple computer algebra program PDEBellII which can automatically construct the bilinear forms, bilinear Bäcklund transformations, Lax pairs and conservation laws of the KdV-type soliton equations. Some examples are given to verify the validity of our program. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Wan B.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry | Jia G.,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology | Ma S.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry | Ma S.,East China Normal University
Advanced Synthesis and Catalysis | Year: 2011

A highly chemo-, regio-, and stereoselective synthesis of eight- to ten-membered lactones via the coupling cyclization of readily available allenyl 3-oxoalkanoates and organic halides through an anti-π-allylic palladium intermediate is reported. The yields ranged from moderate to good. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Wang X.,Nanjing Southeast University | Zhang X.,Nanjing Southeast University | He P.,East China Normal University | Fang Y.,East China Normal University
Biosensors and Bioelectronics | Year: 2011

An enzyme-based solid-state electrochemiluminescence (ECL) sensing platform for sensitive detection of a single point mutation is developed successfully using p53 tumor suppressor gene as a model analyte. A composite of multiwalled carbon nanotubes and Ruthenium (II) tris-(bipyridine) (MWNTs-Ru(bpy)3 2+) was prepared and coated on an electrode surface, which was covered by polypyrrole (PPy) to immobilize ssDNA. Then, the ssDNA recognized the gold nanoparticle (AuNP)-labeled p53 tumor suppressor gene, and produced AuNP-dsDNA electrode with AuNP layer. The surface adsorbed the glucose-dehydrogenase (GDH) molecules for producing ECL signal. This system combined enzyme reaction with ECL detection, and it can recognize sequence-specific wild type p53 sequence (wtp53) and muted type p53 sequence (mtp53) with discrimination of up to 56.3%. The analytic results were sensitive and specific. It holds promise for the diagnosis and management of cancer. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Kim Y.-J.,KAIST | Kwon O.,East China Normal University | Li F.,East China Normal University
Journal of Mathematical Biology | Year: 2014

We study a logistic model with a nonlinear random diffusion in a Fokker-Planck type law, but not in Fick's law. In the model individuals are assumed to increase their motility if they starve. Any directional information to resource is not assumed in this starvation driven diffusion and individuals disperse in a random walk style strategy. However, the non-uniformity in the motility produces an advection toward surplus resource. Several basic properties of the model are obtained including the global asymptotic stability and the acquisition of the ideal free distribution. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Li M.,East China Normal University | Cattani C.,University of Salerno | Chen S.-Y.,Zhejiang University of Technology
Mathematical Problems in Engineering | Year: 2011

Sea level fluctuation gains increasing interests in several fields, such as geoscience and ocean dynamics. Recently, the long-range dependence (LRD) or long memory, which is measured by the Hurst parameter, denoted by H, of sea level was reported by Barbosa et al. (2006). However, reports regarding the local roughness of sea level, which is characterized by fractal dimension, denoted by D, of sea level, are rarely seen. Note that a common model describing a random function with LRD is fractional Gaussian noise (fGn), which is the increment process of fractional Brownian motion (fBm) (Beran (1994)). If using the model of fGn, D of a random function is greater than 1 and less than 2 because D is restricted by H with the restriction D=2-H. In this paper, we introduce the concept of one-dimensional random functions with LRD based on a specific class of processes called the Cauchy-class (CC) process, towards separately characterizing the local roughness and the long-range persistence of sea level. In order to achieve this goal, we present the power spectrum density (PSD) function of the CC process in the closed form. The case study for modeling real data of sea level collected by the National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) at six stations in the Florida and Eastern Gulf of Mexico demonstrates that the sea level may be one-dimensional but LRD. The case study also implies that the CC process might be a possible model of sea level. In addition to these, this paper also exhibits the yearly multiscale phenomenon of sea level. Copyright © 2011 Ming Li et al.

Vasilakis G.,Copenhagen University | Shen H.,Copenhagen University | Jensen K.,Copenhagen University | Balabas M.,Copenhagen University | And 5 more authors.
Nature Physics | Year: 2015

Continuous observation of an oscillator results in quantum back-action, which limits the knowledge acquired by the measurement. A careful balance between the information obtained and the back-action disturbance leads to the standard quantum limit of precision. This limit can be surpassed by a measurement with strength modulated at twice the oscillator frequency, resulting in a squeezed state of the oscillator motion, as proposed decades ago. Here, we report the generation of a squeezed state of an oscillator by a stroboscopic back-action-evading measurement. The oscillator is the spin of an atomic ensemble precessing in a magnetic field. The oscillator initially prepared nearly in the ground state is stroboscopically coupled to an optical mode of a cavity. A measurement of the output light results in a 2.2 ± 0.3 dB squeezed state of the oscillator. The demonstrated spin-squeezed state of 10 8 atoms with an angular spin variance of 8 × 10-10 rad2 is promising for magnetic field sensing.

Guo S.-X.,Monash University | Zhao S.-F.,Monash University | Zhao S.-F.,East China Normal University | Bond A.M.,Monash University | Zhang J.,Monash University
Langmuir | Year: 2012

Graphene modified electrodes have been fabricated by electrodeposition from an aqueous graphene oxide solution onto conducting Pt, Au, glassy carbon, and indium tin dioxide substrates. Detailed investigations of the electrochemistry of the [Ru(NH 3) 6] 3+/2+ and [Fe(CN) 6] 3-/4- and hydroquinone and uric acid oxidation processes have been undertaken at glassy carbon and graphene modified glassy carbon electrodes using transient cyclic voltammetry at a stationary electrode and near steady-state voltammetry at a rotating disk electrode. Comparisons of the data with simulation suggest that the transient voltammetric characteristics at graphene modified electrodes contain a significant contribution from thin layer and surface confined processes. Consequently, interpretations based solely on mass transport by semi-infinite linear diffusion may result in incorrect conclusions on the activity of the graphene modified electrode. In contrast, steady-state voltammetry at a rotating disk electrode affords a much simpler method for the evaluation of the performance of graphene modified electrode since the relative importance of the thin layer and surface confined processes are substantially diminished and mass transport is dominated by convection. Application of the rotated electrode approach with carbon nanotube modified electrodes also should lead to simplification of data analysis in this environment. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Guo W.-Y.,University of Aarhus | Guo W.-Y.,East China Normal University | Lambertini C.,University of Aarhus | Li X.-Z.,East China Normal University | And 2 more authors.
Global Change Biology | Year: 2013

After its introduction into North America, Euro-Asian Phragmites australis became an aggressive invasive wetland grass along the Atlantic coast of North America. Its distribution range has since expanded to the middle, south and southwest of North America, where invasive P. australis has replaced millions of hectares of native plants in inland and tidal wetlands. Another P. australis invasion from the Mediterranean region is simultaneously occurring in the Gulf region of the United States and some countries in South America. Here, we analysed the occurrence records of the two Old World invasive lineages of P. australis (Haplotype M and Med) in both their native and introduced ranges using environmental niche models (ENMs) to assess (i) whether a niche shift accompanied the invasions in the New World; (ii) the role of biologically relevant climatic variables and human influence in the process of invasion; and (iii) the current potential distribution of these two lineages. We detected local niche shifts along the East Coast of North America and the Gulf Coast of the United States for Haplotype M and around the Mississippi Delta and Florida of the United States for Med. The new niche of the introduced Haplotype M accounts for temperature fluctuations and increased precipitation. The introduced Med lineage has enlarged its original subtropical niche to the tropics-subtropics, invading regions with a high annual mean temperature (> ca. 10 °C) and high precipitation in the driest period. Human influence is an important factor for both niches. We suggest that an increase in precipitation in the 20th century, global warming and human-made habitats have shaped the invasive niches of the two lineages in the New World. However, as the invasions are ongoing and human and natural disturbances occur concomitantly, the future distribution ranges of the two lineages may diverge from the potential distribution ranges detected in this study. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Ouyang X.,East China Normal University | Lin B.,Minjiang University | Lin B.,Xiamen University
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2014

Subsidies to fossil-fuel consumption have made Chinas energy system fragile and unsustainable. It is necessary for China to reform fossil-fuel subsidies and reflect the resource cost and environmental cost in energy prices. Considering the life-cycle external costs, this paper estimates the scale of fossil-fuel subsidy and the true cost of renewable energy in 2010 and evaluates impacts of increasing renewable energy subsidies and phasing out fossil fuel subsidies on macro-economy and energy system in China based on scenario analysis. Simulation results show that the negative impacts on economic growth can be reduced from 4.460% to 0.432%, if only 10% of fossil fuel subsidies were removed. Increasing subsidies for renewable energy has positive impacts on macroeconomic variables. Although the economic benefits per unit of subsidies for renewable energy are lower than those for fossil fuels by 0.06-0.19 CNY, the revenue gap can be narrowed by shifting more subsidies from fossil fuels to renewables. Increasing subsidies for renewable energy helps optimize Chinas energy system in three ways: the first is making energy consumption structure cleaner; the second is improving energy efficiency; and the third is addressing the problem of imbalanced distribution and consumption of energy. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Qian H.,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology | Yu X.,East China Normal University | Zhang J.,East China Normal University | Sun J.,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2013

The first efficient intermolecular addition of nitroalkanes to activated enynes for asymmetric synthesis of 2,3-allenoates is described. It is a new addition to the limited available strategies for catalytic asymmetric synthesis of allenoates. Enabled by a new bifunctional catalyst, a range of trisubstituted allenoates can be obtained in excellent chemical and optical purity. These allenoate products with a pendant 2-nitroethyl α-substituent are useful chiral building blocks. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

Wan B.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry | Jia G.,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology | Ma S.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry | Ma S.,East China Normal University
Organic Letters | Year: 2012

An efficient synthesis of 3,4-allenyl ketones via the Pd-catalyzed decarboxylative coupling of the readily available 3-oxoalkanoates is reported. The C-C bond forming reaction occurs under mild conditions producing CO 2 as the only byproduct. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

Zhang W.,Nanjing Southeast University | Ye H.-Y.,Nanjing Southeast University | Graf R.,Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research | Spiess H.W.,Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research | And 3 more authors.
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2013

The inclusion compound [(CH3)2NH2] 2[KCo(CN)6] exhibits a marked temperature-dependent dielectric constant and can be considered as a model of tunable and switchable dielectric materials. Crystal structure and solid-state NMR studies reveal a switchable property between low and high dielectric states around 245 K. This originates from an order-disorder phase transition of the system, changing the dynamics of the polar dimethylammonium (DMA) cation. Furthermore, the tuning of the dielectric constant at temperatures below the phase transition point is related to increasing angular pretransitional fluctuations of the dipole moment of DMA. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

Zhang R.,Nanjing Southeast University | Xue P.,Nanjing Southeast University | Xue P.,East China Normal University | Twamley J.,Macquarie University
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2014

We observe the localization effect of one-dimensional quantum walks with single-point phase defects. The walker's spread velocity is dramatically suppressed by interference effects due to the phase defect. We show that the localization effect depends on four factors: the value and the position of the phase defect, the parameter of coin flipping, and the initial state of the walker + coin system. © 2014 American Physical Society.

Hang C.,East China Normal University | Zezyulin D.A.,University of Lisbon | Huang G.,East China Normal University | Konotop V.V.,University of Lisbon | Malomed B.A.,Tel Aviv University
Optics Letters | Year: 2014

We propose a scheme for creating a tunable, highly nonlinear defect in a one-dimensional photonic crystal with an embedded atomic cell filled by a mixture of two isotopes of three-level atoms. The defect creates an effective doublecore waveguide. The induced refractive index for a probe field can be made parity-time (PT) symmetric by means of a proper combination of a control field and a Stark field; hence the complex defect potential obtained contains double-well real and linear imaginary parts. We also show that it is possible to form various stable nonlinear defect modes supported by the focusing nonlinearity of the system. © 2014 Optical Society of America.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP-SICA | Phase: SSH-2010-4.1-3 | Award Amount: 3.36M | Year: 2011

Sustainable Urbanisation in China : Historical and Comparative Perspectives, Mega-trends towards 2050 (URBACHINA) combines the knowledge and expertise from a number of different disciplines to provide new and innovative insights and scenarios that can be used guide urbanization in China over the next 40 years. A key strength of the proposal is the use of thematic pairs of European and Chinese researchers who will lead and deliver the research and dissemination associated with work packages organized around the key themes identified in the Call. Each work package team comprises leading experts who will utilize state-of-the-art knowledge, methods and techniques from economic geography, to anthropology and history to test a suite of hypotheses founded on historical and comparative perspectives on urbanisation trends and process in the EU and China. While each of the four core research teams will deliver significant added value through the work packages, there is also provision in the proposal for extensive cross-project collaboration based on the four defined topics identified in the Call: 1.The institutional foundations and policies for urbanisation; 2.The issue of land property in urbanisation and the development of real estate markets in cities; 3.The need for environmental infrastructures delivering connectivity and services for the urban population; 4.The relationships between urban development, traditions, and modern lifestyles in cities. These four topics will be treated as different layers within a comprehensive analysis of a single process -urbanisation in China- that links historical experiences, comparative dimensions and possible future scenarios. This framework will provide a firm foundation for multi-faceted interactions between scholars, officials and business in Europe and China. It will also provide the basis for extensive dissemination of URBACHINA outputs using a variety of media designed to engage policy makers and ordinary citizens.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SSH-2007-4.3-01 | Award Amount: 2.01M | Year: 2009

Geographers are the most critical social scientists when it comes to the delimitation of borders of the so-called European continent. Continents as Huntingtons civilisation are ideological productions that are certainly not based on natural facts. But they are deeply enhanced in the mind of European citizens and policy makers because they were historically produced by Europeans as a tool of world power. It is therefore crucial to examine which divisions of the world are perceived by people located outside the European Union, in order to produce a non Eurocentric view. The project EuroBroadMap is based on a worldwide survey trying to catch both the perception of European Union global role and attraction power level and the definition of EU from a qualitative and spatial point of view as well as the relative attraction of countries, or even cities that compose it. The survey will be realized on a panel of license degree students in a relevant panel of external countries and in different academic fields. The questionnaire will combine different kinds of methods, like drawings on maps, open questions, ranking etc Variations in answer will be examined according to both geographical location and social status. The individual mental maps will be compared to collective representations: websites of organization, tourist guides, teaching books, international media, etc. Particular attention will be paid to (carto)graphic representations of Europe and other world divisions. Spiritual flows that are revealed by individual and collective mental maps will be then compared to four types of effective flows linking EU and the rest of the world (Trade, Aid, FDI, Migrations) in order to examine possible discrepancies. The diffusion of results in various formats (report, website, teaching material, ) will be organized in order to insure a growing awareness of the complexity of actual situation of Europe in the world, according to material and spiritual dimensions.

News Article | April 10, 2016

Abstract: Researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory have found a potential path to further improve solar cell efficiency by understanding the competition among halogen atoms during the synthesis of sunlight-absorbing crystals. Photovoltaic cells that convert sunlight directly into electricity are becoming increasingly prominent in the world's renewable energy mix. One promising area of solar energy research involves perovskites, a material that can potentially convert sunlight into electricity more efficiently and less expensively than typical silicon-based semiconductors. Perovskite-based solar cells, however, have been hindered by unreliable durability, poor efficiency and unresolved questions. "Organometallic halide perovskite semiconductors have high carrying capacity and efficiency to rival silicon-based solar cells. These materials are easy and cheap to grow but have been known to degrade," said Bin Yang, an ORNL postdoctoral researcher at the Center for Nanophase Materials Science. A new study published in the Journal of the American Chemical Society demonstrates that in the presence of reactive iodide ions, negatively charged bromine and chlorine are left out of the final perovskite crystal structure - like not making the team in gym class. "To take that first step and maximize solar cell technology made with organometallic halide perovskites, we need to know how to grow high quality light-absorbing material and establish optimal film growth processes," said Yang, the study's lead author. "The simple printing or spraying of perovskite ink makes solar module costs even lower." Using high-powered imaging techniques, Yang and the team tracked kinetic activity in organometallic halide perovskites. Halogen ions, jockeying for a position in the growing structure, affect the movement of charges through the crystals and subsequently impact the efficiency of sunlight's conversion to electricity. "The kinetic activity found in halide perovskites poses significant challenges for advancing high-efficiency optoelectronic materials and devices," said Kai Xiao, study co-author and ORNL staff scientist. The team first used X-ray diffraction for a real-time peek at the stages of crystallization, immediately monitoring the chemical reaction between a mixed-halide vapor and a thin lead-iodide film. ORNL researchers then extracted chemical, molecular and elemental data from the perovskites using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry for ex-situ analysis. The mass spectrometer's beams of ions provided a snapshot of information about molecular activity on the crystal's surface and established chlorine's eventual distribution in the grain boundaries, or crevices, of perovskite films. A combination of imaging techniques allowed the ORNL team to track the outcome of the halogen competition in the solar material. Researchers discovered that while bromine, chlorine and iodine ions facilitate growth in a developing organometallic perovskite structure, only iodine gets a spot in the final crystal. However, though they are left out of the final structure, the molecules build "team morale" as they help promote overall crystal growth. The measurements offered several insights into perovskite crystallization kinetics that will lead to improvements in the synthesis and processing of the materials for high efficiency solar cells, according to Xiao. "Identifying the chemical phenomenon of halide competition in hybrid perovskites will help in engineering large-grain perovskite films for better, cheaper solar devices," Xiao said. ### Co-authors of the study are ORNL's Jong Keum, Olga Ovchinnikova, Alex Belianinov, Mao-Hua Du, Ilia Ivanov, Christopher Rouleau, and David Geohegan, and East China Normal University's Shiyou Chen. This research was conducted at the Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences (CNMS), which is a DOE Office of Science User Facility. The work was supported by DOE's Office of Science. About Oak Ridge National Laboratory UT-Battelle manages ORNL for the DOE's Office of Science. The Office of Science is the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States, and is working to address some of the most pressing challenges of our time. For more information, please visit -- by Ashanti B. Washington For more information, please click If you have a comment, please us. Issuers of news releases, not 7th Wave, Inc. or Nanotechnology Now, are solely responsible for the accuracy of the content.

News Article | October 31, 2016

WCS (Wildlife Conservation Society) reports that eggs of critically endangered Chinese alligators discovered recently in a nest in a Shanghai wetland park have hatched and that baby alligators have been photographed and identified swimming in the area. The announcement signals a huge success for the species and for ongoing reintroduction efforts initiated by East China Normal University, Chongming Dongtan Wetland Park, and WCS with the help of U.S. zoos including WCS's Bronx Zoo, and the Saint Augustine Alligator Farm Zoological Park. "This shows that even the most endangered wildlife can recover if given a chance," said Aili Kang, WCS Executive Director for Asia Programs. "Without the efforts of our partners and colleagues in China, we wouldn't have had this great outcome that demonstrates that people and predators can co-exist in one of the most densely populated regions of the world." WCS scientists Steven G. Platt, Fenglian Li, and Maggie He originally discovered three nests, with more than 60 viable eggs laid over a period of about two weeks. Unfortunately, two of the nests were lost to flooding spawned by a typhoon in mid-September and the fate of the third nest's hatchlings was unclear. However, Mr. Wang Jiang Tao from Dongtan Wetland Park observed three baby alligators on September 25th and Mr. Yu Feng from East China Normal University photographed the animals on the 27th. The Chinese alligator (Alligator sinensis) is one of only two species of alligator in the world. Fewer than 150 remain in the wild in China, and these occur in small populations at widely scattered locations. Habitat availability limits potential expansion of these populations, none of which numbers more than about 20 alligators. Meanwhile the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) is considered one of the great conservation success stories, having recovered from overhunting and habitat loss in the last century. They were removed from the endangered species in 1987 and are now considered abundant throughout their range in the southeastern U.S. Chinese partners and WCS initially released six captive-bred Chinese alligators in Dongtan Wetland Park in Shanghai in 2007. Three of these animals came from Changxing Chinese Alligator Nature Reserve in China and the other three alligators came from U.S. zoos including WCS's Bronx Zoo, and the Saint Augustine Alligator Farm Zoological Park. Additional Chinese alligators from these U.S. zoos were sent to breeding centers in China to provide valuable genetic diversity in captive populations. Then in 2015, six more alligators from Anhui Chinese Alligator National Nature Reserve were released into Dongtan Wetland Park. Said Jim Breheny, WCS Executive Vice President and Director of WCS's Bronx Zoo: "The release of zoo-bred Chinese alligators to re-establish a breeding population of this endangered crocodilian is a great example of how zoos are playing a major role in conservation efforts around the world. The Bronx Zoo is proud to be a part of the effort to save this critically endangered species from the brink of extinction." The Bronx Zoo currently has two Chinese alligators at the zoo's Reptile House.

News Article | October 26, 2016

Experiments by researchers at the NYU Tandon School of Engineering and NYU Shanghai have successfully cracked the veil of anonymity in Yik Yak, an ostensibly anonymous social media application. Yik Yak thrives on anonymity. Whether it's praise for a local restaurant or, in a darker use of the application, a complaint or bullying comment about teachers or peers, Yik Yak users trust that their words are untraceable. Even Yik Yak's new policy requiring user pseudonyms preserves anonymity. Yik Yak is particularly popular on college campuses and has drawn criticism as a tool for harassment. The app has been downloaded more than a million times on Android mobile devices alone. Keith Ross, the Leonard J. Shustek Distinguished Professor of Computer Science at NYU Tandon and Dean of Engineering and Computer Science at NYU Shanghai, will present the paper, You Can Yak but You Can't Hide: Localizing Anonymous Social Network Users, at the ACM (Association for Computing Machinery) Internet Measurements Conference in Santa Monica, California, this November. Ross, his students, and colleagues from East China Normal University tested Yik Yak's susceptibility to localization attacks, reasoning that if it is possible to locate the geographical origin of a comment, or "yak," as it is commonly known, it may be possible to identify the person who posted it. Experiments showed that yaks can, in fact, be localized through a fairly simple machine learning algorithm that an undergraduate computer science student could program and run in a matter of hours. Ross and his collaborators localized yaks to within 300 feet and in one experiment identified the college dormitories from which yaks originated with 100 percent accuracy. "The integrity of user anonymity is central to Yik Yak and similar anonymous social media apps, and this research shows that it's possible for a third party to compromise it," Ross said. "At this stage, we can narrow down a location to a building, which when combined with other side information could potentially de-anonymize the author of any given yak." Ross and his team, which includes East China Normal University Professor Haifeng Qian and doctoral student Minhui Xue, and NYU Shanghai undergraduates Cameron Ballard, Kelvin Liu, Carson Nemelka, and Yanqiu Wu, conducted their experiments from Shanghai. They deployed Yik Yak on two U.S. college campuses using a common technique to trick the GPS in a smartphone into believing it was on those campuses. This was important because a yak appears only on smartphones in the vicinity of where the yak is sent. The researchers designed an automated system to "place" themselves (through GPS coordinates) at many different locations in and around the campuses and record which yaks were available at each location. The system then used machine learning to process the recorded data to predict where each of the yaks was posted. Ross explained that college students often post disparaging yaks about professors or fellow students. "It wouldn't be difficult for a professor to figure out the dorm from which a derogatory yak was posted, then couple this information with student housing information to de-anonymize the yak, and that's concerning," he said. The researchers note that their experiments used the same public information collected by other users of Yik Yak, and that they attempted to analyze only the location of messages generated by members of the research team. No outside participants were involved. Ross and his colleague informed Yik Yak about the potential for localization attacks and recommended several potential privacy enhancements. Among them is improving localization authentication for users, which would make it easier to identify and block users employing forged GPS coordinates. Another strategy would be for Yik Yak to always display the exact same set of messages no matter where the app is being used on a campus. About the NYU Tandon School of Engineering The NYU Tandon School of Engineering dates to 1854, when the New York University School of Civil Engineering and Architecture as well as the Brooklyn Collegiate and Polytechnic Institute (widely known as Brooklyn Poly) were founded. Their successor institutions merged in January 2014 to create a comprehensive school of education and research in engineering and applied sciences, rooted in a tradition of invention, and entrepreneurship and dedicated to furthering technology in service to society. In addition to its main location in Brooklyn, NYU Tandon collaborates with other schools within the country's largest private research university and is closely connected to engineering programs in NYU Abu Dhabi and NYU Shanghai. It operates business incubators in downtown Manhattan and Brooklyn and an award-winning online graduate program. For more information, visit http://engineering. .

Zhou L.,East China Normal University | Zhou L.,Rice University | Pu H.,Rice University | Zhang W.,East China Normal University
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2013

We theoretically investigate the localization properties of a spin-orbit-coupled spin-1/2 particle moving in a one-dimensional quasiperiodic potential, which can be experimentally implemented using cold atoms trapped in a quasiperiodic optical lattice potential and external laser fields. We present the phase diagram in the parameter space of the disorder strength and those related to the spin-orbit coupling. The phase diagram is verified via multifractal analysis of the atomic wave functions and the numerical simulation of diffusion dynamics. We found that spin-orbit coupling can lead to spectra mixing (coexistence of extended and localized states) and the appearance of mobility edges. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Dai H.,Soochow University of China | Morelli J.N.,Texas A&M University | Ai F.,Sun Yat Sen University | Yin D.,East China Normal University | And 3 more authors.
Human Brain Mapping | Year: 2013

Purpose: To analyze functional connectivity (FC) of the visual cortex using resting-state functional MRI in human primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) patients. Materials and Methods: Twenty-two patients with known POAG and 22 age-matched controls were included in this IRB-approved study. Subjects were evaluated by 3 T MR using resting-state blood oxygenation level dependent and three-dimensional brain volume imaging (3D-BRAVO) MRI. Data processing was performed with standard software. FC maps were generated from Brodmann areas (BA) 17/18/19/7 in a voxel-wise fashion. Region of interest analysis was used to specifically examine FC among each pair of BA17/18/19/7. Results: Voxel-wise analyses demonstrated decreased FC in the POAG group between the primary visual cortex (BA17) and the right inferior temporal, left fusiform, left middle occipital, right superior occipital, left postcentral, right precentral gyri, and anterior lobe of the left cerebellum. Increased FC was found between BA17 and the left cerebellum, right middle cerebellar peduncle, right middle frontal gyrus, and extra-nuclear gyrus (P < 0.05). In terms of the higher visual cortices (BA18/19), positive FC was disappeared with the cerebellar vermis, right middle temporal, and right superior temporal gyri (P < 0.05). Negative FC was disappeared between BA18/19 and the right insular gyrus (P < 0.05). Region of interest analysis demonstrated no statistically significant differences in FC between the POAG patients relative to the controls (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Changes in FC of the visual cortex are found in patients with POAG. These include alterations in connectivity between the visual cortex and associative visual areas along with disrupted connectivity between the primary and higher visual areas. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Yang S.L.,East China Normal University | Milliman J.D.,Virginia Institute of Marine Science | Xu K.H.,Louisiana State University | Deng B.,East China Normal University | And 2 more authors.
Earth-Science Reviews | Year: 2014

Although large dams have been constructed and continue to be constructed on many rivers, the lack of long-term gauging data often makes it difficult to document either reservoir sedimentation or the dams' downstream impacts. More than 50. years of water and sediment data from 20 gauging stations within the Yangtze River's basin provide us a unique opportunity to delineate the impacts from the Three Gorges Dam (TGD), the world's largest dam. During the first decade after TGD completion in 2003, 1.8. Gt of sediments were trapped in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR). The TGR's sediment retention rate increased from ~. 65% during the first three years of operation to ~. 85% by 2008-2012, when the TGD was in normal operation; in the low-discharge drought years of 2006 and 2011, reservoir retention exceeded 90%. Sedimentation in the TGR has been discontinuous, the most prominent depocenters being at the broad section near the up-river entrance to the reservoir and just upstream of the dam, where sediment thickness locally exceeds 60. m. Median size of the sediments trapped in the TGR is 11. μm, whereas sediments discharged from the TGR are finer than 5. μm. As a result of sediment retention in the TGR, the river downstream has been eroded at a rate of 65. Mt/yr. Riverbed sediments have coarsened considerably in the first several hundred kilometers downstream of TGD. Sediment discharge into the Yangtze estuary, as measured at the Datong downstream gauging station, decreased by 130. Mt/yr relative to the normal water years of 2001-2002, nearly 90% of which can be attributed to the TGD. With planned construction of large upstream Cascade Reservoirs, the amount of sediment entering the TGR will decline dramatically, thus reducing sedimentation in the TGR and thereby extending its lifespan; by the end of the 21st century, the TGR should have retained more than 80% of its original storage capacity. Sediment outflow from the TGR will likely be less than 15. Mt/yr, compared to 50. Mt/yr at present. Even with downstream channel erosion, the long-term average sediment discharge into the Yangtze estuary in future decades most likely will decrease to ca. 110. Mt/yr, only 20% of its level in the 1960s, and further delta erosion is expected. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Ito Y.,Tohoku University | Cong W.,East China Normal University | Fujita T.,Tohoku University | Tang Z.,East China Normal University | Chen M.,Japan Science and Technology Agency
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2015

Chemical doping has been demonstrated to be an effective way to realize new functions of graphene as metal-free catalyst in energy-related electrochemical reactions. Although efficient catalysis for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) has been achieved with doped graphene, its performance in the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is rather poor. In this study we report that nitrogen and sulfur co-doping leads to high catalytic activity of nanoporous graphene in HER at low operating potential, comparable to the best Pt-free HER catalyst, 2D MoS2. The interplay between the chemical dopants and geometric lattice defects of the nanoporous graphene plays the fundamental role in the superior HER catalysis. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Tang Y.,Xi'an Shiyou University | Meng M.,Xi'an Shiyou University | Zhang J.,Xi'an Shiyou University | Lu Y.,East China Normal University
Applied Energy | Year: 2011

In this study, the catalytic performance of commercial CaO modified by trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS) for transesterification of rapeseed oil and methanol to biodiesel production was investigated. It was found that the fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) yield of the modified CaO was greatly enhanced from 85.4% to 94.6%. The possible reason lies on promoting the absorption of grease to CaO surface. Good results of repeated experiments showed that the modified catalyst has the capacity of water resistance and can be reused for several runs without significant deactivation, which can be confirmed by the humidity test in the vapor-saturated atmosphere. Both the characterizations of the catalyst and the effects of various factors such as mass ratio of catalyst to oil, reaction temperature and molar ratio of methanol to oil were investigated. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Berestycki H.,Ecole des hautes etudes en science sociales | Lin T.-C.,National Taiwan University | Wei J.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | Zhao C.,East China Normal University | Zhao C.,National Taiwan University
Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis | Year: 2013

In this paper we study bound state solutions of a class of two-component nonlinear elliptic systems with a large parameter tending to infinity. The large parameter giving strong intercomponent repulsion induces phase separation and forms segregated nodal domains divided by an interface. To obtain the profile of bound state solutions near the interface, we prove the uniform Lipschitz continuity of bound state solutions when the spatial dimension is N = 1. Furthermore, we show that the limiting nonlinear elliptic system that arises has unbounded solutions with symmetry and monotonicity. These unbounded solutions are useful for rigorously deriving the asymptotic expansion of the minimizing energy which is consistent with the hypothesis of Du and Zhang (Discontin Dynam Sys, 2012). When the spatial dimension is N = 2, we establish the De Giorgi type conjecture for the blow-up nonlinear elliptic system under suitable conditions at infinity on bound state solutions. These results naturally lead us to formulate De Giorgi type conjectures for these types of systems in higher dimensions. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Tang Y.,Xi'an Shiyou University | Xu J.,Xi'an Shiyou University | Zhang J.,Xi'an Shiyou University | Lu Y.,East China Normal University
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2013

A high efficient production of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) from soybean oil and rapeseed oil was carried out using modified CaO as solid basic catalyst by connecting bromooctane to the surface of CaO chemically in a simple way. It was found that 99.5% yield of the FAME over modified CaO was obtained from soybean oil using 15:1 molar ratio of methanol to oil after 3 h at reaction temperature of 65 °C, which is much higher than the yield of 35.4% over commercial CaO at the same reaction conditions. For the transesterification between rapeseed oil and methanol, the reaction time to its highest yield, 99.8%, was shortened to 2.5 h. The physical and chemical properties of catalysts were characterized by using techniques of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), BET surface area measurement (BET), Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and thermogravimeter (TG). The results indicated that well dispersed CaO with relatively small particle sizes and high surface areas were obtained after modification. Furthermore, the thermal stability of modified CaO is improved and the amount of Ca(OH)2 formed during the modifying process is very little. Influence of the amount of modifier and various reaction conditions, such as mass ratio of catalyst to oil, reaction temperature and molar ratio of methanol to oil, were investigated in detail. Furthermore, water-tolerance of the modified CaO was tested by adding water in the reaction system. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Yan Y.,University of California at Los Angeles | Yan Y.,East China Normal University
Journal of Asian Studies | Year: 2012

Food-safety problems constitute a new, urgent, and multifaceted challenge to Chinese people, society, and the state, involving a number of social, political, and ethical issues beyond those of food safety, nutrition, and health. In light of Ulrich Beck's theory of risk society, this article examines food-safety problems in contemporary Chinese society at the levels of food hygiene, unsafe food, and poisonous foods and argues that food-safety problems not only affect the lives of Chinese people in harmful ways but also pose a number of manufactured risks that are difficult to calculate and control. More importantly, food-safety problems in China have contributed to a rapid decline of social trust, thus posing a risk of distrust that has far-reaching social and political ramifications. In this sense, a risk society has already arrived in China but it comes with certain local characteristics and poses some new theoretical questions. © 2012 The Association for Asian Studies, Inc.

Sun S.,East China Normal University | Hardoon D.R.,Institute for Infocomm Research
Neurocomputing | Year: 2010

In the setting of active learning there exists a general assumption that labeled examples are available for training a classifier, which in turn is used to examine unlabeled data to select the most 'informative' examples for manual labeling. However, in some domain applications there are a limited number of labeled examples available, such as in the most extreme cases of having a single labeled example per category. In these scenarios, the most existing active learning methodologies cannot be directly applied without initially making an assumption on label assignment. In this paper we present a method for finding high-informative examples for manual labeling based on extremely limited labeled data available during training. We propose using canonical correlation analysis to investigate the correlation between different views of the available data and demonstrate that this measure can be used as a selection criterion for the novel application of active learning using only a single labeled example from each class. We demonstrate our method with promising experimental results on text classification, advertisement removal and multi-class image classification tasks. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Liu H.,East China Normal University | Liu H.,Shandong University of Technology | Jiang X.,East China Normal University
Chemistry - An Asian Journal | Year: 2013

The introduction of sulfur atoms onto target molecules is an important area in organic synthesis, in particular in the synthesis of pharmaceutical compounds, and a wide variety of sulfuration agents have been developed for thionation reactions over the past few decades. In this Focus Review, we collect and summarize the C-S bond-formation reactions that have been used to construct C-S bonds in natural products and pharmaceutical compounds. C-S the day: Organosulfur compounds, including a wide range of natural products and drugs, have received considerable attention over the past few decades, owing to their remarkably bioactivity in biochemistry and medicinal chemistry. Numerous excellent sulfuration agents have been developed for the construction of C-S bonds. In this review, the various strategies for C-S bond formation are collected according to their sulfuration agents. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Wang W.,Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced Polymeric Materials | Du C.,Xiamen University | Wang X.,Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced Polymeric Materials | He X.,East China Normal University | And 3 more authors.
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2014

Porous polymeric films are of paramount importance in many areas of modern science and technology. However, processing methods typically based on direct writing, imprint, and lithography techniques have low throughput and are often limited to specific fabricated shapes. Herein, we demonstrate the directional photomanipulation of breath figure arrays (BFAs) formed by an azobenzene-containing block copolymer to address the aforementioned problems. Under the irradiation of linearly polarized light, the round pores in the BFAs were converted to rectangular, rhombic, and parallelogram-shaped pores in 30 min, due to the anisotropic mass migration based on the photo-reconfiguration of the azobenzene units. Through a secondary irradiation after rotating the sample by 90, the transformed pores were apparently recovered. Therefore, this non-contacted, directional photomanipulation technique in conjunction with breath figure processing opens a new route to nano/microporous films with finely tuned features. Directional photofluidization of azobenzene groups manipulates the shape transformation of the round pores in an ordered breath figure array. Depending on the irradiation time and polarization direction of the incident polarized light, rectangular, rhombic, or parallelogram-shaped pores can be obtained. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Xu Q.,Nanjing Medical University | Liu L.-Z.,Thomas Jefferson University | Qian X.,Nanjing Medical University | Chen Q.,Nanjing Medical University | And 5 more authors.
Nucleic Acids Research | Year: 2012

MiR-145 can regulate cell apoptosis, proliferation, neural development and stem cell differentiation. Previous studies indicate that miR-145 is downregulated in human colon cancer cells. However, the molecular mechanisms of miR-145 used to regulate colon carcinogenesis and angiogenesis remain to be clarified. Here, we show that the expression of miR-145 is downregulated in colon and ovarian cancer tissues and cell lines. MiR-145 inhibits p70S6K1 post-transcriptional expression by binding to its 3′-UTR. The angiogenic factors hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which are downstream molecules of p70S6K1, are decreased by miR-145 overexpression. P70S6K1 rescues miR-145-suppressed HIF-1 and VEGF levels, tumorigenesis and tumor angiogenesis. Furthermore, the miR-145 level is inversely correlated with the amount of p70S6K1 protein in colon cancer tissues. Taken together, these studies suggest that miR-145 serves as a tumor suppressor which downregulates HIF-1 and VEGF expression by targeting p70S6K1, leading to the inhibition of tumor growth and angiogenesis. The miR-145 rescue could be a rationale for therapeutic applications in colon cancer in the future. © The Author(s) 2011. Published by Oxford University Press.

Hu Y.,East China Normal University | Ericsson K.A.,Florida State University
Cognitive Psychology | Year: 2012

In a recent paper, Hu, Ericsson, Yang, and Lu (2009) found that an ability to memorize very long lists of digits is not mediated by the same mechanisms as exceptional memory for rapidly presented lists, which has been the traditional focus of laboratory research. Chao Lu is the holder of the Guinness World Record for reciting the most decimal positions of pi, yet he lacks an exceptional memory span for digits. In the first part of this paper we analyzed the reliability and structure of his reported encodings for lists of 300 digits and his application of the story mnemonic. Next, his study and recall times for lists of digits were analyzed to test hypotheses about his detailed encoding processes, and cued-recall performance was used to assess the structure of his encodings. Three experiments were then designed to interfere with the uniqueness of Chao Lu's story encodings, and evidence was found for his remarkable ability to adapt his encoding processes to reduce the interference. Finally, we show how his skills for encoding and recalling long lists can be accounted for within the theoretical framework of Ericsson and Kintsch's (1995) Long-Term Working Memory. © 2012 Elsevier Inc..

Ito Y.,Tohoku University | Cong W.,Tohoku University | Cong W.,East China Normal University | Fujita T.,Tohoku University | And 3 more authors.
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2015

Chemical doping has been demonstrated to be an effective way to realize new functions of graphene as metal-free catalyst in energy-related electrochemical reactions. Although efficient catalysis for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) has been achieved with doped graphene, its performance in the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is rather poor. In this study we report that nitrogen and sulfur co-doping leads to high catalytic activity of nanoporous graphene in HER at low operating potential, comparable to the best Pt-free HER catalyst, 2D MoS2. The interplay between the chemical dopants and geometric lattice defects of the nanoporous graphene plays the fundamental role in the superior HER catalysis. © 2015 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

Moriwake H.,Japan Fine Ceramics Center | Kuwabara A.,Japan Fine Ceramics Center | Fisher C.A.J.,Japan Fine Ceramics Center | Huang R.,Japan Fine Ceramics Center | And 6 more authors.
Advanced Materials | Year: 2013

Results of theoretical calculations are reported, examining the effect of a coherent twin boundary on the electrical properties of LiCoO2. This study suggests that internal interfaces in LiCoO2 strongly affect the battery voltage, battery capacity, and power density of this material, which is of particular concern if it is used in all-solid-state Li-ion batteries. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Yin J.,Zhejiang GongShang University | Yu D.,Loughborough University | Yin Z.,Shanghai Normal University | Wang J.,East China Normal University | Xu S.,East China Normal University
Climatic Change | Year: 2013

This paper presents a scenario-based study that investigates the interaction between sea-level rise and land subsidence on the storm tides induced fluvial flooding in the Huangpu river floodplain. Two projections of relative sea level rise (RSLR) were presented (2030 and 2050). Water level projections at the gauging stations for different return periods were generated using a simplified algebraic summation of the eustatic sea-level rise, land subsidence and storm tide level. Frequency analysis with relative sea level rise taken into account shows that land subsidence contributes to the majority of the RSLR (between 60 % and 70 %). Furthermore, a 1D/2D coupled flood inundation model (FloodMap) was used to predict the river flow and flood inundation, after calibration using the August 1997 flood event. Numerical simulation with projected RSLR suggests that, the combined impact of eustatic sea-level rise and land subsidence would be a significantly reduced flood return period for a given water level, thus effective degradation of the current flood defences. In the absence of adaptation measures, storm flooding will cause up to 40 % more inundation, particularly in the upstream of the river. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Wu C.S.,East China Normal University | Yang S.L.,East China Normal University | Lei Y.-P.,Sun Yat Sen University
Journal of Hydrology | Year: 2012

Anthropogenic and climate influences on temporal changes in water discharge and sediment load were examined in the Pearl River in China. Increasing, undulating, and decreasing phases were found in the years 1954-1983, 1984-1993, and 1994-2009, respectively. Between 1954 and 1983, water discharge and sediment load increased by 18% and 32%, respectively. During an undulating phase between 1984 and 1993, a marked up in water discharge and sediment load was followed by suddenly rebounded discharge. From 1994 to 2009, water and sediment decreased by 32% and 83%, respectively. These trends were generally in agreement with changes in precipitation, suggesting climatic influences on a decadal timescale, although the changes in sediment load were also related to human activities. Human impact on sediment load can also be identified as three major phases. In the 1950-1970s, deforestation in the catchment was balanced by dam construction, resulting in no significant net change in sediment load. In the 1980s, however, the influence of the deforestation outweighed dam construction, resulting in an increase in sediment load. Since the 1990s, dam construction and soil preservation have decreased sediment load quickly, and the monthly sediment loads were lower in post-dams period than in the pre-dams period. Since the closure of the Longtan and Baise Dams in 2006, the sediment load in the Pearl River has decreased by ~70% relative to the level of the 1950-1980s. Of this change, ~90% was caused by dam construction and ~10% was due to by climate change. In the coming decades, the sediment load in the Pearl River will probably continue to decrease as the new dams are built within the watershed. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Liang X.,University of Sao Paulo | Zhao L.,University of Sao Paulo | Liu Z.,East China Normal University
Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics | Year: 2011

Phase-disorder-induced resonance has been recently uncovered in an ensemble of coupled excitable neurons with weak external signal, where each neuron takes a constant initial signal phase. However, it is unclear how the initial phase disorder influences the behavior of a single or isolated neuron, which constitutes the ensemble. In order to answer this question, we here consider the case of a single neuron with phase noise originated from the time-varying initial signal phase, in contrast to the constant initial phase in each neuron studied in the above referenced paper. Interestingly, we find that the phase noise can induce resonance even in the single neuronal system with subthreshold signal. Moreover, we reveal that, with the presence of phase noise, the neuron also shows another resonance behavior by varying the period of the external signal. An analysis is conducted to uncover the mechanisms behind these resonance phenomena. © 2011 American Physical Society.

Ouyang X.,East China Normal University | Sun C.,Xiamen University
Energy Economics | Year: 2015

China's industrial energy consumption accounted for 70.82% of national and 14.12% of world energy usage in 2011. In the context of energy scarcity and environmental pollution, the industrial sector in China faces unsustainable growth problems. By adopting the stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) framework, this paper analyzes the factor allocative efficiency of China's industrial sector, and estimates the energy savings potential from the perspective of allocative inefficiency. This paper focuses on three issues. The first is examining the factor allocative inefficiency of China's industrial sector. The second is measuring factor price distortion by the shadow price model. The third is estimating the energy savings potential in China's industrial sector during 2001-2009. Major conclusions are thus drawn. First, factor prices of capital, labor and energy are distorted in China due to government regulations. Moreover, energy price is relatively low compared to capital price, while is relatively high compared to labor price. Second, the industry-wide energy savings potential resulted from energy allocative inefficiency was about 9.71% during 2001-2009. The downward trend of energy savings potential implies the increasing energy allocative efficiency in China's industrial sector. Third, a transparent and reasonable pricing mechanism is conducive to improving energy allocative efficiency. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Gilbert D.,Maurice Lamontagne Institute | Rabalais N.N.,Louisiana Universities Marine Consortium | Diaz R.J.,Virginia Institute of Marine Science | Zhang J.,East China Normal University
Biogeosciences | Year: 2010

In the global ocean, the number of reported hypoxic sites (oxygen <30% saturation) is on the rise both near the coast and in the open ocean. But unfortunately, most of the papers on hypoxia only present oxygen data from one or two years, so that we often lack a long-term perspective on whether oxygen levels at these locations are decreasing, steady or increasing. Consequently, we cannot rule out the possibility that many of the newly reported hypoxic areas were hypoxic in the past, and that the increasing number of hypoxic areas partly reflects increased research and monitoring efforts. Here we address this shortcoming by computing oxygen concentration trends in the global ocean from published time series and from time series that we calculated using a global oxygen database. Our calculations reveal that median oxygen decline rates are more severe in a 30 km band near the coast than in the open ocean (>100 km from the coast). Percentages of oxygen time series with negative oxygen trends are also greater in the coastal ocean than in the open ocean. Finally, a significant difference between median published oxygen trends and median trends calculated from raw oxygen data suggests the existence of a publication bias in favor of negative trends in the open ocean. © Author(s) 2010.

Rabalais N.N.,Louisiana Universities Marine Consortium | Diaz R.J.,Virginia Institute of Marine Science | Levin L.A.,University of California at San Diego | Turner R.E.,Louisiana State University | And 2 more authors.
Biogeosciences | Year: 2010

Water masses can become undersaturated with oxygen when natural processes alone or in combination with anthropogenic processes produce enough organic carbon that is aerobically decomposed faster than the rate of oxygen re-aeration. The dominant natural processes usually involved are photosynthetic carbon production and microbial respiration. The re-supply rate is indirectly related to its isolation from the surface layer. Hypoxic water masses (<2 mg L-1, or approximately 30% saturation) can form, therefore, under "natural" conditions, and are more likely to occur in marine systems when the water residence time is extended, water exchange and ventilation are minimal, stratification occurs, and where carbon production and export to the bottom layer are relatively high. Hypoxia has occurred through geological time and naturally occurs in oxygen minimum zones, deep basins, eastern boundary upwelling systems, and fjords. Hypoxia development and continuation in many areas of the world's coastal ocean is accelerated by human activities, especially where nutrient loading increased in the Anthropocene. This higher loading set in motion a cascading set of events related to eutrophication. The formation of hypoxic areas has been exacerbated by any combination of interactions that increase primary production and accumulation of organic carbon leading to increased respiratory demand for oxygen below a seasonal or permanent pycnocline. Nutrient loading is likely to increase further as population growth and resource intensification rises, especially with increased dependency on crops using fertilizers, burning of fossil fuels, urbanization, and waste water generation. It is likely that the occurrence and persistence of hypoxia will be even more widespread and have more impacts than presently observed. Global climate change will further complicate the causative factors in both natural and human-caused hypoxia. The likelihood of strengthened stratification alone, from increased surface water temperature as the global climate warms, is sufficient to worsen hypoxia where it currently exists and facilitate its formation in additional waters. Increased precipitation that increases freshwater discharge and flux of nutrients will result in increased primary production in the receiving waters up to a point. The interplay of increased nutrients and stratification where they occur will aggravate and accelerate hypoxia. Changes in wind fields may expand oxygen minimum zones onto more continental shelf areas. On the other hand, not all regions will experience increased precipitation, some oceanic water temperatures may decrease as currents shift, and frequency and severity of tropical storms may increase and temporarily disrupt hypoxia more often. The consequences of global warming and climate change are effectively uncontrollable at least in the near term. On the other hand, the consequences of eutrophication-induced hypoxia can be reversed if long-term, broad-scale, and persistent efforts to reduce substantial nutrient loads are developed and implemented. In the face of globally expanding hypoxia, there is a need for water and resource managers to act now to reduce nutrient loads to maintain, at least, the current status.

East China Normal University, CAS Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica and Nanjing Luyesike Pharmaceutical Co. | Date: 2014-02-26

Provided are a camptothecin compound containing 7-membered lactone ring, as shown in general formula I, and pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, as well as the preparation method and use thereof. In general formula I, R_(1) is H, a C1C3 alkyl, acetyl or propionyl; R_(2) is H, a C1C6 alkyl, a C3~C6 cycloalkyl, piperidyl; or a C1C6 alkyl substituted by an amino; R_(3) is H, a C1C3 alkyl, or a C1C6 alkyl substituted by an amino; R_(4) is H, a hydroxyl, or a C1C6 alkoxy; R_(5) is H, or a C1C6 alkoxyl; or R_(4) and R_(5) are linked to each other to form -OCH_(2)O- or -OCH_(2)CH_(2)O-. The compound has good anti-tumor activity, and can be clinically used via oral administration, intravenous injection, and intramuscular injection, among others.

News Article | December 27, 2016

The Biophysical Society has announced the winners of its international travel grants to attend the Biophysical Society's 61st Annual Meeting in New Orleans, February 11-15, 2017. The purpose of these awards is to foster and initiate further interaction between American biophysicists and scientists working in countries experiencing financial difficulties. Recipients of this competitive award are chosen based on scientific merit and their proposed presentation at the meeting. They will be honored at a reception on Sunday, February 12 at the Ernest N. Morial Convention Center. The 2017 recipients of the International Travel Award, along with their institutional affiliation and abstract title, are listed below. Ana F. Guedes, Institute of Molecular Medicine, Portugal, ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY AS A TOOL TO EVALUATE THE RISK OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES IN PATIENTS. Karishma Bhasne Mohali, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISER), A TALE OF TWO AMYLOIDOGENIC INTRINSICALLY DISORDERED PROTEINS: INTERPLAY OF TAU AND α-SYNUCLEIN. Chan Cao, East China University of Science and Technology, DIRECT IDENTIFICATION OF ADENINE, THYMINE, CYTOSINE AND GUANINE USING AEROLYSIN NANOPORE. Venkata Reddy Chirasani, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, LIPID TRANSFER MECHANISM OF CETP BETWEEN HDL AND LDL: A COARSEGRAINED SIMULATION STUDY. Assaf Elazar, Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel, DECIPHERING MEMBRANE PROTEIN ENERGETICS USING DEEP SEQUENCING; TOWARDS ROBUST DESIGN AND STRUCTURE PREDICTION OF MEMBRANE PROTEINS. Manuela Gabriel, University of Buenos Aires, Argentina, 3D ORBITAL TRACKING OF SINGLE GOLD NANOPARTICLES: A NEW APPROACH TO STUDY VESICLE TRAFFICKING IN CHROMAFFIN CELLS. Farah Haque National Centre for Biological Sciences, India, A NEW HUMANIZED MOUSE MODEL FOR STUDYING INHERITED CARDIOMYOPATHIC MUTATIONS IN THE MYH7 GENE. Stephanie Heusser, Stockholm University, Switzerland, STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL EVIDENCE FOR MULTI-SITE ALLOSTERY MEDIATED BY GENERAL ANESTHETICS IN A MODEL LIGAND-GATED ION CHANNEL. Amir Irani, Massey University, New Zealand, HOMOGALACTURONANS ILLUMINATE THE ROLE OF COUNTERION CONDENSATION IN POLYELECTROLYTE TRANSPORT. Olfat Malak, University of Nantes, France, HIV-TAT INDUCES A DECREASE IN IKR AND IKS VIA REDUCTION IN PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL-(4,5)-BISPHOSPHATE AVAILABILITY. CONFORMATIONAL TRANSITION AND ASSEMBLY OF E.COLI CYTOLYSIN A PORE FORMING TOXIN BY SINGLE MOLECULE FLUORESCENCE. Sabrina Sharmin, Shizuoka University, Japan, EFFECTS OF LIPID COMPOSITIONS ON THE ENTRY OF CELL PENETRATING PEPTIDE OLIGOARGININE INTO SINGLE VESICLES. Xin Shi, East China University of Science and Technology, DIRECT OBSERVATION OF SINGLE BIOPOLYMER FOLDING AND UNFOLDING PROCESS BY SOLIDSTATE NANOPORE. Omar Alijevic, University of Lausanne, Switzerland, ANALYSIS OF GATING OF ACID-SENSING ION CHANNELS (ASICS) UNDER RAPID AND SLOW PH CHANGES. Swapna Bera, Bose Institute, India, BIOPHYSICAL INSIGHTS INTO THE MEMBRANE INTERACTION OF THE CORE AMYLOID-FORMING Aβ40 FRAGMENT K16-K28 AND ITS ROLE IN THE PATHOGENESIS OF ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE. Anais Cassaignau, University College London, United Kingdom, STRUCTURAL INVESTIGATION OF AN IMMUNOGLOBULIN DOMAIN ON THE RIBOSOME USING NMR SPECTROSCOPY. Bappaditya Chandra, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, India, SECONDARY STRUCTURE FLIPPING CONNECTED TO SALT-BRIDGE FORMATION CONVERTS TOXIC AMYLOID-β40 OLIGOMERS TO FIBRILS. Gayathri Narasimhan, Cinvestav, Mexico, ANTIHYPERTROPHIC EFFECTS OF DIAZOXIDE INVOLVES CHANGES IN MIR-132 EXPRESSION IN ADULT RAT CARDIOMYCYTES. Giulia Paci, European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Germany, FOLLOWING A GIANT'S FOOTSTEPS: SINGLE-PARTICLE AND SUPER-RESOLUTION APPROACHES TO DECIPHER THE NUCLEAR TRANSPORT OF HEPATITIS B VIRUS CAPSIDS. Bizhan Sharopov, Bogomoletz Institute of Physiology National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, DISSECTING LOCAL AND SYSTEMIC EFFECTS OF TRPV1 ON BLADDER CONTRACTILITY IN DIABETES. Chao Sun, East China Normal University, FUNCTION OF BACTERIORUBERIN IN ARCHAERHODOPSIN 4, FROM EXPRESSION TO CHARACTERIZATION. Matthew Batchelor, University of Leeds, United Kingdom STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS IN THE MYOSIN 7A SINGLE α-HELIX DOMAIN. Daniel Havelka, Czech Academy of Sciences, MICROVOLUME DIELECTRIC SPECTROSCOPY AND MOLECULAR DYNAMICS OF AMINO ACIDS. Ivan Kadurin, University College London, United Kingdom, INVESTIGATION OF THE PROTEOLYTIC CLEAVAGE OF α2δ SUBUNITS: A MECHANISTIC SWITCH FROM NHIBITION TO ACTIVATION OF VOLTAGE-GATED CALCIUM CHANNELS? Linlin Ma, University of Queensland, Australia, NOVEL HUMAN EAG CHANNEL ANTAGONISTS FROM SPIDER VENOMS. Ivana Malvacio, University of Cagliari, Italy, MOLECULAR INSIGHTS ON THE RECOGNITION OF SUBSTRATES BY THE PROMISCUOUS EFFLUX PUMP ACRB. Cristina Moreno Vadillo, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht, Netherlands, RESTORING DEFECTIVE CAMP-DEPENDENT UPREGULATION IN LONG-QT SYNDROME TYPE-1 THROUGH INTERVENTIONS THAT PROMOTE IKS CHANNEL OPENING. Melanie Paillard, Claude Bernard University Lyon 1, France, TISSUE-SPECIFIC MITOCHONDRIAL DECODING OF CYTOPLASMIC CA2+ SIGNALS IS CONTROLLED BY THE STOICHIOMETRY OF MICU1/2 AND MCU. Mohammed Mostafizur Rahman, Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, India, STRESS-INDUCED DIFFERENTIAL REGULATION LEADS TO DECOUPLING OF THE ACTIVITY BETWEEN MPFC AND AMYGDALA. Marcin Wolny, University of Leeds, United Kingdom, DESIGN AND CHARACTERIZATION OF LONG AND STABLE DE NOVO SINGLE α-HELIX DOMAINS. Elvis Pandzic, University of New South Wales, Australia, VELOCITY LANDSCAPES RESOLVE MULTIPLE DYNAMICAL POPULATIONS FROM FLUORESCENCE IMAGE TIME SERIES. The Biophysical Society, founded in 1958, is a professional, scientific Society established to encourage development and dissemination of knowledge in biophysics. The Society promotes growth in this expanding field through its annual meeting, monthly journal, and committee and outreach activities. Its 9000 members are located throughout the U.S. and the world, where they teach and conduct research in colleges, universities, laboratories, government agencies, and industry. For more information on these awards, the Society, or the 2017 Annual Meeting, visit http://www.

Chen S.,East China Normal University | Chen S.,Fudan University | Walsh A.,University of Bath | Gong X.-G.,Fudan University | Wei S.-H.,National Renewable Energy Laboratory
Advanced Materials | Year: 2013

The kesterite-structured semiconductors Cu2ZnSnS4 and Cu2ZnSnSe4 are drawing considerable attention recently as the active layers in earth-abundant low-cost thin-film solar cells. The additional number of elements in these quaternary compounds, relative to binary and ternary semiconductors, results in increased flexibility in the material properties. Conversely, a large variety of intrinsic lattice defects can also be formed, which have important influence on their optical and electrical properties, and hence their photovoltaic performance. Experimental identification of these defects is currently limited due to poor sample quality. Here recent theoretical research on defect formation and ionization in kesterite materials is reviewed based on new systematic calculations, and compared with the better studied chalcopyrite materials CuGaSe2 and CuInSe2. Four features are revealed and highlighted: (i) the strong phase-competition between the kesterites and the coexisting secondary compounds; (ii) the intrinsic p-type conductivity determined by the high population of acceptor CuZn antisites and Cu vacancies, and their dependence on the Cu/(Zn+Sn) and Zn/Sn ratio; (iii) the role of charge-compensated defect clusters such as [2CuZn+SnZn], [VCu+Zn Cu] and [ZnSn+2ZnCu] and their contribution to non-stoichiometry; (iv) the electron-trapping effect of the abundant [2Cu Zn+SnZn] clusters, especially in Cu2ZnSnS 4. The calculated properties explain the experimental observation that Cu poor and Zn rich conditions (Cu/(Zn+Sn) ≈ 0.8 and Zn/Sn ≈ 1.2) result in the highest solar cell efficiency, as well as suggesting an efficiency limitation in Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 cells when the S composition is high. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Wang B.,University of Florida | He X.,East China Normal University | Merz K.M.,University of Florida
Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation | Year: 2013

We have performed densisty functional theory (DFT) calculations of vicinal J coupling constants involving the backbone torsional angle for the protein GB3 using our recently developed automatic fragmentation quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (AF-QM/MM) approach (Xiao He et al. J. Phys. Chem. B 2009, 113, 10380-10388). Interestingly, the calculated values based on an NMR structure are more accurate than those based on a high-resolution X-ray strucure because the NMR structure was refined using a large number of residual dipolar couplings (RDCs) whereas the hydrogen atoms were added into the X-ray structure in idealized positions, confirming that the postioning of the hydrogen atoms relative to the backbone atoms is important to the accuracy of J coupling constant prediction. By comparing three Karplus equations, our results have demonstrated that hydrogen bonding, substituent and electrostatic effects could have significant impacts on vicinal J couplings even though they depend mostly on the intervening dihedral angles. The root-mean-square deviations (RMSDs) of the calculated 3J(HN,Hα), 3J(HN,Cβ), 3J(H N,C′) values based on the NMR structure are 0.52, 0.25, and 0.35 Hz, respectively, after taking the dynamic effect into consideration. The excellent accuracy demonstrates that our AF-QM/MM approach is a useful tool to study the relationship between J coupling constants and the structure and dynamics of proteins. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

Xu A.,Wenzhou University | Basu S.,Northern Illinois University | Tang Y.,East China Normal University
IEEE Transactions on Reliability | Year: 2014

Bayesian analysis of the series system failure data under step-stress accelerating life testing is proposed when the cause of failure may not have been identified but has only been narrowed down to a subset of all potential risks. A general Bayesian formulation is investigated for the log-location-scale distribution family that includes most commonly used parametric lifetime distributions. Reparameterization is introduced for estimating the lifetime under the use condition stress and other parameters directly. The posterior analysis is done by Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling. The methodology is illustrated through the Weibull distributions, and a numerical example. © 2012 IEEE.

Qiu P.,University of Florida | Xiang D.,East China Normal University
Statistics in Medicine | Year: 2015

In the SHARe Framingham Heart Study of the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, one major task is to monitor several health variables (e.g., blood pressure and cholesterol level) so that their irregular longitudinal pattern can be detected as soon as possible and some medical treatments applied in a timely manner to avoid some deadly cardiovascular diseases (e.g., stroke). To handle this kind of applications effectively, we propose a new statistical methodology called multivariate dynamic screening system (MDySS) in this paper. The MDySS method combines the major strengths of the multivariate longitudinal data analysis and the multivariate statistical process control, and it makes decisions about the longitudinal pattern of a subject by comparing it with other subjects cross sectionally and by sequentially monitoring it as well. Numerical studies show that MDySS works well in practice. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Li J.,Xiangtan University | Ma S.,Nanyang Technological University | Liu X.,East China Normal University | Zhou Z.,Xiangtan University | And 2 more authors.
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2012

A study was conducted to demonstrate zinc oxide (ZnO) meso-mechano-thermo physical chemistry. ZnO exhibited strong piezoelectric and dilute magnetic properties dominating at sites of defects or varying with surface crystal morphology. ZnO provided an impact on applications in forthcoming technologies, such as biomedical sensors,6 actuators, solar cells, catalysis, energy harvesting, and photonic crystals. Experimental observations showed that the Young's modulus of ZnO nanostructures increased when the operating temperature dropped and the thermal effect was modeled based on the third law of thermodynamics. The modeling approaches implemented complemented the advanced models to provide consistent and deeper insight into the size, shape, temperature, and pressure effects on the known bulk ZnO properties and the emerging properties associated with the ndercoordinated atoms at the surfaces and defects of ZnO.

Cai Q.,East China Normal University | Van der Haegen L.,Ghent University
Neuroscience Bulletin | Year: 2015

Recent studies have made substantial progress in understanding the interactions between cognitive functions, from language to cognitive control, attention, and memory. However, dissociating these functions has been hampered by the close proximity of regions involved, as in the case in the prefrontal and parietal cortex. In this article, we review a series of studies that investigated the relationship between language and other cognitive functions in an alternative way — by examining their functional (co-)lateralization. We argue that research on the hemispheric lateralization of language and its link with handedness can offer an appropriate starting-point to shed light on the relationships between different functions. Besides functional interactions, anatomical asymmetries in non-human primates and those underlying language in humans can provide unique information about cortical organization. Finally, some open questions and criteria are raised for an ideal theoretical model of the cortex based on hemispheric specialization. © 2015, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, CAS and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Chen M.,East China Normal University | Mishra P.,University of Florida
Proceedings -Design, Automation and Test in Europe, DATE | Year: 2011

SAT-based BMC is promising for directed test generation since it can locate the reason of an error within a small bound. However, due to the state space explosion problem, BMC cannot handle complex designs and properties. Although various optimization methods are proposed to address a single complex property, the test generation process cannot be fully automated. This paper presents an efficient automated approach that can scale down the falsification complexity using property decomposition and learning techniques. Our experimental results using both software and hardware benchmarks demonstrate that our approach can drastically reduce the overall test generation effort. © 2011 EDAA.

Wu Z.Y.,Suzhou University of Science and Technology | Wang Y.M.,East China Normal University
Current Organic Chemistry | Year: 2014

The recent progress, particularly in this decade, in catalytic applications of mesoporous ZSM-5 was reviewed. Mesoporous ZSM-5 materials aim to combine the shape-selectivity from micropores of ZSM-5 with enhanced mass transportation from the additional mesoporosity in catalytic reactions. The reactions discussed in this review are classified into two types: (1) the reactions mainly occurred on the external surface or in the pore mouths of the mesoporous ZSM-5 and (2) the reactions mainly occurred in micropores of ZSM-5. The external acid sites of mesoporous ZSM-5 enable the reactions involving bulky reactants that exceed the size of ZSM-5 micropores; and the presence of mesoporosity which improves the mass transport of reactants as well as products, reduces diffusion limitation and accelerates catalytic reaction. Although the advantages of mesoporous ZSM-5 compared with the conventional one are closely related to high external surface area and large mesopore volume, the acidity, including the type, strength and amount of acid sites and Al distribution, should be taken into account when the mesoporous ZSM-5 is utilized as catalyst in a real reaction. Finally, future challenges and opportunities for mesoporous ZSM-5 materials are presented. © 2014 Bentham Science Publishers.

Huang R.,Japan Fine Ceramics Center | Huang R.,East China Normal University | Ikuhara Y.,Japan Fine Ceramics Center | Ikuhara Y.,University of Tokyo
Current Opinion in Solid State and Materials Science | Year: 2012

This article briefly reviews the status and new progress on the characterization of popular cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and presents some of our own research work in this field, especially the direct observation of light elements such as Li and H with atomic resolution using the annular bright-field imaging (ABF) technique. These results demonstrate that STEM combined with high-angle annular dark-field imaging, electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) and ABF imaging is a powerful tool for investigation of the atomic level microstructure of various cathode materials and resolving many fundamental issues in the battery related research field and industries, such as the mechanism of capacity fading and diffusion behavior across the interface between electrode and electrolyte. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

He M.,Sinopec | He M.,East China Normal University | Sun Y.,CAS Shanghai Advanced Research Institute | Sun Y.,Shanxi Institute of Coal CAS Chemistry | Han B.,CAS Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2013

How green was my valley: Green carbon science focuses on the transformations of carbon-containing compounds in the entire carbon cycle. The ultimate aim is to use carbon resources efficiently and minimize the net CO 2 emission. This holistic view also has ramifications for related fields including petroleum refining and the production of liquid fuels and chemicals from coal, methane, CO2, and biomass. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Walsh A.,University of Bath | Scanlon D.O.,University College London | Scanlon D.O.,Diamond Light Source | Chen S.,East China Normal University | And 2 more authors.
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2015

Hybrid halide perovskites such as methylammonium lead iodide (CH3NH3PbI3) exhibit unusually low free-carrier concentrations despite being processed at low-temperatures from solution. We demonstrate, through quantum mechanical calculations, that an origin of this phenomenon is a prevalence of ionic over electronic disorder in stoichiometric materials. Schottky defect formation provides a mechanism to selfregulate the concentration of charge carriers through ionic compensation of charged point defects. The equilibrium charged vacancy concentration is predicted to exceed 0.4% at room temperature. This behavior, which goes against established defect conventions for inorganic semiconductors, has implications for photovoltaic performance. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Xu A.,Wenzhou University | Tang Y.,East China Normal University
Computational Statistics and Data Analysis | Year: 2011

In Bayesian analysis with objective priors, it should be justified that the posterior distribution is proper. In this paper, we show that the reference prior (or independent Jeffreys prior) of a two-parameter BirnbaumSaunders distribution will result in an improper posterior distribution. However, the posterior distributions are proper based on the reference priors with partial information (RPPI). Based on censored samples, slice sampling is utilized to obtain the Bayesian estimators based on RPPI. Monte Carlo simulations are used to compare the efficiencies of different RPPIs, to assess the sensitivity of the choice of the priors, and to compare the Bayesian estimators with the maximum likelihood estimators, for various scales of sample size and degree of censoring. A real data set is analyzed for illustrative purpose. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Chen M.,East China Normal University | Mishra P.,University of Florida
Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on VLSI Design | Year: 2013

Transaction Level Modeling (TLM) is promising for functional validation at an early stage of System-on-Chip (SoC) design. However, raising the abstraction level brings a major challenge - how to guarantee the functional consistency between TLM specifications and Register Transfer Level (RTL) implementations? This paper proposes an efficient mechanism for functional consistency checking using assertion observability. The experimental results using several industrial designs demonstrate that our method can automatically check the functional consistency between different abstraction levels. © 2013 IEEE.

Zhang J.,East China Normal University | Cowie G.,University of Edinburgh | Naqvi S.W.A.,National Institute of Oceanography of India
Environmental Research Letters | Year: 2013

The predicted future of the global marine environment, as a combined result of forcing due to climate change (e.g. warming and acidification) and other anthropogenic perturbation (e.g. eutrophication), presents a challenge to the sustainability of ecosystems from tropics to high latitudes. Among the various associated phenomena of ecosystem deterioration, hypoxia can cause serious problems in coastal areas as well as oxygen minimum zones in the open ocean (Diaz and Rosenberg 2008 Science 321 926-9, Stramma et al 2008 Science 320 655-8). The negative impacts of hypoxia include changes in populations of marine organisms, such as large-scale mortality and behavioral responses, as well as variations of species distributions, biodiversity, physiological stress, and other sub-lethal effects (e.g. growth and reproduction). Social and economic activities that are related to services provided by the marine ecosystems, such as tourism and fisheries, can be negatively affected by the aesthetic outcomes as well as perceived or real impacts on seafood quality (STAP 2011 (Washington, DC: Global Environment Facility) p 88). Moreover, low oxygen concentration in marine waters can have considerable feedbacks to other compartments of the Earth system, like the emission of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere, and can affect the global biogeochemical cycles of nutrients and trace elements. It is of critical importance to prediction and adaptation strategies that the key processes of hypoxia in marine environments be precisely determined and understood (cf Zhang et al 2010 Biogeosciences 7 1-24). © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Xu A.,Wenzhou University | Tang Y.,East China Normal University
Computational Statistics and Data Analysis | Year: 2011

This paper discusses the Bayesian inference of accelerated life tests (ALT) in the presence of competing failure causes. The time to failure due to a specific cause is described by a Weibull distribution. A two-stage approach is utilized to obtain the estimates of parameters in the model. We use the Bayesian method to estimate the parameters of the distribution of component lifetimes in the first stage, in which two noninformative priors (Jeffreys prior and reference prior) are derived in the case of ALT, and based on these two priors we present the Gibbs sampling procedures to obtain the posterior estimates of the parameters. Besides, to overcome the problem of improper posterior densities under some conditions, we modify the likelihood function to make the posterior densities proper. In the second stage, parameters in the accelerating function are obtained by least squares approach. A numerical example is given to show the effectiveness of the method and a real data from Nelson (1990) is analyzed. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Yang Y.,East China Normal University | Xu J.,East China Normal University | Hong Y.,East China Normal University | Lv G.,Xinjiang University
Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment | Year: 2012

Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) is widely recognized as a good indicator of vegetation productivity. Diagnosing the NDVI trend and understanding climatic factors influences on NDVI can predict the productivity changes under different climatic scenarios. This paper examined NDVI dynamic and its response to climate factors during a 10 year period (1998-2008) in Inner Mongolia. The main findings are as follows: (1) The NDVI multi-scale characters can be revealed well by wavelet transform, and the average NDVI and the NDVI amplitude show a gradually decreased trend from northeast to southwest in Inner Mongolia during the past 10 years, furthermore, this trend is consistent with the heat and water distribution caused by latitude difference in north-south direction and Asia monsoon effect in east-west direction. (2) The relation between NDVI and temperature is the most close, followed by precipitation, sunshine hours and relative humidity. Different vegetation cover types show different strengths in correlation between NDVI and climate variables with the correlation values decreasing from forest, meadow steppe to desert steppe in whole. (3) The precipitation and temperature have the same change cycle, both nearly 290 days in the 20 selected stations. The NDVI has the same change cycle with the precipitation and temperature or either 10 days earlier or later than precipitation and temperature, which supports the significant correlation between NDVI and its climatic factors from a new perspective. The nearly 290 days change cycle implies that the vegetation growth cycle is nearly 10 months and there are no obvious differences change cycles in different vegetations. (4) Vegetation dynamic is significantly correlated to the temperature and precipitation at the time scale of 10, 20, 40, 80, 160, and 320-day, respectively, and the S3 scale (i. e., the time scale of 80-day), nearly 3 months (one season), is most significant and suitable for evaluating the vegetation dynamic to climatic factors. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Li W.,Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine | Wang Y.,East China Normal University | Wang Z.,East China Normal University | Dai L.,East China Normal University
Catalysis Letters | Year: 2011

In this article, a new group of SO 3H-functionalized ionic liquids based on benzimidazolium cation was synthesized and used as environmentally benign catalysts for the one-pot synthesis of biscoumarin derivatives. The ionic liquids showed high catalytic activities and reusabilities with good to excellent yields of the desired products. H 0 (Hammett function) values and the minimum-energy geometries of SO 3H-functionalized ionic liquids were determined and the results revealed that the acidities and catalytic activities of ionic liquids in the synthesis of biscoumarin derivatives were related to their structures. Graphical Abstract: The simple, more efficient way for synthesis of biscoumarin derivatives has been developed. This new method abandon the traditional hazardous organic liquid and is carried out by using a one-pot reaction of 4-hydroxycoumarin with aromatic aldehydes in the presence of novel SO 3H-functionalized ionic liquids based on benzimidazolium cation as catalysts. The ionic liquids showed high catalytic activities and reusabilities with good to excellent yields of the desired products. H 0 (Hammett function) values and the minimum-energy geometries of SO 3H- functionalized ionic liquids were determined and the results revealed that the acidities and catalytic activities of ionic liquids in the synthesis of biscoumarin derivatives were influenced by their structures.[Figure not available: see fulltext.] © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Rao F.,East China Normal University | Wang W.,Wenzhou University
Journal of Statistical Mechanics: Theory and Experiment | Year: 2012

In this paper, we investigate a spatial version of a Michaelis-Menten-type predator-prey model incorporating a prey refuge, which contains some important factors, such as environmental noise, external periodic forces and diffusion processes on both prey and predator. Based on both mathematical analysis and numerical simulations, we get a sufficient condition for diffusion instability with zero-flux boundary conditions. There is an increase in the equilibrium density of both prey and predator as the prey refuge increases under a very restricted set of conditions. It is also proved that the refuge used by prey has a stabilizing effect, that is, increases the local stability of the interior equilibrium. Moreover, due to the effects of environmental noise, we obtain the transition from regular patterns to spatiotemporal chaotic dynamics in a corresponding spatially extended model. External periodic forces can induce 1:1 frequency-locking and spatially homogeneous oscillation to appear. Also the interaction between environmental noise and external periodic forces in the spatial model incorporating a prey refuge gives rise to a rich dynamic phenomenon. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Chen S.,East China Normal University | Chen S.,Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory | Wang L.-W.,Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory | Walsh A.,Fudan University | And 2 more authors.
Applied Physics Letters | Year: 2012

Kesterite solar cells show the highest efficiency when the absorber layers (Cu2 ZnSnS4 [CZTS], Cu2 ZnSnSe4 [CZTSe] and their alloys) are non-stoichiometric with Cu / (Zn + Sn) ≈ 0.8 and Zn / Sn ≈ 1.2. The fundamental cause is so far not understood. Using a first-principles theory, we show that passivated defect clusters such as Cu Zn+ SnZn and 2 CuZn+ SnZn have high concentrations even in stoichiometric samples with Cu/(ZnSn) and Zn/Sn ratios near 1. The partially passivated CuZn+ SnZn cluster produces a deep donor level in the band gap of CZTS, and the fully passivated 2CuZn+ SnZn cluster causes a significant band gap decrease. Both effects are detrimental to photovoltaic performance, so Zn-rich and Cu, Sn-poor conditions are required to prevent their formation and increase the efficiency. The donor level is relatively shallower in CZTSe than in CZTS, which gives an explanation to the higher efficiency obtained in Cu2 ZnSn (S, Se)4 (CZTSSe) cells with high Se content. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.

Walsh A.,University of Bath | Chen S.,Fudan University | Chen S.,East China Normal University | Wei S.-H.,National Renewable Energy Laboratory | Gong X.-G.,Fudan University
Advanced Energy Materials | Year: 2012

Quaternary semiconducting materials based on the kesterite (A 2 BCX 4) mineral structure are the most promising candidates to overtake the current generation of light-absorbing materials for thin-film solar cells. Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 (CZTS), Cu 2 ZnSnSe 4 (CZTSe) and their alloy Cu 2 ZnSn(Se,S) 4 consist of abundant, low-cost and non-toxic elements, unlike current CdTe and Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 based technologies. Zinc-blende related structures are formed by quaternary compounds, but the complexity associated with the multi-component system introduces difficulties in material growth, characterization, and application. First-principles electronic structure simulations, performed over the past five years, that address the structural, electronic, and defect properties of this family of compounds are reviewed. Initial predictions of the bandgaps and crystal structures have recently been verified experimentally. The calculations highlight the role of atomic disorder on the cation sub-lattice, as well as phase separation of Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 into ZnS and CuSnS 3, on the material performance for light-to-electricity conversion in photovoltaic devices. Finally, the current grand challenges for materials modeling of thin-film solar cells are highlighted. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Chen Y.,CSIRO | Chen Y.,Shanghai Normal University | Yu J.,Shanghai Normal University | Yu J.,East China Normal University | Khan S.,UNESCO Regional Science Bureau for Asia and the Pacific
Environmental Modelling and Software | Year: 2013

Criteria weights determined from pairwise comparisons are often the greatest contributor to the uncertainties in the AHP-based multi-criteria decision making (MCDM). During an MCDM process, the weights can be changed directly by adjusting the output from a pairwise comparison matrix, or indirectly by recalculating the matrix after varying its input. Corresponding weight sensitivity on multi-criteria evaluation results is generally difficult to be quantitatively assessed and spatially visualized. This study developed a unique methodology which extends the AHP-SA model proposed by Chen etal. (2010) to a more comprehensive framework to analyze weight sensitivity caused by both direct and indirect weight changes using the one-at-a-time (OAT) technique. With increased efficiency, improved flexibility and enhanced visualization capability, the spatial framework was developed as AHP-SA2 within a GIS platform. A case study with in-depth discussion is provided to demonstrate the new toolset. It assists stakeholders and researchers with better understanding of weight sensitivity for characterising, reporting and minimising uncertainty in the AHP-based spatial MCDM. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Qian Y.,University of Maryland University College | Qian Y.,East China Normal University | Xu X.,University of Maryland University College | Wang X.,University of Maryland University College | And 3 more authors.
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2012

A complimentary cat.: Copper(II) hexafluoroantimonate catalyzes the formal [3+3] cycloaddition of Lewis acid activated nitrones and vinyl diazoacetates to produce 3,6-dihydro-1,2-oxazines in yields of up to 96 % and diastereoselectivities greater than 25:1 (see scheme). This process compliments the metal carbene pathway that is catalyzed by rhodium(II) species. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Zhang J.,CAS Institute of Mechanics | Guo D.-S.,East China Normal University | Guo D.-S.,Southern University and A&M College
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2013

Our theoretical study shows that the spectral minimum and the giant enhancement structures observed in the high harmonic spectra also exist in the photoelectron spectra from driven Xe atoms. They are attributed to the inherent property of the radial part of the wave function of the Xe 5p subshell in momentum space. The spectral minimum is caused by the nodal point in the modulus of the radial wave function in momentum space, and the giant enhancement reflects the increase in magnitude of the modulus of the wave function. To observe these structures, midinfrared lasers of about 0.2 PW/cm2 intensity are preferred. Employing circularly polarized laser light is suggested for exhibiting these structures in photoelectron spectra. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Guo D.-S.,East China Normal University | Guo D.-S.,Southern University and A&M College
Frontiers of Physics | Year: 2013

Many nonlinear quantum optical physics phenomena need more accurate wave functions and corresponding energy or quasienergy levels to account for. An analytic expression of wave functions with corresponding energy levels for an atomic electron interacting with a photon field is presented as an exact solution to the Schrödinger-like equation involved with both atomic Coulomb interaction and electron-photon interaction. The solution is a natural generalization of the quantum-field Volkov states for an otherwise free electron interacting with a photon field. The solution shows that an Nlevel atom in light form stationary states without extra energy splitting in addition to the Floquet mechanism. The treatment developed here with computing codes can be conveniently transferred to quantum optics in classical-field version as research tools to benefit the whole physics community. © 2013 Higher Education Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Wang J.,East China Normal University | Bian Z.,Shanghai Normal University | Zhu J.,Shanghai Normal University | Li H.,Shanghai Normal University
Journal of Materials Chemistry A | Year: 2013

Single-crystal TiO2 with 2D and 3D ordered mesoporous structures and exposed (001) facets were synthesized by SBA-15 or KIT-6 templated alcoholysis of TiOSO4 under solvothermal conditions. In the liquid phase photocatalytic selective oxidation of alcohols to aldehydes under UV-light irradiation, the single-crystal TiO2 exhibited much higher activity than the polycrystalline TiO2, since the high crystallization degree favored the transfer of photoelectrons, which might reduce their rate of recombination with holes. Meanwhile, the TiO2 with ordered mesopores showed higher activity than that with disordered mesopores, and the 3D ordered mesoporous channels were more favorable for photocatalytic oxidation than the 2D ordered mesoporous channels, which could be attributed to both the enhanced light harvesting resulting from the multiple light reflections in the pore channels, and the facilitated diffusion and adsorption of the reactant molecules. Also, the exposed (001) facets favored the photocatalytic oxidation due to its high surface energy and increased oxygen vacancies, which reduced the photocharge recombination rate by capturing photoelectrons. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2013.

Wang H.,ETH Zurich | Ye H.,East China Normal University | Xie M.,ETH Zurich | Daoud El-Baba M.,Institut Universitaire de France | Fussenegger M.,ETH Zurich
Nucleic acids research | Year: 2015

Synthetic biology has significantly advanced the rational design of trigger-inducible gene switches that program cellular behavior in a reliable and predictable manner. Capitalizing on genetic componentry, including the repressor PmeR and its cognate operator OPmeR, that has evolved in Pseudomonas syringae pathovar tomato DC3000 to sense and resist plant-defence metabolites of the paraben class, we have designed a set of inducible and repressible mammalian transcription-control devices that could dose-dependently fine-tune transgene expression in mammalian cells and mice in response to paraben derivatives. With an over 60-years track record as licensed preservatives in the cosmetics industry, paraben derivatives have become a commonplace ingredient of most skin-care products including shower gels, cleansing toners and hand creams. As parabens can rapidly reach the bloodstream of mice following topical application, we used this feature to percutaneously program transgene expression of subcutaneous designer cell implants using off-the-shelf commercial paraben-containing skin-care cosmetics. The combination of non-invasive, transdermal and orthogonal trigger-inducible remote control of transgene expression may provide novel opportunities for dynamic interventions in future gene and cell-based therapies. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

Yang Y.-G.,Huaibei Normal University | Yang Y.,East China Normal University | Li S.-Z.,Huaibei Normal University
Astronomical Journal | Year: 2014

New extensive photometry for two triple binary stars, DI Peg and AF Gem, was performed from 2012 October to 2013 January, with two small telescopes at Xinglong station (XLs) of NAOC. From new multi-color observations and previously published ones in literature, the photometric models were (re)deduced using the updated Wilson-Devinney code. The results indicated that the low third lights exist in two classic Algol-type binaries, whose fill-out factors for the more massive components are fp = 78.2(± 0.4)% for DI Peg, and fp = 69.0(± 0.3)% for AF Gem, respectively. Through analyzing the O-C curves, the orbital periods for two binaries change in the complicated mode. The period of DI Peg possibly appears to show two light-time orbits, whose modulated periods are P 3 = 54.6(± 0.5) yr and P 4 = 23.0(± 0.6) yr, respectively. The inferred minimum masses for the inner and outer sub-stellar companions are M ⊙in = 0.095 M ⊙ and M ⊙out = 0.170 M ⊙, respectively. Therefore, DI Peg may be a quadruple star. The orbital period of AF Gem appears to show a continuous period decrease or a cyclic variation; the latter may be preferable. The cyclic oscillation, with a period of 120.3(± 2.5) yr, may be attributed to the light-time effect due to the third body. This kind of additional companion may extract angular momentum from the central system, which may play a key role in the evolution of the binary. © 2014. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

Zhu L.,East China Normal University | Wang T.,East China Normal University | Zhu L.,Hong Kong Baptist University | Ferre L.,French National Center for Scientific Research
Biometrika | Year: 2010

In the context of sufficient dimension reduction, the goal is to parsimoniously recover the central subspace of a regression model. Many inverse regression methods use slicing estimation to recover the central subspace. The efficacy of slicing estimation depends heavily upon the number of slices. However, the selection of the number of slices is an open and long-standing problem. In this paper, we propose a discretization-expectation estimation method, which avoids selecting the number of slices, while preserving the integrity of the central subspace. This generic method assures root-n consistency and asymptotic normality of slicing estimators for many inverse regression methods, and can be applied to regressions with multivariate responses. A BIC-type criterion for the dimension of the central subspace is proposed. Comprehensive simulations and an illustrative application show that our method compares favourably with existing estimators. © 2010 Biometrika Trust.

Zhou T.,CAS Institute of Biophysics | Zhou T.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Xiong J.,China National Institute of Biological Sciences | Wang M.,CAS Institute of Biophysics | And 4 more authors.
Molecular Cell | Year: 2014

Methylated cytosine of CpG dinucleotides in vertebrates may be oxidized by Tet proteins, a process that can lead to DNA demethylation. The predominant oxidation product, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), has been implicated in embryogenesis, cell differentiation, and human diseases. Recently, the SRA domain of UHRF2 (UHRF2-SRA) has been reported to specifically recognize 5hmC, but how UHRF2 recognizes this modification is unclear. Here we report the structure of UHRF2-SRA in complex with a 5hmC-containing DNA. The structure reveals that the conformation of a phenylalanine allows the formation of an optimal 5hmC binding pocket, and a hydrogen bond between the hydroxyl group of 5hmC and UHRF2-SRA is critical for their preferential binding. Further structural and biochemical analyses unveiled the role of SRA domains as a versatile reader of modified DNA, and the knowledge should facilitate further understanding of the biological function of UHRF2 and the comprehension of DNA hydroxymethylation in general. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Qian Y.,University of Maryland University College | Qian Y.,East China Normal University | Zavalij P.J.,University of Maryland University College | Hu W.,East China Normal University | Doyle M.P.,University of Maryland University College
Organic Letters | Year: 2013

A highly regio- and diastereoselective synthesis of bicyclic pyrazolidinone derivatives by rhodium(II) acetate catalyzed [3 + 3]-annulation with enoldiazoacetates and azomethine imines has been achieved in high yield. A vinylogous reaction of the metal enol carbene with the azomethine imine initiates [3 + 3]-cycloaddition, whereas reaction at the carbene center effects N-N-cleavage of the azomethine imine. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

Li L.,East China Normal University | Li S.-M.,Hong Kong Baptist University
Habitat International | Year: 2013

This study investigates the interaction between the homeowners of commodity housing and the Internet in transitional urban China. It examines how the homeowners make use the Internet and weave it into their everyday life in the commodity housing estates to improve their positions in both home purchase and neighborhood management. The study analyzes the emergence and use of online neighborhood forums with a special reference to Guangzhou. It argues that the neighborhood forums provide a platform within which information exchange, organization of collective actions, social interactions, and community building take place simultaneously. In the course of both online and offline interactions, users have adopted four kinds of strategies of mobilizing and organizing: common grievances, common threats, common amenities, and common attributes. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Morin O.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Huang K.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Huang K.,East China Normal University | Liu J.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | And 3 more authors.
Nature Photonics | Year: 2014

The wave-particle duality of light has led to two different encodings for optical quantum information processing. Several approaches have emerged based either on particle-like discrete-variable states (that is, finite-dimensional quantum systems) or on wave-like continuous-variable states (that is, infinite-dimensional systems). Here, we demonstrate the generation of entanglement between optical qubits of these different types, located at distant places and connected by a lossy channel. Such hybrid entanglement, which is a key resource for a variety of recently proposed schemes, including quantum cryptography and computing, enables information to be converted from one Hilbert space to the other via teleportation and therefore the connection of remote quantum processors based upon different encodings. Beyond its fundamental significance for the exploration of entanglement and its possible instantiations, our optical circuit holds promise for implementations of heterogeneous network, where discrete- and continuous-variable operations and techniques can be efficiently combined. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

Ye H.,East China Normal University | Ye H.,ETH Zurich | Fussenegger M.,ETH Zurich | Fussenegger M.,University of Basel
FEBS Letters | Year: 2014

In the emerging field of synthetic biology, scientists are focusing on designing and creating functional devices, systems, and organisms with novel functions by engineering and assembling standardised biological building blocks. The progress of synthetic biology has significantly advanced the design of functional gene networks that can reprogram metabolic activities in mammalian cells and provide new therapeutic opportunities for future gene- and cell-based therapies. In this review, we describe the most recent advances in synthetic mammalian gene networks designed for biomedical applications, including how these synthetic therapeutic gene circuits can be assembled to control signalling networks and applied to treat metabolic disorders, cancer, and immune diseases. We conclude by discussing the various challenges and future prospects of using synthetic mammalian gene networks for disease therapy. © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Singh R.,Chennai Mathematical Institute | Xu J.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Xu J.,East China Normal University | Garnier N.G.,French National Center for Scientific Research | And 2 more authors.
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2012

Synchronized oscillations are of critical functional importance in many biological systems. We show that such oscillations can arise without centralized coordination in a disordered system of electrically coupled excitable and passive cells. Increasing the coupling strength results in waves that lead to coherent periodic activity, exhibiting cluster, local and global synchronization under different conditions. Our results may explain the self-organized transition in a pregnant uterus from transient, localized activity initially to system-wide coherent excitations just before delivery. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Ruan Y.-B.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Li C.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Li C.,East China Normal University | Tang J.,East China Normal University | Xie J.,French National Center for Scientific Research
Chemical Communications | Year: 2010

Increase of pH induced by Cu2+-catalyzed Fenton reaction promoted ring-opening of triazole-linked fluorescein lactone, which enabled selective "turn-on" fluorescent detection of Cu2+, along with ultralow naked-eye detection limit down to 200 nM. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Xu X.,University of Maryland University College | Hu W.-H.,East China Normal University | Doyle M.P.,University of Maryland University College
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2011

In addition: The Mukaiyama-Michael addition in the presence of a chiral copper(II) Lewis acid is a highly enantioselective and efficient method for the construction of a broad range of chiral γ-functionalized diazoacetoacetates. These products can be conveniently transformed into useful enantiomer-enriched 1,5-diesters (see scheme, Np=1-naphthyl, TBS=tert-butyldimethylsilyl). Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Wang J.,East China Normal University | Li X.,East China Normal University | Zhu J.,Shanghai Normal University | Li H.,Shanghai Normal University | Le X.,East China Normal University
Nanoscale | Year: 2013

A novel mesoporous yolk-shell SnS2-TiO2 visible photocatalyst (ST-is) was synthesized by in situ doping TiO2 with SnO2 through solvothermal alcoholysis, followed by sulfurization under hydrothermal conditions. The ST-is displayed higher activity in photocatalytic reduction of Cr(vi) owing to the strong photosensitizing effect of SnS2 in uniform nanoparticles and the enhanced light harvesting via multiple reflections in yolk-shell chambers. Meanwhile, the strong SnS 2-TiO2 interaction could generate more heterojunctions which facilitated photoelectron transfer from SnS2 to TiO 2, leading to the enhanced activity by inhibiting photoelectron-hole recombination. Moreover, the ST-is displayed strong durability owing to the strong SnS2-TiO2 interaction and the encapsulation of SnS2 nanoparticles in the yolk-shell chamber, which could inhibit SnS2 leaching. Furthermore, because of the electronegative surface and high surface area, the ST-is could thoroughly purify wastewater by completely adsorbing Cr3+ resulting from Cr(vi) reduction. In addition, the presence of photocatalytic degradation of organic compounds promoted Cr(vi) reduction owing to inhibition of photoelectron-hole recombination by consuming holes. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Wei M.,Shanghai Normal University | Wang Q.,East China Normal University | Cheng X.,Ludong University
Automatica | Year: 2010

In a related article, we derived a canonical decomposition of the right invertible system {C, A, B} and applied this canonical decomposition to study the Smith form of the matrix pencil P (s) = ((A - s I, B; C, 0)) and findout the finite zeros and infinite zeros of P (s), the range of the ranks of P (s) for s ∈ C, and the controllability of the right invertible system. In this paper, we will apply this canonical decomposition of the right invertible system {C, A, B} to deduce the triangular decouple upon to row permutation, provide some new results of the row-by-row decoupling, and associated pole assignment problems. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Xu X.,University of Maryland University College | Xu X.,East China Normal University | Hu W.-H.,East China Normal University | Zavalij P.Y.,University of Maryland University College | Doyle M.P.,University of Maryland University College
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2011

Divergent catalysis: The use of copper and rhodium catalysts separately or in combination directs reactions between vinyldiazoacetates 1 and cinnamaldehydes 2 from formal [4+3] cycloaddition (epoxidation followed by Cope rearrangement), to intramolecular cyclopropanation, to Mukaiyama-aldol reactions. The reactions proceed selectively and in high yield. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Li M.,East China Normal University | Lim S.C.,28 Farrer Road and 05 01 | Chen S.,Zhejiang University of Technology
Mathematical Problems in Engineering | Year: 2011

Oscillator of single-degree-freedom is a typical model in system analysis. Oscillations resulted from differential equations with fractional order attract the interests of researchers since such a type of oscillations may appear dramatic behaviors in system responses. However, a solution to the impulse response of a class of fractional oscillators studied in this paper remains unknown in the field. In this paper, we propose the solution in the closed form to the impulse response of the class of fractional oscillators. Based on it, we reveal the stability behavior of this class of fractional oscillators as follows. A fractional oscillator in this class may be strictly stable, nonstable, or marginally stable, depending on the ranges of its fractional order. © 2011 Ming Li et al.

Chen G.,Georgia State University | Ren H.,East China Normal University | Shan S.,Georgia State University
Combinatorics Probability and Computing | Year: 2012

A spanning tree T of a graph G is called a homeomorphically irreducible spanning tree (HIST) if T does not contain vertices of degree 2. A graph G is called locally connected if, for every vertex v ∈ V(G), the subgraph induced by the neighbourhood of v is connected. In this paper, we prove that every connected and locally connected graph with more than 3 vertices contains a HIST. Consequently, we confirm the following conjecture due to Archdeacon: every graph that triangulates some surface has a HIST, which was proposed as a question by Albertson, Berman, Hutchinson and Thomassen. © 2012 Cambridge University Press.

Zhang X.,Ewha Womans University | Zhang X.,East China Normal University | Kim Y.J.,East China Normal University
IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics | Year: 2014

We present a new parallel algorithm for collision detection using many-core computing platforms of CPUs or GPUs. Based on the notion of a $(p)$-partition front, our algorithm is able to evenly partition and distribute the workload of BVH traversal among multiple processing cores without the need for dynamic balancing, while minimizing the memory overhead inherent to the state-of-the-art parallel collision detection algorithms. We demonstrate the scalability of our algorithm on different benchmarking scenarios with and without using temporal coherence, including dynamic simulation of rigid bodies, cloth simulation, and random collision courses. In these experiments, we observe nearly linear performance improvement in terms of the number of processing cores on the CPUs and GPUs. © 2014 IEEE.

Xu X.,University of Maryland University College | Xu X.,East China Normal University | Zavalij P.Y.,University of Maryland University College | Hu W.,East China Normal University | Doyle M.P.,University of Maryland University College
Chemical Communications | Year: 2012

An efficient one-step synthesis of multi-functionalized oxazole derivatives is achieved in high yield by dirhodium(ii)-catalyzed reactions of styryl diazoacetate with aryl oximes. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012.

Wang Y.-M.,East China Normal University | Wang Y.-M.,Shanghai Normal University
Mathematical and Computer Modelling | Year: 2011

This paper is concerned with a time-delayed Lotka-Volterra competition reaction-diffusion system with homogeneous Neumann boundary conditions. Some explicit and easily verifiable conditions are obtained for the global asymptotic stability of all forms of nonnegative semitrivial constant steady-state solutions. These conditions involve only the competing rate constants and are independent of the diffusion-convection and time delays. The result of global asymptotic stability implies the nonexistence of positive steady-state solutions, and gives some extinction results of the competing species in the ecological sense. The instability of the trivial steady-state solution is also shown. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Zhang X.-M.,East China Normal University | Zhang X.-M.,Huaibei Normal University | Wang Y.-Q.,East China Normal University | Li X.-B.,East China Normal University | Gao E.-Q.,East China Normal University
Dalton Transactions | Year: 2012

Two novel Mn(ii) coordination polymers with azide and 4-(4-pyridyl)benzoic acid N-oxide (4,4-Hopybz) were synthesized and structurally and magnetically characterized. They are formulated as {[Mn 2(4,4-opybz) 2(N 3) 2(H 2O) 2] ·H 2O} n (1) and {[Mn 4(4,4-opybz) 5(N 3)(H 2O) 8](N 3) 2·2H 2O} n (2). Compound 1 contains 2D coordination layers in which the infinite Mn(ii) chains with alternating (μ-EO-N 3) 2(μ-COO) (EO = end-on) and (μ-COO)(μ-O) bridges are interlinked by the backbones of the organic ligands. Compound 2 is a 3D metal-organic framework in which the unique linear tetranuclear clusters with (μ-EO-N 3)(μ-COO) and (μ-COO)(μ-O) bridges are cross-linked by organic backbones, and it represents a new example of the rare 8-connected self-catenated 3D net with the point symbol 4 16·6 12. Magnetic analyses on the compounds have been performed in the classical-spin approximation, revealing that all the above-mentioned mixed bridging motifs induce weak antiferromagnetic interactions between Mn(ii) ions. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Wu H.,East China Normal University | Zhu J.,East China Normal University | Ho Choi B.,Sungkyunkwan University
Continental Shelf Research | Year: 2010

In this paper we discuss the links between saltwater intrusion and subtidal circulation in the Changjiang Estuary based on a 3D numerical model. We restricted our study mainly to the three major outlets of the estuary: the South Passage, the North Passage, and the North Channel. Subtidal transport is landward in the South Passage and NNW- or NW-ward on the shoals, whereas it is mainly seaward in the North Passage and North Channel. Such a residual characteristic is caused by the interaction between tide and shallow water depth. Decomposing analysis indicated that Stokes transport is the major mechanism causing this particular residual transport pattern. Under its influence, the South Passage is the most saline outlet and the North Channel is the major route discharging the Changjiang runoff. Results of a tracer experiment indicated that active water mass exchange occurs from the South Passage to the North Passage and finally to the North Channel. Thus, the salinity in each outlet is determined not only by the tidal-averaged diversion ratio around the bifurcation of the South and North Channels but also by the subtidal circulation in the waterways and on the shoals. The northerly wind produces a horizontal circulation around the river mouth, which flows into the estuary in the North Channel and out of the estuary in the South Channel and South Passage. This circulation increases the salinity in the North Channel and decreases it in the South Passage. Recent engineering projects have intensified the landward residual in the South Passage, thereby increasing the salinity in the South Passage and decreasing the salinity in the North Channel. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Li F.,East China Normal University | Ng M.K.,Hong Kong Baptist University
Communications in Computational Physics | Year: 2010

In this paper, we propose a multiphase fuzzy region competition model for texture image segmentation. In the functional, each region is represented by a fuzzy membership function and a probability density function that is estimated by a nonparametric kernel density estimation. The overall algorithmis very efficient as both the fuzzy membership function and the probability density function can be implemented easily. We apply the proposed method to synthetic and natural texture images, and synthetic aperture radar images. Our experimental results have shown that the proposed method is competitive with the other state-of-the-art segmentation methods. © 2010 Global-Science Press.

Herbeck L.S.,Leibniz Center for Tropical Marine Ecology | Unger D.,Leibniz Center for Tropical Marine Ecology | Wu Y.,East China Normal University | Jennerjahn T.C.,Leibniz Center for Tropical Marine Ecology
Continental Shelf Research | Year: 2013

Global aquaculture has grown at a rate of 8.7% per year since 1970. Particularly along the coasts of tropical Asia, aquaculture ponds have expanded rapidly at the expense of natural wetlands. The objectives of this study were (i) to characterize the extent and production process of brackish-water pond aquaculture at the NE coast of Hainan, tropical China, (ii) to quantify effluent and organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus export from shrimp and fish ponds and (iii) to trace their effect on the water quality in adjacent estuarine and nearshore coastal waters harboring seagrass meadows and coral reefs. During two expeditions in 2008 and 2009, we determined dissolved inorganic nutrients, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), chlorophyll a (chl a) and particulate organic matter (POM) in aquaculture ponds, drainage channels and coastal waters in three areas varying in extent of aquaculture ponds. From the analysis of satellite images we calculated a total of 39.6km2 covered by shrimp and fish ponds in the study area. According to pond owners, there is no standardized production pattern for feeding management and water exchange. Nutrient and suspended matter concentrations were high in aquaculture ponds and drainage channels, but varied considerably. The calculated annual export of total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) and particulate nitrogen (PN) from pond aquaculture into coastal waters was 612 and 680tyr-1, respectively. High concentrations of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), phosphate and chl a at the majority of the coastal stations point at eutrophication of coastal waters, especially close to shore. Coastal eutrophication driven by the introduction of untreated aquaculture effluents may be especially harmful in back-reef areas, where estuarine retention and mixing with open ocean water is restricted thus threatening seagrasses and corals. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Zhang X.-M.,East China Normal University | Zhang X.-M.,Huaibei Normal University | Wang Y.-Q.,East China Normal University | Song Y.,Nanjing University | Gao E.-Q.,East China Normal University
Inorganic Chemistry | Year: 2011

Three transition-metal coordination polymers with azide and/or carboxylate bridges have been synthesized from 4-(3-pyridyl)benzoic acid (4,3-Hpybz) and 4-(4-pyridyl)benzoic acid (4,4-Hpybz) and characterized by X-ray crystallography and magnetic measurements. Compound 1, [Cu(4,3-pybz)(N3)] n, consists of 2D coordination networks in which the uniform chains with (μ-EO-N3)(μ-COO) double bridges are cross-linked by the 4,3-pybz ligands. Compound 2, [Cu2(4,4-pybz)3(N 3)]n•3nH2O, consists of 2-fold interpenetrated 3D coordination networks with the α-Po topology, in which the six-connected dinuclear motifs with mixed (μ-EO-N3)(μ-COO) 2 (EO = end-on) triple bridges are linked by the 4,4-pybz spacers. Compound 3, [Mn(4,4-pybz)(N3)(H2O)2] n, contains 2D manganese(II) coordination networks in which the chains with single μ-EE-N3 bridges (EE = end-to-end) are interlinked by the 4,4-pybz ligands, and the structure also features a 2D hydrogen-bonded network in which MnII ions are linked by double triatomic bridges, (μ-EE-N3)(O-H•••N) and (O-H•••O)2. Magnetic studies indicated that the mixed azide and carboxylate bridges in 1 and 2 induce ferromagnetic coupling between CuII ions and that 3 features antiferromagnetic coupling through the EE-azide bridge. In addition, compound 1 exhibits antiferromagnetic ordering below 6.2 K and behaves as a field-induced metamagnet. A magnetostructural survey indicates a general trend that the ferromagnetic coupling through the mixed bridges decreases as the Cu-N-Cu angle increases. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

News Article | November 18, 2016

Repairing bones damaged by cancer surgery requires scaffold materials that are able to support tissue regeneration while suppressing tumor regrowth. Few such scaffold materials have been reported, but now Chinese researchers have come up with a promising approach inspired by the way mussels cling to rocks. Chengtie Wu at Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, along with coworkers at East China Normal University and Shanghai Jiao Tong University, have created a bioceramic scaffold coated with a self-assembled Ca-P/polydopamine surface layer that can both kill tumor cells and support bone regrowth [Ma et al., Biomaterials 111 (2016) 138]. “It remains a significant challenge to achieve a new biomaterial that can kill the bone tumor cells and inhibit tumor regrowth while at the same time possessing the ability to stimulate log-term bone regeneration after surgical intervention,” explains Wu. The scaffold is fabricated from a bioceramic (Ca Si P O ), which can be printed into three-dimensional shapes. Inspired by the example of mussels, which adhere tightly to any material, the researchers created a nanostructured surface that helps bone cells stick onto the scaffold and proliferate. The Ca-P/polydopamine layer brings surface roughness, affinity to water (or hydrophilicity), and bioactive functional groups (OH- and NH2-), all of which support cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation. The researchers believe that organic chemical groups in the polydopamine known as ‘catechol’ groups could also serve to improve the nucleation and growth of the apatite minerals that make up bone. But the Ca-P/polydopamine layer has yet another potential benefit. It exhibits a photothermal effect – heating up in response to light stimulation – which can be harnessed to kill tumor cells and inhibit growth. Near-infrared laser irradiation of the Ca-P/polydopamine scaffolds induces a temperature of 92 degrees C in air and 50 degrees C in a wet environment. “Taking advantage of the photothermal effect of polydopamine, the bifunctional scaffolds could effectively induce tumor cell death in vitro and significantly inhibit tumor growth,” says Wu. The temperature increase is rapid and controllable, say the researchers, and leads to effective tumor growth inhibition in mice. The only issue that needs improvement, admits Wu, is that the center of the scaffold reaches a higher temperature than the periphery. But he is confident that this shortcoming can be improved upon. The researchers are now looking for industrial and clinical partners to take the technology toward applications.

Wang J.,East China Normal University | Wang J.,Colorado State University | Gao W.,Colorado State University | Xu S.,East China Normal University | Yu L.,East China Normal University
Climatic Change | Year: 2012

Shanghai is a low-lying city (3-4 m elevation) surrounded on three sides by the East China Sea, the Yangtze River Estuary, and Hangzhou Bay. With a history of rapid changes in sea level and land subsidence, Shanghai is often plagued by extreme typhoon storm surges. The interaction of sea level rise, land subsidence, and storm surges may lead to more complex, variable, and abrupt disasters. In this paper, we used MIKE 21 models to simulate the combined effect of this disaster chain in Shanghai. Projections indicate that the sea level will rise 86.6 mm, 185.6 mm, and 433.1 mm by 2030, 2050, and 2100, respectively. Anthropogenic subsidence is a serious problem. The maximum annual subsidence rate is 24.12 mm/year. By 2100, half of Shanghai is projected to be flooded, and 46 % of the seawalls and levees are projected to be overtopped. The risk of flooding is closely related to the impact of land subsidence on the height of existing seawalls and levees. Land subsidence increases the need for flood control measures in Shanghai. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Zhang Y.,Tianjin Polytechnic University | Jia T.Q.,East China Normal University | Zhang H.M.,Tianjin Polytechnic University | Xu Z.Z.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Optics and fine Mechanics
Optics Letters | Year: 2012

This Letter presents a plasmonic nanostructure consisting of a nanodisk and a nanoring. The nanodisk is outside of the nanoring. The quadrupolar, hexapolar, and octupolar resonance modes of the nanoring are excited easily by the bright dipolar mode of nanodisks. This nanostructure shows strong interaction and deep Fano dips. In addition, the resonance frequency, depth, and line width of Fano dips can be tuned by changing the geometrical parameters of the nanodisk and nanoring. These plasmonic nanostructures show both high contrast ratio and high figure of merit. Such characters make them suitable for chemical and biological sensing. © 2012 Optical Society of America.

Li R.,Wuhan University | Zhang L.,Wuhan University | Xu M.,East China Normal University
Carbohydrate Polymers | Year: 2012

Regenerated films were successfully prepared from cellulose/NaOH/urea solution by coagulating with water at temperature from 25 to 45 °C. The results of solid 13C NMR, wide angle X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and tensile testing revealed that the cellulose films possessed homogeneous structure and cellulose II crystalline, similar to that prepared previously by coagulating with 5 wt% H2SO4. By changing the coagulation temperature from 25 to 45 °C, tensile strength of the films was in the range of 85-139 MPa. Interestingly, the RC35 film coagulated at 35 °C exhibited the highest tensile strength (σb = 139 MPa). The inclusion complex associated with cellulose, NaOH and urea hydrates in the cellulose solution were broken by adding water (non-solvent), leading to the self-association of cellulose to regenerate through rearrangement of the hydrogen bonds. This work provided low-cost and "green" pathway to prepare cellulose films, which is important in industry. © 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Zhang X.,East China Normal University | Boccaletti S.,CNR Institute for Complex Systems | Guan S.,East China Normal University | Liu Z.,East China Normal University
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2015

At this time, explosive synchronization (ES) of networked oscillators is thought of as being rooted in the setting of specific microscopic correlation features between the natural frequencies of the oscillators and their effective coupling strengths. We show that ES is, in fact, far more general and can occur in adaptive and multilayer networks in the absence of such correlation properties. We first report evidence of ES for single-layer networks where a fraction f of the nodes have links adaptively controlled by a local order parameter, and we then extend the study to a variety of two-layer networks with a fraction f of their nodes coupled with each other by means of dependency links. In the latter case, we give evidence of ES regardless of the differences in the frequency distribution, in the topology of connections between the layers, or both. Finally, we provide a rigorous, analytical treatment to properly ground all of the observed scenarios and to advance the understanding of the actual mechanisms at the basis of ES in real-world systems. © 2015 American Physical Society.

Sinatra A.,Kastler-Brossel Laboratory | Castin Y.,Kastler-Brossel Laboratory | Li Y.,East China Normal University
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2010

We study fluctuations in the atom number difference between two halves of a harmonically trapped Bose gas in three dimensions. We solve the problem analytically for noninteracting atoms. In the interacting case we find an analytical solution in the Thomas-Fermi and high temperature limit in good agreement with classical field simulations. In the large system size limit, fluctuations in the number difference are maximal for a temperature T0.7Tc where Tc is the critical temperature, independently of the trap anisotropy. The occurrence of this maximum is due to an interference effect between the condensate and the noncondensed fields. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

Zhang Y.,University of Nevada, Las Vegas | Ke X.,University of Nevada, Las Vegas | Ke X.,East China Normal University | Chen C.,University of Nevada, Las Vegas | And 2 more authors.
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2011

The structure-property relation is a key outstanding problem in the study of nanocomposite materials. Here we elucidate the fundamental physics of nanodopants in thermoelectric nanocomposites XPbmYTe2+m (X=Ag,Na; Y=Sb,Bi). First-principles calculations unveil a sizable band-gap widening driven by nanodopant-induced lattice strain and a band split-off mainly caused by the spin-orbit interaction in nanodopant. Boltzmann transport calculations on PbTe with modified band mimicking nanodopant-induced modulations show significant but competing effects on high-temperature electron transport behavior. These results offer insights for understanding experimental findings and optimizing thermoelectric properties of narrow band-gap semiconductor nanocomposites. © 2011 American Physical Society.

Zhang Y.,University of Nevada, Las Vegas | Ke X.,University of Nevada, Las Vegas | Ke X.,East China Normal University | Kent P.R.C.,Oak Ridge National Laboratory | And 2 more authors.
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2011

A recent report of highly unusual ferroelectric fluctuations in PbTe by E.S. Božin et al. raises fundamental questions about the nature of underlying lattice dynamics. We show by first-principles calculations that the reported results can be attributed to abnormally large-amplitude thermal vibrations that stem from a delicate competition of dual ionicity and covalency, which puts PbTe near ferroelectric instability. It produces anomalous properties such as partially localized low-frequency phonon modes, a soft transverse optical phonon mode, and a positive temperature coefficient for the band gap. These results account for experimental findings and resolve the underlying atomistic mechanisms, which have broad implications for materials near dynamic instabilities. © 2011 American Physical Society.

Huang K.,East China Normal University | Johnson M.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Rzayev J.,State University of New York at Buffalo
ACS Macro Letters | Year: 2012

Degradable organic nanotubes were synthesized by a single-molecule templating of core-shell bottlebrush copolymers composed of an etchable inner block (polylactide) and a functional outer block (poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride)). The pendant mercapto groups generated along the outer block chains by reacting the anhydride groups with cysteamine were oxidized to disulfide groups acting as degradable cross-linking units in the shell layer. Subsequent hydrolytic removal of the polyester inner core provided hollow organic nanotubes held together by disulfide groups as crosslinkers. The cleavage of disulfide linkers by reaction with dithiothreitol resulted in a complete disintegration of nanotube structures into small fragments. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

He X.,University of Helsinki | Sun Y.,University of Helsinki | Zhu R.-L.,East China Normal University
Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences | Year: 2013

Oil bodies of liverworts are intracellular organelles bounded by a single unit membrane containing lipophilic globules suspended in a proteinaceous matrix. They are a prominent and highly distinctive organelle uniquely found in liverworts. Although they have been widely used in taxonomy and chemosystematics, and many of their secondary metabolites are known to be bioactive and are considered as potential sources of medicines, their origin, development and function still remain poorly understood. Recently, biochemical studies have indicated that the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathways in liverworts are similar to those of the seed plants and that oil bodies of Marchantia polymorpha contain a protein complex immunologically related to plastid and cytosolic enzymes of isoprenoid synthesis. Cytoplasmic lipid droplets lacking a bounding membrane have recently been recognized as important dynamic organelles playing active roles in cell physiology. Structural proteins, covering the surface of the lipid droplets and preventing them coalescing during desiccation, have been found in seed plants and also in the moss Physcomitrella patens. However, whether liverwort oil bodies play a dynamic role in cell metabolism, in addition to their role as sites of essential oil accumulation and sequestration, has not been formally tested. In this review, we present current knowledge on the oil bodies of liverworts on their origin and development, their role in taxonomy, chemosystematics and potential pharmaceutical applications leading to their functional significance, and we also identify avenues for future studies on this important but long-overlooked organelle. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Seo S.,Yonsei University | Kim Y.,Yonsei University | Zhou Q.,CNRS Supramolecular and Macromolecular Photophysics and Photochemistry | Zhou Q.,East China Normal University | And 3 more authors.
Advanced Functional Materials | Year: 2012

A fluorescent naphthalimide-tetrazine dyad (NITZ) was examined for electrofluorochromism. The reversible electrochemistry of the tetrazine was accompanied by the fluorescence change through a quasi-complete energy transfer in an electrochemical cell prepared by the mixture of polymer electrolyte and naphthalimide-tetrazine dyad. Owing to the energy transfer within the dyad (naphthalimide and tetrazine), the fluorescence efficiency of NITZ was much enhanced and the effective fluorophore concentration in this system was much less than other tetrazine based electrofluorochromic device (EFD). Thus the yellow fluorescence of NITZ was switched on and off remarkably even with small quantity of NITZ (1 wt.%) in an EFD upon application of step potentials for different redox state. Furthermore, multi-color fluorescence switching was achieved by blending a naphthalimide to the electrofluorochromic layer, to show white-blue-dark state of fluorescence. Since the tetrazine and naphthalimide units have their emission quenched at different potentials, the emission color could be tuned by quenching emission at selected wavelengths, reversibly, under low working potentials. Multi-color fluorescence switching is achieved by blending a naphthalimide to the electrofluorochromic layer, to show white-blue-dark state of fluorescence. The reversible electrochemistry of the tetrazine and naphthalimide is accompanied by the fluorescence change in an electrochemical cell. The emission color can be tuned by quenching emission at selected wavelengths, reversibly, under low working potentials. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

He M.,Wuhan University | Xu M.,East China Normal University | Zhang L.,Wuhan University
ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces | Year: 2013

A novel, highly hydrophobic cellulose composite film (RCS) with biodegradability was fabricated via solvent-vaporized controllable crystallization of stearic acid in the porous structure of cellulose films (RC). The interface structure and properties of the composite films were investigated with wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), FT-IR, solid-state 13C NMR, water uptake, tensile testing, water contact angle, and biodegradation tests. The results indicated that the RCS films exhibited high hydrophobicity (water contact angle achieved to 145), better mechanical properties in the humid state and lower water uptake ratio than RC. Interestingly, the stearic acid crystallization was induced by the pore wall of the cellulose matrix to form a micronano binary structure, resulting in a rough surface. The rough surface with a hierarchical structure containing micronanospace on the RCS film surface could trap abundant air, leading to the high hydrophobicity. Moreover, the RCS films were flexible, biodegradable, and low-cost, showing potential applications in biodegradable water-proof packaging. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

Jiang B.,Simon Fraser University | Pei J.,Simon Fraser University | Tao Y.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | Lin X.,University of New South Wales | Lin X.,East China Normal University
IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering | Year: 2013

Clustering on uncertain data, one of the essential tasks in mining uncertain data, posts significant challenges on both modeling similarity between uncertain objects and developing efficient computational methods. The previous methods extend traditional partitioning clustering methods like (k)-means and density-based clustering methods like DBSCAN to uncertain data, thus rely on geometric distances between objects. Such methods cannot handle uncertain objects that are geometrically indistinguishable, such as products with the same mean but very different variances in customer ratings. Surprisingly, probability distributions, which are essential characteristics of uncertain objects, have not been considered in measuring similarity between uncertain objects. In this paper, we systematically model uncertain objects in both continuous and discrete domains, where an uncertain object is modeled as a continuous and discrete random variable, respectively. We use the well-known Kullback-Leibler divergence to measure similarity between uncertain objects in both the continuous and discrete cases, and integrate it into partitioning and density-based clustering methods to cluster uncertain objects. Nevertheless, a naïve implementation is very costly. Particularly, computing exact KL divergence in the continuous case is very costly or even infeasible. To tackle the problem, we estimate KL divergence in the continuous case by kernel density estimation and employ the fast Gauss transform technique to further speed up the computation. Our extensive experiment results verify the effectiveness, efficiency, and scalability of our approaches. © 2012 IEEE.

Yang C.-P.,Hangzhou Normal University | Yang C.-P.,East China Normal University | Su Q.-P.,Hangzhou Normal University | Zheng S.-B.,Fuzhou University | Han S.,University of Kansas
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2013

We discuss how to generate entangled coherent states of four microwave resonators (a.k.a. cavities) coupled by a three-level superconducting device (qutrit). We also show that a Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state of four superconducting qubits embedded in four different resonators can be created with this scheme. In principle, the proposed method can be extended to create an entangled coherent state of n resonators and to prepare a (GHZ) state of n qubits distributed over n cavities in a quantum network. In addition, it is noted that four resonators coupled by a coupler qutrit may be used as a basic circuit block to build a two-dimensional quantum network, which is useful for scalable quantum information processing. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Du J.,East China Normal University | Lin Z.,Fudan University | Chui S.T.,University of Delaware | Dong G.,East China Normal University | Zhang W.,East China Normal University
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2013

It is shown that a single-layer array of high electric permittivity (high-ε) rods with a radius smaller than λ/10 is capable of reflecting more than 97% of the energy of optical waves with an arbitrary incident angle. Here, λ is the incident wavelength. The occurrence of the phenomenon depends on the construction of two particular grating modes (GMs) in the array which result in two corresponding transmitted wave components that cancel each other. The construction of the dominant GMs in the array benefits from the highly independent manipulability of the angular momenta components with opposite signs in high-ε particles. The effect offers the possibility to improve the optical elements integration level in on-chip optical circuits. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Qin J.,University of New South Wales | Wang W.,University of New South Wales | Lu Y.,University of New South Wales | Xiao C.,University of New South Wales | And 2 more authors.
Proceedings of the ACM SIGMOD International Conference on Management of Data | Year: 2011

Given a query string Q, an edit similarity search finds all strings in a database whose edit distance with Q is no more than a given threshold τ. Most existing method answering edit similarity queries rely on a signature scheme to generate candidates given the query string. We observe that the number of signatures generated by existing methods is far greater than the lower bound, and this results in high query time and index space complexities. In this paper, we show that the minimum signature size lower bound is τ +1. We then propose asymmetric signature schemes that achieve this lower bound. We develop efficient query processing algorithms based on the new scheme. Several dynamic programming-based candidate pruning methods are also developed to further speed up the performance. We have conducted a comprehensive experimental study involving nine state-of-the-art algorithms. The experiment results clearly demonstrate the efficiency of our methods. © 2011 ACM.

Shi M.-M.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research | Michalski S.G.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research | Chen X.-Y.,East China Normal University | Durka W.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Background: The distribution of genetic diversity among plant populations growing along elevational gradients can be affected by neutral as well as selective processes. Molecular markers used to study these patterns usually target neutral processes only, but may also be affected by selection. In this study, the effects of elevation and successional stage on genetic diversity of a dominant tree species were investigated controlling for neutrality of the microsatellite loci used. Methodology/Principal Findings: Diversity and differentiation among 24 populations of Castanopsis eyrei from different elevations (251-920 m) and successional stages were analysed by eight microsatellite loci. We found that one of the loci (Ccu97H18) strongly deviated from a neutral model of differentiation among populations due to either divergent selection or hitchhiking with an unknown selected locus. The analysis showed that C. eyrei populations had a high level of genetic diversity within populations (AR = 7.6, HE = 0.82). Genetic variation increased with elevation for both the putatively selected locus Ccu97H18 and the neutral loci. At locus Ccu97H18 one allele was dominant at low elevations, which was replaced at higher elevations by an increasing number of other alleles. The level of genetic differentiation at neutral loci was similar to that of other Fagaceae species (FST = 0.032, F′ST = 0.15). Population differentiation followed a model of isolation by distance but additionally, strongly significant isolation by elevation was found, both for neutral loci and the putatively selected locus. Conclusions/Significance: The results indicate higher gene flow among similar elevational levels than across different elevational levels and suggest a selective influence of elevation on the distribution of genetic diversity in C. eyrei. The study underlines the importance to check the selective neutrality of marker loci in analyses of population structure. © 2011 Shi et al.

Li H.,University of South Australia | Li H.,East China Normal University | Zou L.,University of South Australia | Pan L.,East China Normal University | Sun Z.,East China Normal University
Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2010

Capacitive deionization (CDI) is a novel technology that has been developed for removal of charged ionic species from salty water, such as salt ions. The basic concept of CDI, as well as electrosorption, is to force charged ions toward oppositely polarized electrodes through imposing a direct electric field to form a strong electrical double layer and hold the ions. Once the electric field disappears, the ions are instantly released back to the bulk solution. CDI is an alternative low-energy consumption desalination technology. Graphene-like nanoflakes (GNFs) with relatively high specific surface area have been prepared and used as electrodes for capacitive deionization. The GNFs were synthesized by a modified Hummers' method using hydrazine for reduction. They were characterized by atomic force microscopy, N2 adsorption at 77 K and electrochemical workstation. It was found that the ratio of nitric acid and sulfuric acid plays a vital role in determining the specific surface area of GNFs. Its electrosorption performance was much better than commercial activated carbon (AC), suggesting a great potential in capacitive deionisation application. Further, the electrosorptive performance of GNFs electrodes with different bias potentials, flow rates and ionic strengths were measured and the electrosorption isotherm and kinetics were investigated. The results showed that GNFs prepared by this process had the specific surface area of 222.01 m 2/g. The specific electrosorptive capacity of the GNFs was 23.18 μmol/g for sodium ions (Na+) when the initial concentration was at 25 mg/L, which was higher than that of previously reported data using graphene and AC under the same experimental condition. In addition, the equilibrium electrosorption capacity was determined as 73.47 μmol/g at 2.0 V by fitting data through the Langmuir isotherm, and the rate constant was found to be 1.01 min-1 by fitting data through pseudofirst-order adsorption. The results suggested that the chemically synthesized GNFs can be used as effective electrode materials in CDI process for brackish water desalination. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

Sebastianelli F.,New York University | Xu M.,New York University | Bacic Z.,East China Normal University | Bacic Z.,New York University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2010

Recent synthesis of the endohedral complexes of C70 and its open-cage derivative with one and two H2 molecules has opened the path for experimental and theoretical investigations of the unique dynamic, spectroscopic, and other properties of systems with multiple hydrogen molecules confined inside a nanoscale cavity. Here we report a rigorous theoretical study of the dynamics of the coupled translational and rotational motions of H 2 molecules in C70 and C60, which are highly quantum mechanical. Diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) calculations were performed for up to three para-H2 (p-H2) molecules encapsulated in C70 and for one and two p-H2 molecules inside C 60. These calculations provide a quantitative description of the ground-state properties, energetics, and the translation-rotation (T-R) zero-point energies (ZPEs) of the nanoconfined p-H2 molecules and of the spatial distribution of two p-H2 molecules in the cavity of C70. The energy of the global minimum on the intermolecular potential energy surface (PES) is negative for one and two H2 molecules in C70 but has a high positive value when the third H2 is added, implying that at most two H2 molecules can be stabilized inside C70. By the same criterion, in the case of C60, only the endohedral complex with one H2 molecule is energetically stable. Our results are consistent with the fact that recently both (H 2)n@C70 (n = 1, 2) and H2@C 60 were prepared, but not (H2)3@C70 or (H2)2@C60. The ZPE of the coupled T-R motions, from the DMC calculations, grows rapidly with the number of caged p-H2 molecules and is a significant fraction of the well depth of the intermolecular PES, 11% in the case of p-H2@C70 and 52% for (p-H2)2@C70. Consequently, the T-R ZPE represents a major component of the energetics of the encapsulated H2 molecules. The inclusion of the ZPE nearly doubles the energy by which (p-H2)3@C70 is destabilized and increases by 66% the energetic destabilization of (p-H2)2@C 60. For these reasons, the T-R ZPE has to be calculated accurately and taken into account for reliable theoretical predictions regarding the stability of the endohedral fullerene complexes with hydrogen molecules and their maximum H2 content. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

Li Z.,Henan Normal University | Liu X.,Henan Normal University | Pei Y.,Henan Normal University | Wang J.,Henan Normal University | He M.,East China Normal University
Green Chemistry | Year: 2012

Ionic liquids (ILs) have numerous applications in industrial processes as a benign alternative to conventional volatile organic solvents. However, many of them are toxic to organisms and are poorly biodegradable. In this work, a series of environmentally friendly cholinium ILs have been designed and synthesized. It was found that these ILs could form aqueous two-phase systems (ATPSs) with polypropylene glycol 400 (PPG400) which is thermo-sensitive, non-toxic and biodegradable. In order to understand the phase formation processes and possible application of these ATPSs for extraction/separation of proteins, the binodal curves and tie lines of these ATPSs were measured at 25 °C, and the effects of anionic structure of the ionic liquids, nature of the proteins and difference in the concentration of top- and bottom-phases on the partitioning behavior of some typical proteins were investigated systematically. It was shown that bovine serum albumin (BSA), trypsin, papain and lysozyme could be enriched effectively into the ionic liquid-rich phase of the ATPSs, and single-step extraction efficiency could be as high as 86.4-99.9% under the optimized conditions. Furthermore, enzyme activity of the native trypsin in water and in aqueous ionic liquid solutions was determined by using N-a-benzoyl-l-arginine ethyl ester as a substrate, and activity increases to about 127% was observed after 13 months storage. In addition, PPG400 has been recovered simply by heating and reused in the next extraction processes. This avoids the non-sustainable issue of highly salty water produced in the application of the polyethylene glycol (PEG) + salt and ionic liquid + salt ATPSs. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Xing D.,University of Hong Kong | Xing D.,East China Normal University | Yang D.,University of Hong Kong
Organic Letters | Year: 2013

A palladium(II)-catalyzed tandem cyclization reaction involving an intramolecular 1,2-aminoalkylation of N-4,6-dienyl β-keto amides has been developed. This process provides an efficient method for the rapid assembly of pyrrolizidines starting from linear substrates in moderate to good yields and high to excellent diastereoselectivities. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

Yu W.,University of New South Wales | Yu W.,NICTA | Lin X.,University of New South Wales | Lin X.,East China Normal University | Zhang W.,University of New South Wales
Proceedings - International Conference on Data Engineering | Year: 2013

SimRank has been a powerful model for assessing the similarity of pairs of vertices in a graph. It is based on the concept that two vertices are similar if they are referenced by similar vertices. Due to its self-referentiality, fast SimRank computation on large graphs poses significant challenges. The state-of-the-art work [17] exploits partial sums memorization for computing SimRank in O(Kmn) time on a graph with n vertices and m edges, where K is the number of iterations. Partial sums memorizing can reduce repeated calculations by caching part of similarity summations for later reuse. However, we observe that computations among different partial sums may have duplicate redundancy. Besides, for a desired accuracy ε, the existing SimRank model requires K = ⌈logC ε⌉ iterations [17], where C is a damping factor. Nevertheless, such a geometric rate of convergence is slow in practice if a high accuracy is desirable. In this paper, we address these gaps. (1) We propose an adaptive clustering strategy to eliminate partial sums redundancy (i.e., duplicate computations occurring in partial sums), and devise an efficient algorithm for speeding up the computation of SimRank to 0(Kd′n2) time, where d′ is typically much smaller than the average in-degree of a graph. (2) We also present a new notion of SimRank that is based on a differential equation and can be represented as an exponential sum of transition matrices, as opposed to the geometric sum of the conventional counterpart. This leads to a further speedup in the convergence rate of SimRank iterations. (3) Using real and synthetic data, we empirically verify that our approach of partial sums sharing outperforms the best known algorithm by up to one order of magnitude, and that our revised notion of SimRank further achieves a 5X speedup on large graphs while also fairly preserving the relative order of original SimRank scores. © 2013 IEEE.

Flynn D.C.,University of Michigan | Ramakrishna G.,Western Michigan University | Yang H.-B.,East China Normal University | Northrop B.H.,University of Utah | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2010

New organometallic materials such as two-dimensional metallacycles and three-dimensional metallacages are important for the development of novel optical, electronic, and energy related applications. In this article, the ultrafast dynamics of two different platinum-containing metallacycles have been investigated by femtosecond fluorescence upconversion and transient absorption. These measurements were carried out in an effort to probe the charge transfer dynamics and the rate of intersystem crossing in metallacycles of different geometries and dimensions. The processes of ultrafast intersystem crossing and charge transfer vary between the two different classes of metallacyclic systems studied. For rectangular anthracene-containing metallacycles, the electronic coupling between adjacent ligands was relatively weak, whereas for the triangular phenanthrene-containing structures, there was a clear interaction between the conjugated ligand and the metal complex center. The transient lifetimes increased with increasing conjugation in that case. The results show that differences in the dimensionality and structure of metallacycles result in different optical properties, which may be utilized in the design of nonlinear optical materials and potential new, longer-lived excited state materials for further electronic applications. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

Dykstra J.E.,Wageningen University | Dykstra J.E.,Center of Excellence for Sustainable Water Technology | Zhao R.,Center of Excellence for Sustainable Water Technology | Zhao R.,East China Normal University | And 3 more authors.
Water Research | Year: 2016

Capacitive Deionization (CDI) is an electrochemical method for water desalination employing porous carbon electrodes. To enhance the performance of CDI, identification of electronic and ionic resistances in the CDI cell is important. In this work, we outline a method to identify these resistances. We illustrate our method by calculating the resistances in a CDI cell with membranes (MCDI) and by using this knowledge to improve the cell design. To identify the resistances, we derive a full-scale MCDI model. This model is validated against experimental data and used to calculate the ionic resistances across the MCDI cell. We present a novel way to measure the electronic resistances in a CDI cell, as well as the spacer channel thickness and porosity after assembly of the MCDI cell. We identify that for inflow salt concentrations of 20 mM the resistance is mainly located in the spacer channel and the external electrical circuit, not in the electrodes. Based on these findings, we show that the carbon electrode thickness can be increased without significantly increasing the energy consumption per mol salt removed, which has the advantage that the desalination time can be lengthened significantly. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Hassane B.,Abu Dhabi University | Xianlong F.,East China Normal University
Acta Mathematica Scientia | Year: 2011

In this article, we give sufficient conditions for controllability of some partial neutral functional differential equations with infinite delay. We suppose that the linear part is not necessarily densely defined but satisfies the resolvent estimates of the Hille-Yosida theorem. The results are obtained using the integrated semigroups theory. An application is given to illustrate our abstract result. © 2011 Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics.

Shen D.,East China Normal University | Cho M.-H.,Kent State University | Tsai C.-L.,University of Missouri | Marra R.,University of Missouri
Internet and Higher Education | Year: 2013

Self-efficacy is believed to be a key component in successful online learning; however, most existing studies of online self-efficacy focus on the computer. Although computer self-efficacy is important in online learning, researchers have generally agreed that online learning entails self-efficacy of multifaceted dimensions; therefore, one of the purposes of the current study was to identify dimensions of online learning self-efficacy. Through exploratory factor analysis, we identified five dimensions of online learning self-efficacy: (a) self-efficacy to complete an online course, (b) self-efficacy to interact socially with classmates, (c) self-efficacy to handle tools in a Course Management System (CMS), (d) self-efficacy to interact with instructors in an online course, and (e) self-efficacy to interact with classmates for academic purposes. In addition, the role of demographic variables in online learning self-efficacy was investigated. Demographic variables, such as the number of online courses taken, gender, and academic status were found to predict online learning self-efficacy. Furthermore, we found that online learning self-efficacy predicted students' online learning satisfaction. Results are discussed, and implications for online teaching and learning are provided. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

Yang S.L.,East China Normal University | Milliman J.D.,Virginia Institute of Marine Science | Li P.,East China Normal University | Xu K.,Coastal Carolina University
Global and Planetary Change | Year: 2011

Using 50years of hydrologic and bathymetric data, we show that construction of ~50,000 dams throughout the Yangtze River watershed, particularly the 2003 closing of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD), has resulted in downstream channel erosion and coarsening of bottom sediment, and erosion of the Yangtze's subaqueous delta. The downstream channel from TGD reverted from an accretion rate of ~90Mt (1Mt = 1000 000 t)/yr between the mid-1950s and mid-1980s to an erosion rate of ~60Mt/yr after closing of the TGD. The delta front has devolved from ~125Mm3 (1 Mm3 = 1000 000 m3)/yr of sediment accumulation in the 1960s and 1970s, when river sediment load exceeded 450Mt/yr, to perhaps 100Mm3/yr of erosion in recent years. As of 2007 erosion seemed to have been primarily centered at 5-8m water depths; shallower areas remained relatively stable, perhaps in part due to sediment input from eroding deltaic islands. In the coming decades the Yangtze's sediment load will probably continue to decrease, and its middle-lower river channel and delta will continue to erode as new dams are built, and the South-to-North Water Diversion is begun. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Zhu P.,University of Missouri - Kansas City | Zhu P.,East China Normal University | Zhai B.,Texas A&M University | Lin X.,Texas A&M University | Idnurm A.,University of Missouri - Kansas City
Infection and Immunity | Year: 2013

Cryptococcus gattii is responsible for a large outbreak of potentially fatal disease that started in the late 1990s on Vancouver Island, Canada. How this fungus and the outbreak isolates in particular cause disease in immunocompetent people is unknown, with differing hypotheses. To explore genetic contributions, a pair of congenic a and α mating type strains was generated by a series of 11 backcrosses to introgress the MAT locus from a nonoutbreak strain into the background of strain R265, isolated from a Vancouver Island patient. The congenic pair was used to investigate three traits: mitochondrial inheritance, the effect of the MAT alleles on virulence, and the impact of a predicted virulence factor on pathogenicity. The two congenic strains show the same virulence in different models of cryptococcosis and equivalent levels of competition in coinfection assays. These results rule out a role of the MAT locus and mitochondrial genotype as major virulence factors in the outbreak strains. Disruption of Bwc2, a light-dependent transcription factor, resulted in reduced virulence, consistent with a similar function in the related species Cryptococcus neoformans. The C. gattii congenic strains represent a new resource for exploring the evolution of virulence in the C. neoformans-C. gattii clade. © 2013, American Society for Microbiology.

Zhang J.,Tianjin University | Liu H.-J.,Tianjin University | Yuan Y.,Tianjin University | Jiang S.,East China Normal University | And 2 more authors.
ACS Macro Letters | Year: 2013

Hyperbranched polyethylenimine terminated with isobutyramide groups (HPEI-IBAm) was mixed with 4-(phenylazo)benzoic acid (PABA) to form supramolecular complexes through the neutralization reaction between the amino groups of HPEI-IBAm and the carboxylic acid group of PABA, which was verified by 1H and 2D NOESY 1H NMR spectroscopy. The obtained supramolecular complexes with a molar ratio of PABA to HPEI-IBAm of ≤8 were soluble in water and exhibited thermoresponsive properties. Their cloud point temperature (Tcp) was sensitive to PABA content, and PABA molecules were exchanged between HPEI-IBAm hosts. The topology of the polymer affected the change in Tcp of the complexes. At pH ∼7, increasing the PABA content decreased Tcp, whereas it caused Tcp to increase at pH ∼9. Reversible trans-to-cis photoisomerization of azobenzene units in the complexes occurred following irradiation with UV or visible light. At pH ∼7, trans-to-cis isomerization of azobenzene units increased Tcp, whereas the opposite occurred at pH ∼9. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Jiang S.,East China Normal University | Yao Y.,East China Normal University | Chen Q.,East China Normal University | Chen Y.,Tianjin University
Macromolecules | Year: 2013

High-resolution 1H NMR has been used on the thermoresponsive hyperbranched polyethylenimines (HPEIs) modified with isobutyramide (IBAm) groups (HPEI-IBAm), to study the structure and dynamics of the macromolecules in aqueous solution before and after the phase transition. It shows that the HPEI-IBAm macromolecule having a high IBAm substitution degree has a clear phase transition in aqueous solution, whereas the HPEI-IBAm macromolecule having a low IBAm substitution degree does not. The different phase transition behaviors have been attributed to the content as well as the distribution of the IBAm groups in the macromolecules. In order to deepen the understanding of the phase transition, the hydrophobic-hydrophobic interaction inside the HPEI-IBAm macromolecules was investigated by monitoring the 1H-1H NOEs between the different hydrophobic groups. An enhanced hydrophobic- hydrophobic interaction was observed in the HPEI-IBAm macromolecule having a high IBAm substitution degree after the phase transition, which provides a new perspective for our understanding of the phase transition of the macromolecules in aqueous solution. By using PFG diffusion NMR, the weight distributions of the moving particles in the solution were monitored. The β parameter used in the PFG diffusion NMR, which reflects the change of the weight distributions of the moving particles in solution, has proved to be a good way to monitor the aggregation process of the moving particles in the solution. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

Yin J.-Y.,Tianjin University | Liu H.-J.,Tianjin University | Jiang S.,East China Normal University | Chen Y.,Tianjin University | Yao Y.,East China Normal University
ACS Macro Letters | Year: 2013

The pyrolysis of a hyperbranched polyethylenimine (PEI) and glycerol mixture under microwaves generated the carbon dot (CD) functionalized with PEI (CD-PEI). Isobutyric amide (IBAm) groups were attached to CD-PEI through the amidation reaction of isobutyric anhydride and the PEI moiety, which resulted in the thermoresponsive CD-PEI-IBAm's. CD-PEI-IBAm's were not only thermoresponsive but also responded to other stimuli, including inorganic salt, pH, and loaded organic guests. The cloud point temperature (Tcp) of the aqueous solutions of CD-PEI-IBAm's could be modulated in a broad range through changing the number of IBAm units of CD-PEI-IBAm or varying the type and concentration of the inorganic salts, pH, and loaded organic guests. All the obtained CD-PEI-IBAm's were photoluminescent, which could be influenced a little or negligibly by the added salts, pH, and the organic guests encapsulated. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

Gu X.,East China Normal University | Gu F.,East China Normal University | Laffey J.M.,University of Missouri
Journal of Computer Assisted Learning | Year: 2011

The Life-long Learning Initiative seeks to fulfil a variety of learning needs for Shanghai citizens. Given the popularity of mobile devices in Shanghai, the ability to provide learning in informal settings through mobile devices is a key objective and challenge of the Initiative. In order to learn how to develop usable learning content for lifelong learners on the move, a set of design principles from both pedagogical and usability concerns was identified. Next, a pilot system, based on the design principles, was developed to implement two prototype lessons. Five subjects were recruited to test each prototype lesson using a heuristic walkthrough method and a focus group meeting. Users' feedback showed that both the practical and the micro principles were valued as a method of integrating learning activity into informal settings in their daily lives. Audio was preferred as well. Technical usability concerns which are consistent with previous web experience were also identified. This research builds new knowledge about design principles for lifelong learning on the move and is a milestone in the development of the future learning resource bank for Shanghai citizens. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Zhou L.,Dalian University of Technology | Han Y.,Dalian University of Technology | Jing J.,East China Normal University | Zhang W.,East China Normal University
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2011

We propose a scheme for three-level cascade atoms to entangle two optomechanical oscillators as well as two-mode fields. We show that two movable mirrors and two-mode fields can be entangled even for bad cavity limits. We also study entanglement of the output of two-mode fields in the frequency domain. The results show that the frequency of the mirror oscillation and the injected atomic coherence affect the output entanglement of the two-mode fields. © 2011 American Physical Society.

Yu S.,East China Normal University | Luo C.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics | Wang L.,East China Normal University | Peng H.,East China Normal University | Zhu Z.,East China Normal University
Analyst | Year: 2013

A Ni/silicon microchannel plate (Ni/Si MCP) electrode modified with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) was successfully fabricated. The analytical performance of prepared electrode for the simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA) and uric acid (UA) was investigated by using cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The sensitivities for AA, DA and UA obtained by DPV are 5.39 A m-2 mM-1, 0.054 A m-2 μM-1 and 0.022 A m -2 μM-1, respectively. The calculated detection limits were 10 μM (AA), 1.5 μM (DA) and 2.7 μM (UA). The prepared electrode was successfully applied to the detection of AA, DA and UA in urine samples. The experiments illustrate that Ni/Si MCP is a good electrode material which provides a large surface-to-volume ratio and enhances the selectivity and sensitivity. This journal is © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Ruan Z.,East China Normal University | Tang M.,University of Electronic Science and Technology of China | Liu Z.,East China Normal University
Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics | Year: 2012

Epidemic spreading has been well studied in the past decade, where the main concentration is focused on the influence of network topology but little attention is paid to the individual's crisis awareness. We here study how the crisis awareness, i.e., personal self-protection, influences the epidemic spreading by presenting a susceptible-infected-recovered model with information-driven vaccination. We introduce two parameters to quantitatively characterize the crisis awareness. One is the information creation rate λ and the other is the information sensitivity η. We find that the epidemic spreading can be significantly suppressed in both the homogeneous and heterogeneous networks when both λ and η are relatively large. More interesting is that the needed vaccine will be significantly reduced when the information is well spread, which is a good news for the poor countries and regions with limited resources. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Wang Y.,East China Normal University | Shen J.,Virginia Institute of Marine Science | He Q.,East China Normal University
Journal of Marine Systems | Year: 2010

A three-dimensional hydrodynamic model was developed for the Changjiang Estuary and adjacent coastal sea to study the transport timescale and change of estuarine circulation due to human activates. The model was calibrated with measured tidal current and salinity forced by observed freshwater discharge and tides. The tracer age was introduced to measure the transport timescale and evaluate the influence of the man-made construction on estuarine circulation through a series of numerical experiments under various hydrodynamic conditions. The results show that it takes about 23 and 35. days, respectively, for dissolved substances to be transported from the Xuliujing to the mouth of the Estuary (122°30' E) under high and low discharge conditions. The transport time increases significantly in the upper portion of the North Passage and the South Passage due to the diversion of the freshwater discharge from the upstream North Channel and the increase of the friction downstream. However, the rate of increasing transport time along the estuary decreases farther towards the mouth of the Estuary, presumably resulting from the enhancement of gravitational circulation. Two major physical mechanisms that contribute to the transport timescale, tide and river discharge are analyzed and quantified. The results indicate that freshwater discharge is one of the dominant factors controlling the transport timescale in the Changjiang Estuary. The man-made construction has a significant impact on both horizontal estuarine circulation and gravitational circulation, which ultimately influences the estuarine transport processes. The transport time increased about 50% by man-made constructions, especially near the turbidity maximum. The simulation results provide useful information for understanding the change of transport process and circulation caused by the man-made construction in the Changjiang Estuary. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Fitzsimmons J.N.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Zhang R.,East China Normal University | Boyle E.A.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Marine Chemistry | Year: 2013

Seawater from 27 stations was sampled in a zig-zag transect across the tropical North Atlantic from Barbados to the Cape Verde Islands, 7-20°N and 21-58°W. Under the Northwest African dust plume, surface dissolved Fe (dFe) was elevated, averaging 0.55. ±. 0.29. nmol/kg (1SD), but showed a wide range from 0.12 to 1.31. nmol/kg with no clear longitudinal or latitudinal gradients. A subsurface dFe maximum in excess of 1. nmol/kg was evident coincident with the oxygen minimum zone. Our goal was to determine whether this maximum occurred as a result of remineralization of high Fe:C organic material formed in the dust-laden (Fe-rich) surface ocean or as a result of lateral mixing of a coastal Fe signal from the African margin. We found that dFe is directly related to apparent oxygen utilization (AOU) with the same slope across all depths sampled, which implies a remineralization source throughout the water column. A continental margin dFe supply was discounted because a modeled margin Fe source should cause curvature in the Fe-AOU relationship that was not observed. We also did not see a significant dissolved manganese (dMn) plume emanating from the margin. Regenerated Fe:C ratios calculated from the dFe:AOU relationships ranged from 9.6 to 12.4. μmol Fe/mol C, which is much higher than ratios found in HNLC and dust-poor regions. Deep waters measured at one station in the eastern tropical North Atlantic reflected typical NADW concentrations until 4000. m, where the dFe increased to 0.82. nmol/kg in four discrete samples down to 5000. m. We propose that this increase in dFe may reflect dFe inputs to deep waters as they traverse the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and enter the eastern basin. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Wu H.,East China Normal University | Zhu J.,East China Normal University | Shen J.,Virginia Institute of Marine Science | Wang H.,Virginia Institute of Marine Science
Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans | Year: 2011

Tide effects on the structure of the near-field Changjiang River plume and on the extension of the far-field plume have often been neglected in analysis and numerical simulations, which is the focus of this study. Numerical experiments highlighted the crucial role of the tidal forcing in modulating the Changjiang River plume. Without the tidal forcing, the plume results in an unrealistic upstream extension along the Jiangsu coast. With the tidal forcing, the vertical mixing increases, resulting in a strong horizontal salinity gradient at the northern side of the Changjiang River mouth along the Jiangsu coast, which acts as a dynamic barrier and restricts the northward migration of the plume. Furthermore, the tidal forcing produces a bidirectional plume structure in the near field, and the plume separation is located at the head of the submarine canyon. A significant bulge occurs around the head of the submarine canyon and rotates anticyclonically, which carries a large portion of the diluted water toward the northeast and merges into the far-field plume. A portion of the diluted water moves toward the southeast, which is mainly caused by tidal rectification. This bidirectional plume structure is more evident under certain wind conditions. During the neap tide with the reduced tidal energy, the near-field plume extends farther offshore, and the bulge becomes less evident. These dynamic behaviors are maintained and are fundamentally important in the region around the river mouth even under the summer monsoon and the shelf currents, although in the far field the wind forcing and shelf currents eventually dominate the plume extension. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

Guan Y.,TU Eindhoven | Guan Y.,East China Normal University | Hensen E.J.M.,TU Eindhoven
Journal of Catalysis | Year: 2013

The use of Ir as a reactive transition metal for O2 activation to facilitate the selective oxidation of ethanol to acetaldehyde is explored. Co-impregnation of the chlorides of Au and Ir on SiO2 followed by reduction afforded small bimetallic nanoparticles with a varying Au/Ir ratio. All of the nanoparticle catalysts including the monometallic Au and Ir end members have sizes in the range of 2-3 nm. Infrared spectroscopy of adsorbed CO on the reduced catalysts evidences the formation of alloyed nanoparticles. After oxidation at room temperature and at 200 C, the Ir surface atoms are oxidized. No synergy between Au and Ir is observed in CO oxidation. Au lowers the CO oxidation activity of the pure Ir catalyst, suggesting the presence of surface Au atoms in the mildly oxidized Au-Ir bimetallic catalysts. At higher oxidation temperatures, viz. 350 and 500 C, bulk oxidation of Ir occurs. While pure Ir nanoparticles sinter upon oxidation at elevated temperatures (350-500 C), the presence of Au significantly retards this agglomeration of the nanoparticles. At these elevated temperatures, an intimate mixture of reduced Au and IrO x is formed. The Au-Ir nanoparticles display enhanced activity in ethanol oxidation to acetaldehyde, outperforming their monometallic counterparts, with only minimum loss of C2-oxygenates selectivity compared to the pure Au nanoparticle catalyst. The maximum activity is obtained for a Au-Ir3 composition. The present results can be explained by a model involving an intimate contact between Au sites for (dissociative) ethanol adsorption and Ir sites covered by O adatoms which catalyze C-H bond cleavage to yield acetaldehyde. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Niranjan M.K.,University of Nebraska - Lincoln | Duan C.-G.,East China Normal University | Jaswal S.S.,University of Nebraska - Lincoln | Tsymbal E.Y.,University of Nebraska - Lincoln
Applied Physics Letters | Year: 2010

Density-functional calculations are performed to explore magnetoelectric effects originating from the influence of an external electric field on magnetic properties of the Fe/MgO(001) interface. It is shown that the effect on the interface magnetization and magnetocrystalline anisotropy can be substantially enhanced if the electric field is applied across a dielectric material with a large dielectric constant. In particular, we predict an enhancement of the interface magnetoelectric susceptibility by a factor of the dielectric constant of MgO over that of the free standing Fe (001) surface. We also predict a significant effect of electric field on the interface magnetocrystalline anisotropy due to the change in the relative occupancy of the 3d -orbitals of Fe atoms at the Fe/MgO interface. These results may be interesting for technological applications such as electrically controlled magnetic data storage. © 2010 American Institute of Physics.

Zhao X.-L.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | Zhao X.-L.,East China Normal University | Mak T.C.W.,Chinese University of Hong Kong
Inorganic Chemistry | Year: 2010

Three polyoxometalate-based silver(I) ethynediide complexes have been obtained by hydrothermal synthesis. New types of polyoxometalate motifs are generated and stabilized in a silver-rich environment in their respective three-dimensional coordination frameworks via assembly of the polyhedral metal-ligand C2@Agn (n = 6 and 7) supramolecular synthon. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

Yu C.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | Deng M.,East China Normal University | Yau S.S.-T.,East China Normal University | Yau S.S.-T.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Information Sciences | Year: 2011

This paper proposes a novel method for comparing DNA sequences. By using a graphical representation, we are able to construct the probability distributions of DNA sequences. These probability distributions can then be used to make similarity studies by using the symmetrised Kullback-Leibler divergence. After presenting our method, we test it using six DNA sequences taken from the threonine operons of Escherichia coli K-12 and Shigella flexneri. Our approach is then used to study the evolution of primates using mitochondrial DNA data. Our method allows us to reconstruct a phylogenetic tree for primate evolution. In addition, we use our technique to analyze the classification and phylogeny of the Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus (TYLCV) based on its whole genome sequences. These examples show that large volumes of DNA sequences can be handled more easily and more quickly by our approach than by the existing multiple alignment methods. Moreover, our method, unlike other approaches, does not require human intervention, because it can be applied automatically. © 2010 Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Zheng Y.-R.,University of Utah | Ghosh K.,University of Utah | Yang H.-B.,East China Normal University | Stang P.J.,University of Utah
Inorganic Chemistry | Year: 2010

The design and synthesis of novel three-dimensional (3-D) supramolecular dendrimers is described. The coordination-driven self-assembly of a 120̊ diplatinum acceptor and tritopic pyridyl donors bearing [G-0]-[G-3] Fréchet-type dendrons results in a series of supramolecular dendrimers under mild conditions, possessing a robust adamantanoid core of well-defined shape and size. The assemblies were identified using multinuclear ( 31P and 1H) NMR spectroscopy and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, as well as pulsed-field-gradient spin-echo (PGSE) NMR measurement together with computational simulations. Isotopically resolved mass spectral data support the existence of the [6 + 4] assembly of adamantanoid dendrimers, and the NMR results are consistent with the formation of these symmetrical assemblies. PGSE NMR measurements together with MMFF force-field modeling clearly reveal the structural feature of the 3-D supramolecular dendrimers with varying sizes. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

Chen Y.,East China Normal University | Chen Y.,Mianyang Normal University | Compton S.G.,University of Leeds | Liu M.,East China Normal University | Chen X.-Y.,East China Normal University
Molecular Ecology | Year: 2012

Climatic oscillations during the last few million years had well-documented effects on the distributions and genomes of temperate plants and animals, but much less is known of their impacts on tropical and subtropical species. In contrast to Europe and North America, ice-sheets did not cover most of China during glacial periods, and the effects of glacial cycles were less dramatic. Fig trees are a predominantly tropical group pollinated by host-specific fig wasps. We employed partial mitochondrial COI (918 bp) and nuclear ITS2 (462 bp) gene sequences to investigate the genetic structure and demographic histories of the wasps that pollinate the subtropical Ficus pumila var. pumila in Southeastern China. Deep genetic divergence in both mitochondrial (7.2-11.6%) and nuclear genes (1.6-2.9%) indicates that three pollinator species are present and that they diverged about 4.72 and 6.00 Myr bp. This predates the Quaternary ice ages, but corresponds with the formation of the Taiwan Strait and uplifting of the Wuyi-Xianxia Mountains. The three pollinators have largely allopatric distribution patterns in China and display different postglacial demographic histories. Wiebesia spp. 1 and 2 occupy, respectively, the northern and southern regions of the mainland host range. Their populations both underwent significant postglacial spatial expansions, but at different times and at different rates. Wiebesia sp. 3 is largely restricted to northern islands and shows less evidence of recent population expansion. Their mainly allopatric distributions and different demographic histories are consistent with host plant postglacial expansion from three distinct refugia and suggest one mechanism whereby fig trees gain multiple pollinators. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Yan X.,Zhejiang University | Cook T.R.,University of Utah | Pollock J.B.,University of Utah | Wei P.,Zhejiang University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2014

An emerging strategy for the fabrication of advanced supramolecular materials is the use of hierarchical self-assembly techniques wherein multiple orthogonal interactions between molecular precursors can produce new species with attractive properties. Herein, we unify the spontaneous formation of metal-ligand bonds with the host/guest chemistry of crown ethers to deliver a 3D supramolecular polymer network (SPN). Specifically, we have prepared a highly directional dipyridyl donor decorated with a benzo-21-crown-7 moiety that undergoes coordination-driven self-assembly with a complementary organoplatinum acceptor to furnish hexagonal metallacycles. These hexagons subsequently polymerize into a supramolecular network upon the addition of a bisammonium salt due to the formation of [2]pseudorotaxane linkages between the crown ether and ammonium moieties. At high concentrations, the resulting 3D SPN becomes a gel comprising many cross-linked metallohexagons. Notably, thermo- and cation-induced gel-sol transitions are found to be completely reversible, reflecting the dynamic and tunable nature of such supramolecular materials. As such, these results demonstrate the structural complexity that can be obtained when carefully controlling multiple interactions in a hierarchical fashion, in this case coordination and host/guest chemistry, and the interesting dynamic properties associated with the materials thus obtained. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

Yan X.,Zhejiang University | Yan X.,University of Utah | Jiang B.,East China Normal University | Cook T.R.,University of Utah | And 6 more authors.
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2013

We describe the efficient preparation of rhomboidal metallacycles that self-assemble upon mixing a donor decorated with 2-ureido-4-pyrimidinone (UPy) with acceptors containing pendant [G1]-[G3] dendrons. The formed rhomboids subsequently polymerize into dendronized organoplatinum(II) metallacyclic polymers through H-bonding UPy interfaces, which possess the structural features of conventional dendronized polymers as well as the dynamic reversibility of supramolecular polymers. Preservation of both properties in a single material is achieved by exploiting hierarchical self-assembly, namely the unification of coordination-driven self-assembly with H-bonding, which provides facile routes to dendronized metallacycles and subsequent high ordering. The supramolecular polymerization defined here represents a novel method to deliver architecturally complex and ordered polymeric materials with adaptive properties. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

Cho S.-G.,Texas A&M University | Li D.,East China Normal University | Tan K.,Texas A&M University | Siwko S.K.,Texas A&M University | And 2 more authors.
Cancer and Metastasis Reviews | Year: 2012

KiSS1 and its cognate G-protein-coupled receptor, GPR54, have diverse functions. While KiSS1 and GPR54 have been intensively studied in physiology, their role in cancer is still unclear. In cancer, KiSS1 and GPR54 have been known to suppress metastasis by inhibiting cancer cell motility. However, recent studies suggest that KiSS1 and GPR54 have varied roles even in cancer development and metastasis. Here, we examine recent advances in understanding the roles of KiSS1 and GPR54 in cancer development and metastasis. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Chen H.Y.,East China Normal University | Chen H.Y.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | Sun D.Y.,East China Normal University | Gong X.G.,Fudan University | Liu Z.-F.,Chinese University of Hong Kong
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2013

Carbon nanotubes: The end section of a carbon nanotube, cut by acid treatment, contains hydrophilic oxygen groups, around which water molecules can assemble to block the entry of the tube. Hydrogen of pressures up to 10 000 bar can be locked inside the tube by such an "aqueous valve" (see picture). Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Liu X.,East China Normal University | Gao Q.,East China Normal University | Li P.,East China Normal University | Zhao Q.,East China Normal University | And 4 more authors.
Nature Communications | Year: 2013

Epigenetic inheritance of DNA methylation in mammals requires a multifunctional protein UHRF1, which is believed to recruit DNMT1 to DNA replication forks through a unique hemi-methylated CpG-binding activity. Here we demonstrate that the UHRF1 mutants deficient in binding either hemi-methylated CpG or H3K9me2/3, but not both, are able to associate with pericentric heterochromatin, recruit Dnmt1 and partially rescue DNA methylation defects in mouse Uhrf1 null ES cells. Furthermore, we present evidence that the flip out of the methylated cytosine induced by UHRF1 binding is unlikely essential for subsequent DNA methylation by DNMT1. Together, our study demonstrates that UHRF1 can target DNMT1 for DNA maintenance methylation through binding either H3K9me2/3 or hemi-methylated CpG, and that the presence of both binding activities ensures high fidelity DNA maintenance methylation. In addition, our study indicates that UHRF1 mediates cross-talk between H3K9 methylation and DNA methylation at the level of DNA methylation maintenance. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Tang J.-J.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Li J.-G.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Qi W.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Qi W.,Novartis | And 4 more authors.
Cell Metabolism | Year: 2011

Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) are major transcription factors activating the expression of genes involved in biosynthesis of cholesterol, fatty acid and triglyceride. In this study, we identified a small molecule, betulin, that specifically inhibited the maturation of SREBP by inducing interaction of SREBP cleavage activating protein (SCAP) and Insig. Inhibition of SREBP by betulin decreased the biosynthesis of cholesterol and fatty acid. In vivo, betulin ameliorated diet-induced obesity, decreased the lipid contents in serum and tissues, and increased insulin sensitivity. Furthermore, betulin reduced the size and improved the stability of atherosclerotic plaques. Our study demonstrates that inhibition SREBP pathway can be employed as a therapeutic strategy to treat metabolic diseases including type II diabetes and atherosclerosis. Betulin, which is abundant in birch bark, could be a leading compound for development of drugs for hyperlipidemia. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

Wang R.,East China Normal University | Wang R.,University of Leeds | Compton S.G.,University of Leeds | Chen X.-Y.,East China Normal University
Molecular Ecology | Year: 2011

Fragmentation reduces population sizes, increases isolation between habitats and can result in restricted dispersal of pollen and seeds. Given that diploid seed dispersal contributes more to shaping fine-scale spatial genetic structure (SGS) than haploid pollen flow, we tested whether fine-scale SGS can be sensitive to fragmentation even if extensive pollen dispersal is maintained. Castanopsis sclerophylla (Lindley & Paxton) Schottky (Fagaceae), a wind-pollinated and gravity seed-dispersed tree, was studied in an area of southeast China where its populations have been fragmented to varying extents by human activity. Using different age classes of trees in areas subject to varying extents of fragmentation, we found no significant difference in genetic diversity between prefragmentation vs. postfragmentation C. sclerophylla subpopulations. Genetic differentiation among postfragmentation subpopulations was also only slightly lower than among prefragmentation subpopulations. In the most fragmented habitat, selfing rates were significantly higher than zero in prefragmentation, but not postfragmentation, cohorts. These results suggest that fragmentation had not decreased gene flow among these populations and that pollen flow remains extensive. However, significantly greater fine-scale SGS was found in postfragmentation subpopulations in the most fragmented habitat, but not in less fragmented habitats. This alteration in SGS reflected more restricted seed dispersal, induced by changes in the physical environments and the prevention of secondary seed dispersal by rodents. An increase in SGS can therefore result from more restricted seed dispersal, even in the face of extensive pollen flow, making it a sensitive indicator of the negative consequences of population fragmentation. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Chen J.,East China Normal University | Chen J.,University of Texas–Pan American | Chen Y.,East China Normal University
Journal of Nonlinear Mathematical Physics | Year: 2014

In this paper, nonlocal symmetry of the (2+1) dimensional modified generalized long dispersive wave system and its applications are investigated. The nonlocal symmetry related to the eigenfunctions in Lax pairs is derived, and infinitely many nonlocal symmetries are obtained. By introducing three potentials, the prolongation is found to localize the given nonlocal symmetry. Various finite-and infinite-dimensional integrable models are constructed by using the nonlocal symmetry constraint method. Moreover, applying the general Lie symmetry approach to the enlarged system, the finite symmetry transformation and similarity reductions are computed to give novel exact interaction solutions. In particular, the explicit soliton-cnoidal wave solution is obtained for the modified generalized long dispersive wave system, and it can be reduced to the two-dark-soliton solution in one special case. © 2014 Copyright: the authors.

Qian Y.,East China Normal University | Xu X.,East China Normal University | Jiang L.,East China Normal University | Prajapati D.,North East Institute of Science and Technology | Hu W.,East China Normal University
Journal of Organic Chemistry | Year: 2010

A new approach to synthesize optically active β-amino-α-hydroxyl acid derivatives via chiral Brønsted acid-Rh2(OAc) 4 cocatalyzed three-component reactions of diazo acetates with alcohols and imines is reported. A matched reaction system was identified to give the products in moderate diastereoselectivity and good enantioselectivity. Application of this methodology is demonstrated in the efficient synthesis of a taxol side chain and (-)-epi-cytoxazone. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

Wei Y.H.D.,East China Normal University | Wei Y.H.D.,University of Utah
Habitat International | Year: 2012

This research examines government policies and urban transformation in China through a study of Hangzhou City, which is undergoing dramatic growth and restructuring. As the southern center of the Yangtze River Delta, an emerging global city region of China, Hangzhou has been restlessly searching for strategies to promote economic growth and survive the competition with Shanghai. This paper analyzes Hangzhou's development strategies, including globalization, tourism, industrial development, and urban development, in the context of shifting macro conditions and local responses. We hold that urban policies in China are situated in the broad economic restructuring and the gradual, experiential national reform and are therefore transitional. The paper suggests that China's urban policies are state institution-directed, growth-oriented, and land-based, imposing unprecedented challenges to sustainability and livability. Land development and spatial restructuring are central to urban policies in China. Last, while Hangzhou's development strategies and policies to some extent reflect policy convergence across cities in China, local/spatial contexts, including local settings, territorial rescaling and land conditions, are underlying the functioning of development/entrepreneurial states. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Yan C.,East China Normal University | Yang Y.,East China Normal University | Zhou J.,East China Normal University | Liu M.,East China Normal University | And 3 more authors.
Environmental Pollution | Year: 2013

The occurrence and distribution of five groups of antibiotics were investigated in the surface water of Yangtze Estuary over four seasons. Of the 20 antibiotics, only sulfamerazine was not detected at all sampling sites, indicating widespread occurrence of antibiotic residues in the study area. Detection frequencies and concentrations of antibiotics were generally higher in January, indicating that low flow conditions and low temperature might enhance the persistence of antibiotics in water. Antibiotic levels varied with location, with the highest concentrations being observed around river discharge and sewage outfall. Furthermore, a positive correlation between total antibiotic and DOC concentrations revealed the significant role played by DOC. Risk assessment based on single compound exposure showed that sulfapyridine and sulfamethoxazole could cause medium risk to daphnid in the Yangtze Estuary. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Bathelt H.,University of Toronto | Zeng G.,East China Normal University
Applied Geography | Year: 2012

This paper investigates the developing spatial and social division of labor in the Greater Shanghai chemical industry. This industry experienced strong growth after the Asian financial crisis, when policy support was extended beyond " new economy" industries to include traditional manufacturing sectors. Based on a conceptualization that emphasizes the role of producer-user networks and interactive learning as a basis for ongoing innovation and business success, an explorative study was designed to investigate the supplier and customer linkages in different locations of the Greater Shanghai region. The results suggest that inter-firm networks are not extensive and often involve limited producer-user interaction. Important chemical firms in the region concentrate on business with their established international customer basis, use state-controlled distribution channels or rely on intermediaries that act as knowledge brokers. Neither of these practices of market interaction includes intensive information exchange and feedback on products, customer experience and demand changes. As such, these practices do not provide a sound basis for self-sustained growth or innovation in the future. The paper concludes that regional policy needs to support the establishment of combined " bonding" and " bridging" relations between chemical producers and their user industries. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Zhou J.,Fudan University | Sun Y.,Fudan University | Du X.,East China Normal University | Xiong L.,Fudan University | And 2 more authors.
Biomaterials | Year: 2010

Upconversion luminescence (UCL) imaging is expected to play a significant role in future photoluminescence imaging since it shows advantages of sharp emission lines, long lifetimes, superior photostability and no blinking. To further improve penetration depth, herein, near-infrared to near-infrared (NIR-to-NIR) UCL and magnetic properties were combined into a nanoparticle, and NIR-to-NIR UCL and MRI dual-modal bioimaging in vivo of whole-body animal were developed. Hydrophilic and carboxylic acid-functionalized Tm3+/Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped NaGdF4 upconversion nanophosphors (AA-NPs) were synthesized and showed both NIR-to-visible and NIR-to-NIR luminescence under excitation of 980 nm. Collecting the signal of the upconversion emission from AA-NPs in the visible and NIR range, all UCL imaging of cells, tissues and whole-body animals with different penetration depth showed high contrast. Moreover, AA-NPs showed a high relaxivity of 5.60 s-1 (mm)-1 and were successfully applied as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in vivo. By means of the combination of UCL imaging and MRI, the distribution of AA-NPs in living animals was studied, and the results indicated that these particles mainly accumulate in the liver and spleen without undesirable stay in the lungs. Therefore, the concept of UCL and MR dual-modality imaging in vivo of whole-body animals using Tm3+/Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped NaGdF4 with NIR-to-NIR upconversion luminescent and magnetic resonance properties can serve as a platform technology for the next-generation of probes for bioimaging in vivo. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Kong J.,East China Normal University | Hudelist F.,East China Normal University | Ou Z.Y.,East China Normal University | Ou Z.Y.,Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis | Zhang W.,East China Normal University
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2013

Quantum noise is usually added in an amplification process through the internal degrees of the amplifier. Coupling the squeezed state to the internal degree can suppress the extra noise. Here, we demonstrate another method: when the internal degree of the amplifier is correlated with the input signal via quantum entanglement, quantum destructive interference between the input and the internal degree may result in noise reduction at the amplified output. We achieve a quantum noise reduction of 2.3 dB at the output and an improvement of 4.0±0.2 dB in signal-to-noise ratio during the amplification process with a quantum noise gain of 4.5 dB. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Xu N.,Fudan University | Cui Y.,Fudan University | Hu Z.,East China Normal University | Yu W.,East China Normal University | And 2 more authors.
Optics Express | Year: 2012

We report on the photoluminescence (PL) and lasing characteristics of ZnO nanorod arrays (NRAs) fabricated by hydrothermal process on nanocrystalline ZnO seeded Si and post-growth annealing. The morphology of the ZnO NRAs was examined by field emission scanning electron microscopy and the structure was characterized by x-ray diffraction, Fourier-Transform infrared and Raman scattering spectroscopy. The properties of light emission were studied by continuous wave (CW) and 30 ps pulsed ultraviolet excitation. The ZnO NRAs consist of aligned nanorods and are nanocrystalline with wurtzite structure and c-Axis orientation. At room temperature, the ZnO NRAs are capable of emitting strong CW PL and pulsed stimulated emission, with the latter showing obvious lasing characteristics. The threshold for lasing was observed to be ~16 kW/cm2. © 2012 Optical Society of America.

Fan W.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Bu W.,East China Normal University | Shi J.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Ceramics
Advanced Materials | Year: 2016

Following the "detect-to-treat" strategy, by biological engineering, the emerging upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) have become one of the most promising inorganic nanomedicines, and their biomedical applications have gradually shifted from multimodal tumor imaging to highly efficient cancer therapy. The past few years have witnessed a three-stage development of UCNP-based nanomedicines. On one hand, UCNPs can optimize each clinical treatment tool (chemotherapy, photodynamic therapy (PDT), radiotherapy (RT)) by controlled drug delivery/release, near-infrared (NIR)-excited deep PDT, and radiosensitization, respectively, all of which contribute greatly to the optimized treatment efficacy along with minimized side effects. On the other hand, several individual treatments can be "smartly" integrated into a single UCNP-based nanotheranostic system for multimodal synergetic therapy, which can further improve the overall therapeutic effectiveness. Especially, UCNPs provide more-effective strategies for overcoming tumor hypoxia, thus leading to an ideal treatment efficacy for complete eradication of solid tumors. Finally, the critical issues regarding the future development of UCNPs are discussed to promote the clinic-translational applications of UCNP-based nanomedicines, as well as realization of our "one drug fits all" dream. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Gao J.,East China Normal University | Gao J.,Fudan University
Solid-State Electronics | Year: 2011

A new method for the determination of the four noise parameters of the metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) based on the noise figure measurement system without microwave tuner is presented. The noise parameters are determined based on a set of analytical expressions of noise parameters by fitting the measured noise figure of the active device. These expressions are derived from an accurate small signal and noise equivalent circuit model, which takes into account the substrate parasitics, pad capacitances, and series inductances. On-wafer experimental verification is presented and a comparison with tuner based method is given. Good agreement is obtained between simulated and measured results for 0.5 × 5 × 16 μm, 0.35 × 5 × 16 μm and 0.18 × 5 × 16 μm (gate length × number of gate fingers × unit gate width) MOSFETs. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Chen S.,Fudan University | Chen S.,East China Normal University | Gong X.G.,Fudan University | Walsh A.,University College London | Wei S.-H.,National Renewable Energy Laboratory
Applied Physics Letters | Year: 2010

Cu2 ZnSnS4 is one of the most promising quaternary absorber materials for thin-film solar cells. Examination of the thermodynamic stability of this quaternary compound reveals that the stable chemical potential region for the formation of stoichiometric compound is small. Under these conditions, the dominant defect will be p -type CuZn antisite, which has an acceptor level deeper than the Cu vacancy. The dominant self-compensated defect pair in this quaternary compound is [CuZn - + Zn Cu +]0, which leads to the formation of various polytype structures of Cu2 ZnSnS4. We propose that to maximize the solar cell performance, growth of Cu2 ZnSnS4 under Cu-poor/Zn-rich conditions will be optimal, if the precipitation of ZnS can be avoided by kinetic barriers. © 2010 American Institute of Physics.

Li F.,East China Normal University | Shen C.,East China Normal University | Li C.,Vanderbilt University
Journal of Mathematical Imaging and Vision | Year: 2010

In this paper, we propose a variational soft segmentation framework inspired by the level set formulation of multiphase Chan-Vese model. We use soft membership functions valued in [0, 1] to replace the Heaviside functions of level sets (or characteristic functions) such that we get a representation of regions by soft membership functions which automatically satisfies the sum to one constraint. We give general formulas for arbitrary N-phase segmentation, in contrast to Chan-Vese's level set method only 2 m-phase are studied. To ensure smoothness on membership functions, both total variation (TV) regularization and H 1 regularization used as two choices for the definition of regularization term. TV regularization has geometric meaning which requires that the segmentation curve length as short as possible, while H 1 regularization has no explicit geometric meaning but is easier to implement with less parameters and has higher tolerance to noise. Fast numerical schemes are designed for both of the regularization methods. By changing the distance function, the proposed segmentation framework can be easily extended to the segmentation of other types of images. Numerical results on cartoon images, piecewise smooth images and texture images demonstrate that our methods are effective in multiphase image segmentation. © The Author(s) 2010. This article is published with open access at

Sarmah M.M.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Prajapati D.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Hu W.,East China Normal University
Synlett | Year: 2013

A mild and efficient protocol for the synthesis of various tetrahydroquinazolinedione and dihydropyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine-2,4-dione templates from uracil derivatives utilizing a [4+2]-cycloaddition strategy in a one-pot reaction has been developed. © Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart · New York.

Fang L.,East China Normal University | Zhang L.,East China Normal University | Wei W.,East China Normal University | Jin X.,East China Normal University | And 5 more authors.
Molecular Cell | Year: 2014

Sox2 is a key factor for maintaining embryonic stem cell (ESS) pluripotency, but little is known about its posttranslational regulation. Here we present evidence that the precise level of Sox2 proteins in ESCs is regulated by a balanced methylation andphosphorylation switch. Set7 monomethylates Sox2 at K119, which inhibits Sox2 transcriptional activity and induces Sox2 ubiquitination and degradation. The E3 ligase WWP2 specifically interacts with K119-methylated Sox2 through its HECT domain to promote Sox2 ubiquitination. In contrast, AKT1 phosphorylates Sox2 at T118 and stabilizes Sox2 by antagonizing K119me by Set7 and vice versa. In mouse ESCs, AKT1 activity toward Sox2 is greater than that of Set7, leading to Sox2 stabilization and ESC maintenance. In early development, increased Set7 expression correlates with Sox2 downregulation and appropriate differentiation. Our study highlights the importance of a Sox2 methylation-phosphorylation switch in determining ESC fate. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Bathelt H.,University of Toronto | Bathelt H.,East China Normal University | Zeng G.,East China Normal University
Environment and Planning A | Year: 2014

Despite China's rapid economic growth and embedding into global value chains, not much is known about the primary places where buyers and sellers from China and abroad meet, do business, and circulate information and knowledge: that is, the national/ international trade fairs in the country. Previous reports suggest that the number and size of such events in China is growing and that the trade fair business is in the process of catching up. Under these circumstances, trade fairs may develop into import or export events, where buyers and sellers engage in transactions, or into temporary clusters, where they exchange knowledge for industrial upgrading and innovation. In this context this paper explores the interaction and communication patterns of firms at Chinese trade fairs and investigates whether these events are similar to those in Europe and North America. The analysis involves systematic comparison of the communication and interaction practices at three national/international trade fairs in Shanghai and Chengdu, based on a total of 102 semi structured interviews.

Jiang Y.,East China University of Science and Technology | Wang Y.,Fudan University | Hua J.,East China University of Science and Technology | Tang J.,East China University of Science and Technology | And 3 more authors.
Chemical Communications | Year: 2010

Multibranched triarylamine derivatives with a 1,3,5-triazine core have been synthesized and exhibit aggregation-induced emission and a large two-photon absorption cross section (8629 GM). © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Yang C.-J.,East China Normal University | Tan H.-P.,East China Normal University | Du Y.-J.,Fudan University
Neuroscience | Year: 2014

Autism is a developmental disorder defined by the presence of a triad of communication, social and stereo typical behavioral characteristics with onset before 3. years of age. In spite of the fact that there are potential environmental factors for autistic behavior, the dysfunction of serotonin during early development of the brain could be playing a role in this prevalence rise. Serotonin can modulate a number of developmental events, including cell division, neuronal migration, cell differentiation and synaptogenesis. Hyperserotonemia during fetal development results in the loss of serotonin terminals through negative feedback. The increased serotonin causes a decrease of oxytocin in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and an increase in calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the central nucleus of the amygdale, which are associated with social interactions and vital in autism. However, hyposerotonemia may be also relevant to the development of sensory as well as motor and cognitive faculties. And the paucity of placenta-derived serotonin should have potential importance when the pathogenesis of autism is considered. This review briefly summarized the developmental disruptions of serotonin signaling involved in the pathogenesis of autism during early development of the brain. © 2014 IBRO.

Yang M.,East China Normal University | Tang J.,East China Normal University | Fan R.,Fudan University
Organic Letters | Year: 2013

A dearomatization strategy of β-enamino esters was developed to construct indenoazepine derivatives. The oxidative dearomatization was combined with a base-promoted tandem Michael addition/polycyclization and an acid-catalyzed aromatization. The nonaromatic structure of the Michael adducts might be essential to the realization of the 7-endo-dig cyclization. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

Zhang Y.,East China Normal University | Jia T.Q.,East China Normal University | Xu Z.Z.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Optics and fine Mechanics
Applied Physics Letters | Year: 2011

We propose a metallic nanostructure consisting of a nanodisk in a nanocrescent. At the quadrupole plasmon resonance wavelengths of the nanocrescent/nanodisk structures, the local electric field amplitudes at the crescent tips are 15 times higher than those of the single nanocrescents. In addition, the quadrupole resonance wavelengths are tunable in the visible region while the peak widths keep less than 5 nm. We study the mechanisms of the local field enhancement (LFE), and find that the coupling between the quadrupole resonance modes of the nanogap and the nanocrescent result into the high LFE factor. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.

Tang Z.,East China Normal University | Tang Z.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Qian M.,East China Normal University | Ho M.,U.S. National Institutes of Health
Anti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2013

Mesothelin, a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchored cell surface protein, is a potential target for antibody-based cancer therapy due to its high expression in mesothelioma, ovarian cancer, pancreatic cancer, cholangiocarcinoma and other cancers. The SS1P immunotoxin and MORAb-009 (amatuximab), a chimeric monoclonal antibody, are currently being evaluated in clinical trials. In this review, we discuss the role of mesothelin in cancer progression and provide new insights into mesothelin-targeted cancer therapy. Recent studies highlight three mechanisms by which mesothelin plays a role in cancer progression. First, mesothelin may aid in the peritoneal implantation and metastasis of tumors through its interaction with mucin MUC16 (also known as CA125). Second, mesothelin may promote cancer cell survival and proliferation via the NF-κB signaling pathway. Finally, mesothelin expression promotes resistance to certain chemotherapy drugs such as TNF-α, paclitaxel, and a combination of platinum and cyclophosphamide. However, its cancer-specific expression makes mesothelin a potential target for monoclonal antibody therapy. New human monoclonal antibodies targeting mesothelin have been isolated by phage display technology and may provide opportunities for novel cancer therapy. © 2013 Bentham Science Publishers.

Liao X.,Fudan University | Liao X.,East China Normal University | Chen G.,Fudan University | Jiang M.,Fudan University
Polymer Chemistry | Year: 2013

The principle of molecular recognition originating from the concept of lock-and-key has been one of the foundation stones for modern chemistry and biology. Molecular recognition in either biomolecules or synthetic molecules leads to non-covalent linkages, which are featured by responsiveness, reversibility and competition, differing from the covalent bonds. Therefore, recently, this concept has been introduced to and employed in the field of functional materials with great success. In this review, these materials will be examined from the molecular recognition point of view, without considering the origins of the binding pairs involved. First, the structural characters of hydrogels locked by molecular recognition are discussed in detail with emphasis on the chemical structure and architectures of the interaction pairs and the corresponding polymers. As the new hydrogel materials inherit the reversible advantages from non-covalent interactions as well as the specificities of the host-guest or ligand-acceptor pairs, their corresponding responses to various stimuli are discussed in the second part of this review. Compared to the smart materials made of responsive polymers, the hydrogels locked by molecular recognition are featured by the precise control of the responsiveness to various environmental stimuli via sophisticated design of the interaction sites by changing their chemical structures, density location and linking chemistry to the polymer backbones etc. Finally, representative applications of these hydrogels are briefly described. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2013.

Xia A.,Fudan University | Chen M.,Fudan University | Gao Y.,Fudan University | Wu D.,East China Normal University | And 2 more authors.
Biomaterials | Year: 2012

Multimodality molecular imaging has recently attracted much attention, because it can take advantage of individual imaging modalities by fusing together information from several molecular imaging techniques. Herein, we report a multifunctional lanthanide-based nanoparticle for near-infrared to near-infrared (NIR-to-NIR) upconversion luminescence (UCL), X-ray computed tomography (CT) and T 1-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) trimodality in-vivo imaging. By careful selection of the lanthanide elements, core-shell structured lanthanide-based nanoparticles, NaLuF 4:Yb 3+,Tm 3+@SiO 2-GdDTPA nanoparticles (UCNP@SiO 2-GdDTPA) have been designed and synthesized. We also prove that the application of UCNP@SiO 2-GdDTPA for NIR-to-NIR UCL, CT and MRI multi-modality in-vivo imaging can be established successfully. In addition, the biological toxicity of UCNP@SiO 2-GdDTPA is evaluated by the methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay and histological analysis of viscera sections. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Hu X.-B.,Fudan University | Chen L.,Fudan University | Si W.,Fudan University | Yu Y.,East China Normal University | Hou J.-L.,Fudan University
Chemical Communications | Year: 2011

A pillar[5]arene decaamine has been synthesized and revealed to encapsulate linear diacids in neutral, alkaline, and acidic conditions, driven by the hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions, to give rise to pseudo[2]rotaxanes. Ion pair-bonded stoppers can further lock the diacids to generate stable water soluble [2]rotaxanes. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011.

Zhang J.,Shenzhen University | Gai Y.,Central University of Finance and Economics | Wu P.,East China Normal University
Computational Statistics and Data Analysis | Year: 2013

In this paper, we consider statistical inference for linear regression models when neither the response nor the predictors can be directly observed, but are measured with errors in a multiplicative fashion and distorted as single index models of observable confounding variables. We propose a semiparametric profile least squares estimation procedure to estimate the single index. Then we develop a global weighted least squares estimation procedure for parameters of linear regression models via the varying coefficient models. Asymptotic properties of the proposed estimators are established. The results combined with consistent estimators for the asymptotic variance can be employed to test whether the targeted parameters in the single index and linear regression models are significant. Finite-sample performance of the proposed estimators is assessed by simulation experiments. The proposed methods are also applied to a dataset from a Pima Indian diabetes data study. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Hu J.-F.,Fudan University | Fan H.,East China Normal University | Xiong J.,Fudan University | Wu S.-B.,East China Normal University
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2011

The isolation, structure determination, biological activities, biogenesis and synthetic studies of the discorhabdins and related alkaloids from different marine organisms are discussed. The most complex pyrroloiminoquinone alkaloids are discorhabdins, which possess a rare pyrrolo[4,3,2-de]quinoline tetracyclic skeleton bound to a spiro-substituent at the C-6 position. This class of compounds occurred mainly in marine sponges of the genus Latrunculia. Most of the discorhabdin-type compounds have exhibited potent, albeit generally nonspecific and universal cytotoxicities. An unprotected pyrroloiminoquionone core was prepared by hydrogenation under acidic conditions to remove both the benzyl and [2-(trimethylsilyl)ethoxy]carbonyl (TEOC) protective groups. Kita and his colleagues reported the first asymmetric total synthesis of prianosin from L-tyrosine methyl ester hydrochloride by 10 steps in 1.3% total yield. The key step was the synthesis of the 16, 17-dehydropyrroloiminoquinone skeleton from the pyrroloiminoquinone unit.

Chen S.,Fudan University | Chen S.,East China Normal University | Yang J.-H.,Fudan University | Gong X.G.,Fudan University | And 2 more authors.
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2010

Current knowledge of the intrinsic defect properties of Cu2 ZnSnS4 (CZTS) is limited, which is hindering further improvement of the performance of CZTS-based solar cells. Here, we have performed first-principles calculations for a series of intrinsic defects and defect complexes in CZTS, from which we have the following observations. (i) It is important to control the elemental chemical potentials during crystal growth to avoid the formation of secondary phases such as ZnS, CuS, and Cu2 SnS3. (ii) The intrinsic p -type conductivity is attributed to the CuZn antisite which has a lower formation energy and relatively deeper acceptor level compared to the Cu vacancy. (iii) The low formation energy of many of the acceptor defects will lead to the intrinsic p -type character, i.e., n -type doping is very difficult in this system. (iv) The role of electrically neutral defect complexes is predicted to be important, because they have remarkably low formation energies and electronically passivate deep levels in the band gap. For example, [Cu Zn - + Zn Cu +], [V Cu - + Zn Cu +], and [Zn Sn 2- +2 Zn Cu +] may form easily in nonstoichiometric samples. The band alignment between Cu2 ZnSnS4, CuInSe2 and the solar-cell window layer CdS has also been calculated, revealing that a type-II band alignment exists for the CdS/ Cu2 ZnSnS4 heterojunction. The fundamental differences between CZTS and CuInSe2 for use in thin-film photovoltaics are discussed. The results are expected to be relevant to other I2 -II-IV-VI4 semiconductors. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

Yang C.-J.,East China Normal University | Liu C.-L.,East China Normal University | Sang B.,East China Normal University | Zhu X.-M.,Fudan University | Du Y.-J.,Fudan University
Neuroscience | Year: 2015

Autism is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairments in social interaction and repetitive behaviors. Diagnosis of autism is currently phenotype based with no reliable laboratory test availabl