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Zhang T.,East China Geological Exploration Bureau of Nonferrous Metals | Wang C.-S.,East China Geological Exploration Bureau of Nonferrous Metals | Qiao M.-P.,East China Geological Exploration Bureau of Nonferrous Metals | Ma N.,East China Geological Exploration Bureau of Nonferrous Metals | Xiao E.,East China Geological Exploration Bureau of Nonferrous Metals
Geological Bulletin of China | Year: 2014

Australia has very rich and varied types of rare earth resources. Based on the summarization of the geological characteristics of 170 rare earth ore deposits in Australia, the authors divided theses deposits into four main types and thirteen subtypes. The four main types include ore deposits related to magmatic activities, ore deposits related to the sedimentary basin, ore deposits related to modern rivers and coastal placer, and ore deposits related to supergene soil weathering. The authors also summarized the distribution characteristics of ore deposits of each type, their metallogenic epoch and geological characteristics. On such a basis and through an analysis of such factors as geological backgrounds and metallogenic characteristics of the rare earth deposits, the authors preliminarily delineated nine major rare earth ore concentrqation areas and analyzed the commercial value and resource potential of these areas. It is held that H and E areas are favorable areas for the next step mining investment.

Yao Z.-Y.,Nanjing Center | Wang T.-G.,Nanjing Center | Fu C.-Y.,Sinomine Resource Exploration Co. | Ma C.,East China Geological Exploration Bureau of Nonferrous Metals | And 5 more authors.
Geological Bulletin of China | Year: 2014

Located across Indo-Australian plate, Pacific plate and Eurasian plate, Oceania has undergone long and complex tectonic evolution since Archean. Three major tectonic units can be identified according to the regional geology of this region, i.e., middle-western Australian Precambrian craton, eastern Paleozoic orogenic belt and Circum-Pacific Meso-Cenozoic island arcs. Theses three major tectonic units could be subdivided into thirteen second-order tectonic units and forty-six third-order tectonic units. The three major tectonic units exhibit different types of rock assemblage and mineralization due to the unique tectonic evolution history of each unit. Mineralization characteristics of the three major tectonic elements are summarized on the basis of a comprehensive analysis of the relationship between the tectonic evolution and the mineralization events: the mineralization of the middle-western Australian Precambrian craton mainly took place in Archean and Proterozoic, with the dominant mineral resources being gold, copper, nickel, manganese, iron, uranium, REE, lead-zinc bauxite, which were associated with the development of Australian Precambrian craton; the mineralization of the eastern Paleozoic orogenic belt mainly occurred in Paleozoic, and dominant mineral resources were copper, gold, lead-zinc, tungsten and tin, which were associated with the interaction between Palaeo-Pacific and Australia; the mineralization of the Circum-Pacific Meso-Cenozoic island arcs mainly occurred in Miocene-Pleistocene, and the dominant mineral resources produced included copper, gold, nickel and cobalt, which were related to the interaction between Indo-Australian plate, Pacific plate and Eurasian plate. An overall assessment shows that Oceania has very good iron, manganese, copper, gold, bauxite, uranium, nickel and REE resource potentials.

Wang C.-S.,East China Geological Exploration Bureau of Nonferrous Metals | Xiao E.,East China Geological Exploration Bureau of Nonferrous Metals
Geological Bulletin of China | Year: 2014

The Lachlan Fold Belt (LFB) of eastern Australia is composed of deformed deep-marine sedimentary rocks (quartz-rich turbidites), cherts, and mafic volcanic rocks of Cambrian-Devonian period as well as younger continental cover sequences. In the southeast-verging accretionary process of the Australia plate, a lot of gold and polymetallic deposits were formed in LFB, particularly the orogenic lode gold in central Victoria, which represents a major gold province with a total output of 2500t of gold, or over 2% of total world output. In addition to gold, the mineralizations of Cu, Pb, Zn, W, Sn and Mo are also well developed in this belt. Five distinctive mteallogenic types have been recognized, and the mineralizations are closely related to the special geological setting. In this paper, wide range of opinions, descriptions and relevant data concerning the Lachlan Fold Belt are meticulously put to order, compared, analyzed and summarized, and metallogenic geological settings of gold and polymetallic deposits, major mineralization types and their geological features are discussed in detail.

Zhu F.,Chinese Academy of science | Zhu F.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Tao Y.,Chinese Academy of science | Hu R.,Chinese Academy of science | Ma Y.,East China Geological Exploration Bureau of Nonferrous Metals
Acta Geologica Sinica | Year: 2012

The Qingkuangshan Ni-Cu-PGE deposit, located in the Xiaoguanhe region of Huili County, Sichuan Province, is one of several Ni-Cu-PGE deposits in the Emeishan Large Igneous Province (ELIP). The ore-bearing intrusion is a mafic-ultramafic body. This paper reports major elements, trace elements and platinum-group elements in different types of rocks and sulfide-mineralized samples in the intrusion. These data are used to evaluate the source mantle characteristics, the degree of mantle partial melting, the composition of parental magma and the ore-forming processes. The results show that Qingkuangshan intrusion is part of the ELIP. The rocks have trace element ratios similar to the coeval Emeishan basalts. The primitive mantle-normalized patterns of Ni-Cu-PGE have positive slopes, and the ratios of Pd/Ir are lower than 22. The PGE compositions of sulfide ores and associated rocks are characterized by Ru depletion. The PGE contents in bulk sulfides are slightly depleted relative to Ni and Cu, which is similar to the Yangliuping Ni-Cu-PGE deposit. The composition of the parental magma for the intrusion is estimated to contain about 14.65 wt% MgO, 48.66 wt% Si02 and 15.48 wt% FeOt, and the degree of mantle partial melting is estimated to be about 20%. In comparison with other typical Ni-Cu-PGE deposits in the ELIP, the Qingkuangshan Ni-Cu-PGE deposit has lower PGE contents than the Jinbaoshan PGE deposit, but has higher PGE contents than the Limahe and Baimazhai Ni-Cu deposit, and has similar PGE contents to the Yangliuping Ni-Cu-PGE deposit. The moderate PGE depletions in the bulk sulfide of the Qingkuanghan deposit suggest that the parental magma of the host intrusion may have undergone minor sulfide segregation at depth. The mixing calculations suggests that an average of 10% crustal contamination in the magma, which may have been the main cause of sulfide saturation in the magma. We propose that sulfide segregation from a moderately PGE depleted magma took place prior to magma emplacement at Qingkuangshan, that small amounts of immiscible sulfide droplets and olivine and chromite crystals were suspended in the ascending magma, and that the suspended materials settled down when the magma passed trough the Qingkuangshan conduit. The Qingkuangshan sulfide-bearing intrusion is interpreted to a feeder of Emeishan flood basalts in the region.

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