East Carolina University is a public, coeducational, doctoral/research university in Greenville, North Carolina, United States. Named East Carolina University by statute and commonly known as ECU or East Carolina, the university is the third-largest university in North Carolina.Founded on March 8, 1907 as a teacher training school, today East Carolina is listed by Forbes Magazine as a "Best Buy" and 181st among "national universities" by U.S. News & World Report. It has historical academic strengths in education, nursing, business, music, theater, and medicine, and offers over 100 Bachelor degree programs, 85 master's degrees, 21 doctoral programs, Doctor of Medicine, Doctor of Dental Medicine, and 62 certificates.East Carolina has grown from 43 acres in 1907 to almost 1,600 acres today. The university's academic facilities are located on four properties: Main, Health science, West Research facility, and the Field Station for Coastal Studies in New Holland, North Carolina. The nine undergraduate colleges, graduate school, and four professional schools are located on these four properties. All of the non-health science majors are located on the main campus. The College of Nursing, College of Allied Health science, The Brody School of Medicine, and School of Dental Medicine are located on the health science campus. There are ten social sororities, 16 social fraternities, four historically black sororities, five historically black fraternities, one Native American fraternity, and one Native American sorority. There are over 300 registered clubs on campus including fraternities and sororities. Wikipedia.
Sun G.,East Carolina University
Plant Molecular Biology | Year: 2012
microRNAs (miRNAs) are an extensive class of newly identified small RNAs, which regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level by mRNA cleavage or translation inhibition. Currently, there are 3,070 miRNAs deposited in the public available miRNA database; these miRNAs were obtained from 43 plant species using both computational (comparative genomics) and experimental (direct cloning and deep sequencing) approaches. Like other signaling molecules, plant miRNAs can also be moved from one tissue to another through the vascular system. These mobile miRNAs may play an important role in plant nutrient homeostasis and response to environmental biotic and abiotic stresses. In addition, miRNAs also control a wide range of biological and metabolic processes, including developmental timing, tissue-specific development, and stem cell maintenance and differentiation. Currently, a majority of plant miRNA-related researches are purely descriptive, and provide no further detailed mechanistic insight into miRNA-mediated gene regulation and other functions. To better understand the function and regulatory mechanisms of plant miRNAs, more strategies need to be employed to investigate the functions of miRNAs and their associated signaling pathways and gene networks. Elucidating the evolutionary mechanism of miRNAs is also important. It is possible to develop a novel miRNA-based biotechnology for improving plant yield, quality and tolerance to environmental biotic and abiotic stresses besides focusing on basic genetic studies. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
Zhang B.,East Carolina University
Journal of Experimental Botany | Year: 2015
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are an extensive class of endogenous, small RNA molecules that sit at the heart of regulating gene expression in multiple developmental and signalling pathways. Recent studies have shown that abiotic stresses induce aberrant expression of many miRNAs, thus suggesting that miRNAs may be a new target for genetically improving plant tolerance to certain stresses. These studies have also shown that miRNAs respond to environmental stresses in a miRNA-, stress-, tissue-, and genotype-dependent manner. During abiotic stress, miRNAs function by regulating target genes within the miRNA-target gene network and by controlling signalling pathways and root development. Generally speaking, stress-induced miRNAs lead to down-regulation of negative regulators of stress tolerance whereas stress-inhibited miRNAs allow the accumulation and function of positive regulators. Currently, the majority of miRNA-based studies have focused on the identification of miRNAs that are responsive to different stress conditions and analysing their expression profile changes during these treatments. This has predominately been accomplished using deep sequencing technologies and other expression analyses, such as quantitative real-time PCR. In the future, more function and expression studies will be necessary in order to elucidate the common miRNA-mediated regulatory mechanisms that underlie tolerance to different abiotic stresses. The use of artificial miRNAs, as well as overexpression and knockout/down of both miRNAs and their targets, will be the best techniques for determining the specific roles of individual miRNAs in response to environmental stresses. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.
Stiller J.W.,East Carolina University
BMC Evolutionary Biology | Year: 2011
A growing number of phylogenomic investigations from diverse eukaryotes are examining conflicts among gene trees as evidence of horizontal gene transfer. If multiple foreign genes from the same eukaryotic lineage are found in a given genome, it is increasingly interpreted as concerted gene transfers during a cryptic endosymbiosis in the organism's evolutionary past, also known as "endosymbiotic gene transfer" or EGT. A number of provocative hypotheses of lost or serially replaced endosymbionts have been advanced; to date, however, these inferences largely have been post-hoc interpretations of genomic-wide conflicts among gene trees. With data sets as large and complex as eukaryotic genome sequences, it is critical to examine alternative explanations for intra-genome phylogenetic conflicts, particularly how much conflicting signal is expected from directional biases and statistical noise. The availability of genome-level data both permits and necessitates phylogenomics that test explicit, a priori predictions of horizontal gene transfer, using rigorous statistical methods and clearly defined experimental controls. © 2011Stiller; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Anderson E.J.,East Carolina University
Journal of the American Heart Association | Year: 2014
Onset of postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) is a common and costly complication of heart surgery despite major improvements in surgical technique and quality of patient care. The etiology of POAF, and the ability of clinicians to identify and therapeutically target high-risk patients, remains elusive. Myocardial tissue dissected from right atrial appendage (RAA) was obtained from 244 patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation from multiple sources was assessed in this tissue, along with total glutathione (GSHt) and its related enzymes GSH-peroxidase (GPx) and GSH-reductase (GR). Monoamine oxidase (MAO) and NADPH oxidase were observed to generate ROS at rates 10-fold greater than intact, coupled mitochondria. POAF risk was significantly associated with MAO activity (Quartile 1 [Q1]: adjusted relative risk [ARR]=1.0; Q2: ARR=1.8, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.84 to 4.0; Q3: ARR=2.1, 95% CI=0.99 to 4.3; Q4: ARR=3.8, 95% CI=1.9 to 7.5; adjusted Ptrend=0.009). In contrast, myocardial GSHt was inversely associated with POAF (Quartile 1 [Q1]: adjusted relative risk [ARR]=1.0; Q2: ARR=0.93, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.60 to 1.4; Q3: ARR=0.62, 95% CI=0.36 to 1.1; Q4: ARR=0.56, 95% CI=0.34 to 0.93; adjusted Ptrend=0.014). GPx also was significantly associated with POAF; however, a linear trend for risk was not observed across increasing levels of the enzyme. GR was not associated with POAF risk. Our results show that MAO is an important determinant of redox balance in human atrial myocardium, and that this enzyme, in addition to GSHt and GPx, is associated with an increased risk for POAF. Further investigation is needed to validate MAO as a predictive biomarker for POAF, and to explore this enzyme's potential role in arrhythmogenesis.
Fucci G.,East Carolina University
Nuclear Physics B | Year: 2015
In this work we analyze the Casimir energy and force for a scalar field endowed with general self-adjoint boundary conditions propagating in a higher dimensional piston configuration. The piston is constructed as a direct product I×. N, with I=[0,L]⊂R and N a smooth, compact Riemannian manifold with or without boundary. The study of the Casimir energy and force for this configuration is performed by employing the spectral zeta function regularization technique. The obtained analytic results depend explicitly on the spectral zeta function associated with the manifold N and the parameters describing the general boundary conditions imposed. These results are then specialized to the case in which the manifold N is a d-dimensional sphere. © 2014 The Author.