Otey C.A.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill |
Geyer C.B.,East Carolina Diabetes and Obesity Institute
Reproduction | Year: 2014
Sertoli cells undergo terminal differentiation at puberty to support all phases of germ cell development, which occurs in the mouse beginning in the second week of life. By w18 days postpartum (dpp), nearly all Sertoli cells have ceased proliferation. This terminal differentiation is accompanied by the development of unique and regionally concentrated filamentous actin (F-actin) structures at the basal and apical aspects of the seminiferous epithelium, and this reorganization is likely to involve the action of actin-binding proteins. Palladin (PALLD) is a widely expressed F-actin-binding and bundling protein recently shown to regulate these structures, yet it is predominantly nuclear in Sertoli cells at puberty. We found that PALLD localized within nuclei of primary Sertoli cells grown in serumfree media but relocalized to the cytoplasm upon serum stimulation. We utilized this system with in vivo relevance to Sertoli cell development to investigate mechanisms regulating nuclear localization of this F-actin-binding protein. Our results indicate that PALLD can be shuttled from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, and that this relocalization occurred following depolymerization of the F-actin cytoskeleton in response to cAMP signaling. Nuclear localization was reduced in Hpg-mutant testes, suggesting the involvement of gonadotropin signaling. We found that PALLD nuclear localization was unaffected in testis tissues from LH receptor and androgen receptor-mutant mice. However, PALLD nuclear localization was reduced in the testes of FSH receptor-mutant mice, suggesting that FSH signaling during Sertoli cell maturation regulates this subcellular localization. © 2014 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.
Busada J.T.,East Carolina University |
Kaye E.P.,East Carolina University |
Renegar R.H.,East Carolina University |
Geyer C.B.,East Carolina University |
Geyer C.B.,East Carolina Diabetes and Obesity Institute
Biology of Reproduction | Year: 2014
In mammals, most neonatal male germ cells (prospermatogonia) are quiescent and located in the center of the testis cords. In response to an unknown signal, prospermatogonia transition into spermatogonia, reenter the cell cycle, divide, and move to the periphery of the testis cords. In mice, these events occur by 3-4 days postpartum (dpp), which temporally coincides with the onset of retinoic acid (RA) signaling in the neonatal testis. RA has a pivotal role in initiating germ cell entry into meiosis in both sexes, yet little is known about the mechanisms and about cellular changes downstream of RA signaling. We examined the role of RA in mediating the prospermatogonia-to-spermatogonia transition in vivo and found 24 h of precocious RA exposureinduced germ cell changes mimicking those that occur during the endogenous transition at 3-4 dpp. These changes included: 1) spermatogonia proliferation; 2) maturation of cellular organelles; and 3), expression of markers characteristic of differentiating spermatogonia. We found that germ cell exposure to RA did not lead to cellular loss from apoptosis but rather resulted in a delay of ~2 days in their entry into meiosis. Taken together, our results indicate that exogenous RA induces multiple hallmarks of the transition of prospermatogonia to spermatogonia prior to their entry into meiosis. © 2014 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.
Anderson E.J.,East Carolina University |
Anderson E.J.,East Carolina Diabetes and Obesity Institute |
Taylor D.A.,East Carolina University
International News on Fats, Oils and Related Materials | Year: 2013
Four decades ago, Danish medical students Jørn Dyerberg and Hans Olaf Bang traveled west across the Greenland ice sheet on dog-sleds to test a theory. For many years prior to their journey, there had been anecdotal reports that Greenland Eskimos had an extremely low incidence of heart disease, and Dyerberg and Bang speculated that this was linked to the high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in the fish the native people consumed on a daily basis. After collecting and analyzing scores of blood samples, their hypothesis was borne out, and ever since, the medical and scientific community has been on a quest to determine exactly how PUFAs impart protective effects, and what amount must be ingested in order to achieve such benefits. Nearly 40 years and thousands of published studies later, However, These questions remain largely unanswered.
Morad S.A.F.,East Carolina University |
Morad S.A.F.,East Carolina Diabetes and Obesity Institute |
Morad S.A.F.,South Valley University |
Cabot M.C.,East Carolina University |
Cabot M.C.,East Carolina Diabetes and Obesity Institute
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids | Year: 2015
Tamoxifen, a triphenylethylene antiestrogen and one of the first-line endocrine therapies used to treat estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer, has a number of interesting, off-target effects, and among these is the inhibition of sphingolipid metabolism. More specifically, tamoxifen inhibits ceramide glycosylation, and enzymatic step that can adventitiously support the influential tumor-suppressor properties of ceramide, the aliphatic backbone of sphingolipids. Additionally, tamoxifen and metabolites N-desmethyltamoxifen and 4-hydroxytamoxifen, have been shown to inhibit ceramide hydrolysis by the enzyme acid ceramidase. This particular intervention slows ceramide destruction and thereby depresses formation of sphingosine 1-phosphate, a mitogenic sphingolipid with cancer growth-promoting properties. As ceramide-centric therapies are becoming appealing clinical interventions in the treatment of cancer, agents like tamoxifen that can retard the generation of mitogenic sphingolipids and buffer ceramide clearance via inhibition of glycosylation, take on new importance. In this review, we present an abridged, lay introduction to sphingolipid metabolism, briefly chronicle tamoxifen's history in the clinic, examine studies that demonstrate the impact of triphenylethylenes on sphingolipid metabolism in cancer cells, and canvass works relevant to the use of tamoxifen as adjuvant to drive ceramide-centric therapies in cancer treatment. The objective is to inform the readership of what could be a novel, off-label indication of tamoxifen and structurally-related triphenylethylenes, an indication divorced from estrogen receptor status and one with application in drug resistance. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.
Gurzell E.A.,Michigan State University |
Teague H.,East Carolina Diabetes and Obesity Institute |
Duriancik D.,Michigan State University |
Clinthorne J.,Michigan State University |
And 3 more authors.
Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry | Year: 2015
We previously reported that docosahexaenoic-acid (DHA)-enriched fish oil (DFO) feeding altered B-cell membrane organization and enhanced B-cell function. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether menhaden oil (MO) and eicosapentaenoic-acid (EPA)-enriched fish oil (EFO) alters B-cell function/phenotype similarly. Mice were fed control (CON), MO, EFO or DFO diets for 5. weeks. We evaluated the fatty acid composition of B-cell phospholipids, membrane microdomain organization, ex vivo B-cell functionality and in vivo B-cell subsets. Red blood cells and B cells were found to be strongly (r>0.85) and significantly (P < .001) correlated for major n-3 and n-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs). Compared to CON, MO and DFO resulted in decreased clustering of membrane microdomains, whereas EFO increased clustering. All fish oil treatments had 1.12-1.60 times higher CD40 expression following stimulation; however, we observed 0.86 times lower major histocompatibility complex class II expression and 0.7 times lower interleukin (IL)-6 production from EFO, but 3.25 times higher interferon-γ from MO and 1.5 times higher IL-6 from DFO. By 90. min of incubation, MO had 1.11 times higher antigen uptake compared to CON, whereas EFO was 0.86 times lower. All fish oil treatments resulted in decreasingly mature splenic and bone marrow B-cell subsets. We conclude that diets high in n-3 LCPUFAs may elicit similar B-cell phenotypes but different organizational and functional outcomes. More specifically, these data suggest that the EPA and DHA content of a diet influences immunological outcomes, highlighting the importance of understanding how specific n-3 LCPUFAs modulate B-cell development and function. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.