East Carolina Diabetes and Obesity Institute

West and East Lealman, United States

East Carolina Diabetes and Obesity Institute

West and East Lealman, United States
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Ferguson T.B.,East Carolina University | Ferguson T.B.,East Carolina Diabetes and Obesity Institute | Chen C.,East Carolina University | Chen C.,East Carolina Diabetes and Obesity Institute | And 6 more authors.
Innovations: Technology and Techniques in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery | Year: 2017

Objective: Direct flow measurement in native epicardial coronary arteries, bypass conduits, and anastomoses is severely limited by the invasiveness and inaccuracy of existing technologies. As a result, less than 25% of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) worldwide have any intraoperative evaluation performed. A simple, accurate, and noninvasive technology to directly quantify blood flow and rheology surrounding anastomotic sites is a critical unmet need in CABG. Methods: Existing technology limitations drove development of a different technology solution. With an optical physics approach, flow in conduits and tissue can be quantified in real time with nonionizing broad-spectrum imaging as well as temporal and spatial analyses. Cardiac motion, calibration, and combining anatomy + physiology in imaging were challenges requiring solutions. Results: This patented imaging technology was developed and tested in an established porcine cardiac experimental model and in clinical proof-of-concept studies. Flow velocities and flows in epicardial coronary arteries vary physiologically with the cardiac cycle and with acute ischemia, as predicted by previous studies using traditional technologies. Imaging data are captured from a 30-cm viewing distance, analyzed and displayed in real time as a video. The field of view enables capture of flow in the proximal and distal epicardial coronary, the conduit, at the anastomosis and in the distal myocardium simultaneously. Conclusions: Rheologic flow interaction between conduit and native coronary at the anastomosis remains the most poorly understood technical aspect of CABG. A noninvasive, noncontact, no-risk imaging technology as simple as a snapshot can provide this critical physiologic information, validate and document intraoperative quality, and improve even further CABG outcomes. © Copyright 2017 by the International Society for Minimally Invasive Cardiothoracic Surgery.

Heden T.D.,University of Missouri | Heden T.D.,East Carolina Diabetes and Obesity Institute | Liu Y.,University of Missouri | Kanaley J.A.,University of Missouri
Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism | Year: 2017

The purpose of this study was to characterize how resistance exercise prior to or after a meal alters fasting and postprandial blood lactate concentrations in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Obese individuals with type 2 diabetes (N = 12) completed three 2-day trials, including (i) no exercise (NoEx), (ii) resistance exercise prior to dinner (Ex-M), and (iii) resistance exercise beginning at 45 min postdinner (M-Ex). During day 1 of each trial, fasting and postprandial blood lactate concentrations, perceived exertion, and substrate oxidation were measured, and subsequently on day 2 the following morning fasting blood lactate was measured. The premeal lactate incremental area under the curve (iAUC) during Ex-M (109 ± 66 mmol·L−1·1.6 h−1) was over 100-fold greater (P < 0.01) compared with NoEx (−15 ± 24 mmol·L−1·1.6 h−1) and M-Ex (−2 ± 18 mmol·L−1·1.6 h−1). The postprandial lactate iAUC during M-Ex (304 ± 116 mmol·L−1·4 h−1) was over 2-fold greater (P < 0.01) compared with NoEx (149 ± 74 mmol·L−1·4 h−1) and Ex-M (−140 ± 196 mmol·L−1·4 h−1). Average lactate during exercise was _45% greater (P = 0.03) during M-Ex (3.2 ± 0.9 mmol/L) compared with Ex-M (2.2 ± 0.9 mmol/L), but the change in lactate during Ex-M (2.4 ± 1.6 mmol/L) or M-Ex (2.3 ± 1.3 mmol/L) was not different (P > 0.05). Perceived exertion, substrate oxidation, or fasting blood lactate concentrations the day after testing were not different between trials. Blood lactate concentrations during acute resistance exercise are greater when exercise is performed in the postprandial period. Acute resistance exercise performed the night prior does not alter fasting blood lactate concentrations the following morning. © 2017, Canadian Science Publishing. All rights reserved.

Otey C.A.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Geyer C.B.,East Carolina Diabetes and Obesity Institute
Reproduction | Year: 2014

Sertoli cells undergo terminal differentiation at puberty to support all phases of germ cell development, which occurs in the mouse beginning in the second week of life. By w18 days postpartum (dpp), nearly all Sertoli cells have ceased proliferation. This terminal differentiation is accompanied by the development of unique and regionally concentrated filamentous actin (F-actin) structures at the basal and apical aspects of the seminiferous epithelium, and this reorganization is likely to involve the action of actin-binding proteins. Palladin (PALLD) is a widely expressed F-actin-binding and bundling protein recently shown to regulate these structures, yet it is predominantly nuclear in Sertoli cells at puberty. We found that PALLD localized within nuclei of primary Sertoli cells grown in serumfree media but relocalized to the cytoplasm upon serum stimulation. We utilized this system with in vivo relevance to Sertoli cell development to investigate mechanisms regulating nuclear localization of this F-actin-binding protein. Our results indicate that PALLD can be shuttled from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, and that this relocalization occurred following depolymerization of the F-actin cytoskeleton in response to cAMP signaling. Nuclear localization was reduced in Hpg-mutant testes, suggesting the involvement of gonadotropin signaling. We found that PALLD nuclear localization was unaffected in testis tissues from LH receptor and androgen receptor-mutant mice. However, PALLD nuclear localization was reduced in the testes of FSH receptor-mutant mice, suggesting that FSH signaling during Sertoli cell maturation regulates this subcellular localization. © 2014 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

Morad S.A.F.,East Carolina University | Morad S.A.F.,East Carolina Diabetes and Obesity Institute | Morad S.A.F.,South Valley University | Cabot M.C.,East Carolina University | Cabot M.C.,East Carolina Diabetes and Obesity Institute
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids | Year: 2015

Tamoxifen, a triphenylethylene antiestrogen and one of the first-line endocrine therapies used to treat estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer, has a number of interesting, off-target effects, and among these is the inhibition of sphingolipid metabolism. More specifically, tamoxifen inhibits ceramide glycosylation, and enzymatic step that can adventitiously support the influential tumor-suppressor properties of ceramide, the aliphatic backbone of sphingolipids. Additionally, tamoxifen and metabolites N-desmethyltamoxifen and 4-hydroxytamoxifen, have been shown to inhibit ceramide hydrolysis by the enzyme acid ceramidase. This particular intervention slows ceramide destruction and thereby depresses formation of sphingosine 1-phosphate, a mitogenic sphingolipid with cancer growth-promoting properties. As ceramide-centric therapies are becoming appealing clinical interventions in the treatment of cancer, agents like tamoxifen that can retard the generation of mitogenic sphingolipids and buffer ceramide clearance via inhibition of glycosylation, take on new importance. In this review, we present an abridged, lay introduction to sphingolipid metabolism, briefly chronicle tamoxifen's history in the clinic, examine studies that demonstrate the impact of triphenylethylenes on sphingolipid metabolism in cancer cells, and canvass works relevant to the use of tamoxifen as adjuvant to drive ceramide-centric therapies in cancer treatment. The objective is to inform the readership of what could be a novel, off-label indication of tamoxifen and structurally-related triphenylethylenes, an indication divorced from estrogen receptor status and one with application in drug resistance. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Busada J.T.,East Carolina University | Busada J.T.,National Health Research Institute | Velte E.K.,East Carolina University | Serra N.,East Carolina University | And 7 more authors.
Reproduction | Year: 2016

We previously described a novel germ cell-specific X-linked reproductive homeobox gene (Rhox13) that is upregulated at the level of translation in response to retinoic acid (RA) in differentiating spermatogonia and preleptotene spermatocytes. We hypothesize that RHOX13 plays an essential role in male germ cell differentiation, and have tested this by creating a Rhox13 gene knockout (KO) mouse. Rhox13 KO mice are born in expected Mendelian ratios, and adults have slightly reduced testis weights, yet a full complement of spermatogenic cell types. Young KO mice (at ∼7.8 weeks of age) have a.50% reduction in epididymal sperm counts, but numbers increased to WT levels as the mice reach ∼17 weeks of age. Histological analysis of testes from juvenile KO mice reveals a number of defects during the first wave of spermatogenesis. These include increased apoptosis, delayed appearance of round spermatids and disruption of the precise stage-specific association of germ cells within the seminiferous tubules. Breeding studies reveal that both young and aged KO males produce normal-sized litters. Taken together, our results indicate that RHOX13 is not essential for mouse fertility in a controlled laboratory setting, but that it is required for optimal development of differentiating germ cells and progression of the first wave of spermatogenesis. © 2016 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

Gurzell E.A.,Michigan State University | Teague H.,East Carolina Diabetes and Obesity Institute | Duriancik D.,Michigan State University | Clinthorne J.,Michigan State University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry | Year: 2015

We previously reported that docosahexaenoic-acid (DHA)-enriched fish oil (DFO) feeding altered B-cell membrane organization and enhanced B-cell function. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether menhaden oil (MO) and eicosapentaenoic-acid (EPA)-enriched fish oil (EFO) alters B-cell function/phenotype similarly. Mice were fed control (CON), MO, EFO or DFO diets for 5. weeks. We evaluated the fatty acid composition of B-cell phospholipids, membrane microdomain organization, ex vivo B-cell functionality and in vivo B-cell subsets. Red blood cells and B cells were found to be strongly (r>0.85) and significantly (P < .001) correlated for major n-3 and n-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs). Compared to CON, MO and DFO resulted in decreased clustering of membrane microdomains, whereas EFO increased clustering. All fish oil treatments had 1.12-1.60 times higher CD40 expression following stimulation; however, we observed 0.86 times lower major histocompatibility complex class II expression and 0.7 times lower interleukin (IL)-6 production from EFO, but 3.25 times higher interferon-γ from MO and 1.5 times higher IL-6 from DFO. By 90. min of incubation, MO had 1.11 times higher antigen uptake compared to CON, whereas EFO was 0.86 times lower. All fish oil treatments resulted in decreasingly mature splenic and bone marrow B-cell subsets. We conclude that diets high in n-3 LCPUFAs may elicit similar B-cell phenotypes but different organizational and functional outcomes. More specifically, these data suggest that the EPA and DHA content of a diet influences immunological outcomes, highlighting the importance of understanding how specific n-3 LCPUFAs modulate B-cell development and function. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

Busada J.T.,East Carolina University | Kaye E.P.,East Carolina University | Renegar R.H.,East Carolina University | Geyer C.B.,East Carolina University | Geyer C.B.,East Carolina Diabetes and Obesity Institute
Biology of Reproduction | Year: 2014

In mammals, most neonatal male germ cells (prospermatogonia) are quiescent and located in the center of the testis cords. In response to an unknown signal, prospermatogonia transition into spermatogonia, reenter the cell cycle, divide, and move to the periphery of the testis cords. In mice, these events occur by 3-4 days postpartum (dpp), which temporally coincides with the onset of retinoic acid (RA) signaling in the neonatal testis. RA has a pivotal role in initiating germ cell entry into meiosis in both sexes, yet little is known about the mechanisms and about cellular changes downstream of RA signaling. We examined the role of RA in mediating the prospermatogonia-to-spermatogonia transition in vivo and found 24 h of precocious RA exposureinduced germ cell changes mimicking those that occur during the endogenous transition at 3-4 dpp. These changes included: 1) spermatogonia proliferation; 2) maturation of cellular organelles; and 3), expression of markers characteristic of differentiating spermatogonia. We found that germ cell exposure to RA did not lead to cellular loss from apoptosis but rather resulted in a delay of ~2 days in their entry into meiosis. Taken together, our results indicate that exogenous RA induces multiple hallmarks of the transition of prospermatogonia to spermatogonia prior to their entry into meiosis. © 2014 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

Anderson E.J.,East Carolina University | Anderson E.J.,East Carolina Diabetes and Obesity Institute | Taylor D.A.,East Carolina University
International News on Fats, Oils and Related Materials | Year: 2013

Four decades ago, Danish medical students Jørn Dyerberg and Hans Olaf Bang traveled west across the Greenland ice sheet on dog-sleds to test a theory. For many years prior to their journey, there had been anecdotal reports that Greenland Eskimos had an extremely low incidence of heart disease, and Dyerberg and Bang speculated that this was linked to the high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in the fish the native people consumed on a daily basis. After collecting and analyzing scores of blood samples, their hypothesis was borne out, and ever since, the medical and scientific community has been on a quest to determine exactly how PUFAs impart protective effects, and what amount must be ingested in order to achieve such benefits. Nearly 40 years and thousands of published studies later, However, These questions remain largely unanswered.

PubMed | East Carolina Diabetes and Obesity Institute, Duke University and East Carolina University
Type: | Journal: Diabetes | Year: 2016

Although nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase (NNT) deficient C57BL/6J (6J) mice are known to be highly susceptible to diet-induced metabolic disease, this notion stems primarily from comparisons of 6J mice to other inbred strains. To date, very few studies have directly compared metabolic disease susceptibility between NNT deficient 6J mice and NNT competent C57BL/6 substrains. Herein, comprehensive profiling of the metabolic response to a high fat/high sucrose diet (HFD) were compared across time in 6J and C57BL/6NJ (6N) mice. Given that increased peroxide exposure drives insulin resistance, coupled with the fact that NNT regulates peroxide detoxification, it was hypothesized that 6J mice would experience greater derangements in redox homeostasis/metabolic disease upon HFD exposure. Contrary to this, both lines were found to be highly susceptible to diet-induced metabolic disease, as evidenced by impairments in glucose tolerance as early as 24 hours into the HFD for both lines. Moreover, various markers of the metabolic syndrome, as well as peroxide stress were actually blunted, rather than exacerbated, in the 6J mice, likely reflecting compensatory increases in alterative redox buffering pathways. Together these data provide evidence that the susceptibility to HFD-induced metabolic disease is similar in the 6J and 6N substrains. Given the numerous genetic variances in the 6J stain, including loss of NNT function, these findings suggest that the 6N substrain is the more logical and representative genetic background model of choice for metabolic studies.

PubMed | East Carolina Diabetes and Obesity Institute and East Carolina University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism | Year: 2016

The loss of strength in combination with constant fatigue is a burden on cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Doxorubicin, a standard chemotherapy drug used in the clinic, causes skeletal muscle dysfunction and increases mitochondrial H2O2 We hypothesized that the combined effect of cancer and chemotherapy in an immunocompetent breast cancer mouse model (E0771) would compromise skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiratory function, leading to an increase in H2O2-emitting potential and impaired muscle function. Here, we demonstrate that cancer chemotherapy decreases mitochondrial respiratory capacity supported with complex I (pyruvate/glutamate/malate) and complex II (succinate) substrates. Mitochondrial H2O2-emitting potential was altered in skeletal muscle, and global protein oxidation was elevated with cancer chemotherapy. Muscle contractile function was impaired following exposure to cancer chemotherapy. Genetically engineering the overexpression of catalase in mitochondria of muscle attenuated mitochondrial H2O2 emission and protein oxidation, preserving mitochondrial and whole muscle function despite cancer chemotherapy. These findings suggest mitochondrial oxidants as a mediator of cancer chemotherapy-induced skeletal muscle dysfunction.

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