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Žďár nad Sázavou, Czech Republic

Horak J.,Czech University of Life Sciences | Peltanova A.,Charles University | Podavkova A.,Czech University of Life Sciences | Safarova L.,East Bohemian Museum in Pardubice | And 3 more authors.
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment | Year: 2013

Ecologists and land managers are becoming increasingly aware that the landscape context within which a habitat fragment exists could be as important as the habitat fragment itself. Our aims were to find how, and at which spatial scale of the landscape, the biodiversity of a rural agricultural landscape of a central European country (Czech Republic) is affected by land use. We used a multi-taxa approach based on six taxa, namely (i) birds, (ii) bees and wasps, (iii) beetles, (iv) butterflies, (v) land snails, and (vi) plants, in 25 traditional fruit orchards. We carried out spatial partitioning of three different types of land use (orchards, deciduous woodlands and grasslands) with radii ranging from 200. m to 3200. m. With respect to land use, the spatial partitioning showed that land snails, and bees and wasps were influenced to the lowest area of surrounding land use types, followed by beetles, butterflies and plants, and finally birds. Species richness in most of the taxa studied was enhanced by an increase in the area covered by orchards in the surrounding landscape. Our findings support the idea that multi-taxa responses to land use in landscape studies should be measured at different scales, for example, by making use of spatial partitioning. Our study showed that although they are an artificial patches, traditional orchards help maintain biodiversity in rural agricultural landscapes, and that an increase in the area covered by similar patches in the surroundings also increases the species richness of the studied taxa. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Horak J.,Czech University of Life Sciences | Safarova L.,East Bohemian Museum in Pardubice
Biologia (Poland) | Year: 2015

Wetlands have recently become of high environmental interest. The restoration effects on habitats like fens are one of the main topics of recent restoration ecology, especially due to their interconnection with other ecosystems. We studied the manual mowing effect on abandoned fen using the response of three study taxa: diurnal butterflies, flower-visiting beetles and vascular plants. Our results showed that butterflies seems to be quickly-responding indicator taxon for evaluation and that restored management had a positive effect on both species richness and composition of this insect group. The results indicated that the manual mowing effect could be rapid. In comparison with the surrounding landscape, we found that: (i) the manually mowed site was most similar to strictly protected area, (ii) some species of high conservation value could reach higher abundance in restored than protected site, and (iii) manual mowing could bring a new type of habitat (i.e., spatial heterogeneity) compared to the other management types (abandonment, conservation and agri-environmental mowing). The main implication seems to be optimistic for practice: The manual mowing of long-term abandoned fen is leading to the creation of habitat with high conservation value in a relatively short time. © 2015 Institute of Zoology, Slovak Academy of Sciences.

Pech P.,University of Hradec Kralove | Dolansky J.,East Bohemian Museum in Pardubice | Hrdlicka R.,University of South Bohemia | Leps J.,University of South Bohemia | Leps J.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic
Community Ecology | Year: 2015

We examined the response of communities of four groups of organisms (plants, snails, ants and spiders) in a small scale mosaic of 8-years mown and unmown plots in a wet meadow in Central Europe. The experimental setup consisted of 7 unmown and 8 regularly mown 4 m2 plots in checkerboard arrangement. Eight years after the start of the experiment, the plant community structure diverged in response to mowing/nonmowing, both in species composition and structure. Both bryophyte and vascular plant species numbers were significantly higher in the mown plots. In unmown plots, bryophytes nearly disappeared and plots were dominated by the tall tussock grass Molinia caerulea. Both diversity and abundance of snails were higher in unmown plots than in mown ones. Ant nests were more abundant in mown plots and species composition differed between mown and unmown plots. We captured significantly more individuals of spiders in mown plots but we did not find any difference in species composition. We conclude that the 8-years duration of different management of 4 m2 plots was sufficient to establish different communities in low movable organisms, whereas these plots are probably too small to host different assem-blages of organisms with good active dispersal abilities.

Prausova R.,University of Hradec Kralove | Zlamalova T.,University of Hradec Kralove | Balkova L.,University of Hradec Kralove | Safarova L.,East Bohemian Museum in Pardubice
Journal of Landscape Ecology | Year: 2015

This paper deals with the botanically interesting locality of the Bohdanečský pond and its surroundings in the Pardubice region. Thanks to botanists' interest in this locality, there is a lot of floristic data that can be used for evaluation of the area development in terms of species and habitat diversity. Although there is a demonstrable decline of rare plant species, this locality still belongs to the most valuable reserves in the Czech Republic. The current state of the locality is influenced by many factors, e.g. spontaneous succession, management methods of the NNR, the influence of landscape management around the NNR, or global factors (eutrophication, climate change, etc.). Present surveys carried out since 2000 show that the condition of the NNR can be positively influenced by appropriate controlled interventions which include regular meadow mowing and removal of harvested biomass, occasional mowing of reeds and tall sedge vegetation, as well as revitalisation measures for surface water (ponds, pools, water flows). © 2015 Romana Prausová et al.

Prausova R.,University of Hradec Kralove | Kozelkova Z.,University of Hradec Kralove | Safarova L.,East Bohemian Museum in Pardubice
Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae | Year: 2015

The aim of the experiment was to determine suitable substrate type and optimal plant size for transfer of plantlets from in vitro to ex vitro under experimental outdoor conditions. Tests focused on the effect of substrate type (muddy and sandy) and starting size of plantlets gained through in vitro seed germination (0.3, 3.1.5,5.1.6, 6.1.10 cm) on plant growth. Three parameters (fresh weight, length, and the number of leaves) were compared to evaluate growth. Basic water parameters in experimental water tanks were regularly measured (pH, temperature, electrical conductivity, shadow intensity) and controlled to reach similar conditions to those in the natural habitat of this species. Overwintering was studied in a cellar with newly defined size categories (.6, 6.1.8, 8.1.10, 10.1.12, 12.1.15 cm). Both substrate type and starting size of plantlets significantly impacted growth. Plantlets grew better in the muddy substrate while a 100% success rate of rooting was gained with a starting size of 6.1.10 cm in both substrates. The biggest increase in fresh weight was observed with a starting size of 3.1.5 cm and 5.1.6 cm in both substrates. The greatest increase in fresh weight was observed in plants with a starting size of 3.1.5 cm in the muddy substrate (more than 95% increase). The best overwintering results were gained in the 6.1.8 cm size category. © The Author(s) 2015.

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