East Bavarian Center for Intelligent Materials

Regensburg, Germany

East Bavarian Center for Intelligent Materials

Regensburg, Germany

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Kalita V.M.,National Technical University of Ukraine | Kalita V.M.,Ukrainian Academy of Sciences | Snarskii A.A.,National Technical University of Ukraine | Snarskii A.A.,Ukrainian Academy of Sciences | And 2 more authors.
Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics | Year: 2017

The influence of an external magnetic field on the static shear strain and the effective shear modulus of a magnetoactive elastomer (MAE) is studied theoretically in the framework of a recently introduced approach to the single-particle magnetostriction mechanism [V. M. Kalita, Phys. Rev. E 93, 062503 (2016)10.1103/PhysRevE.93.062503]. The planar problem of magnetostriction in an MAE with magnetically soft inclusions in the form of a thin disk (platelet) having the magnetic anisotropy in the plane of this disk is solved analytically. An external magnetic field acts with torques on magnetic filler particles, creates mechanical stresses in the vicinity of inclusions, induces shear strain, and increases the effective shear modulus of these composite materials. It is shown that the largest effect of the magnetic field on the effective shear modulus should be expected in MAEs with soft elastomer matrices, where the shear modulus of the matrix is less than the magnetic anisotropy constant of inclusions. It is derived that the effective shear modulus is nonlinearly dependent on the external magnetic field and approaches the saturation value in magnetic fields exceeding the field of particle anisotropy. It is shown that model calculations of the effective shear modulus correspond to a phenomenological definition of effective elastic moduli and magnetoelastic coupling constants. The obtained theoretical results compare well with known experimental data. Determination of effective elastic coefficients in MAEs and their dependence on magnetic field is discussed. The concentration dependence of the effective shear modulus at higher filler concentrations has been estimated using the method of Padé approximants, which predicts that both the absolute and relative changes of the magnetic-field-dependent effective shear modulus will significantly increase with the growing concentration of filler particles. © 2017 American Physical Society.


Sorokin V.V.,Moscow State University | Stepanov G.V.,RAS Institute of Chemistry | Shamonin M.,East Bavarian Center for Intelligent Materials | Monkman G.J.,East Bavarian Center for Intelligent Materials | Kramarenko E.Y.,Moscow State University
Smart Materials and Structures | Year: 2017

Magnetoactive elastomers (MAE) based on soft silicone matrices, filled with various proportions of large diameter (approximately 50 μm) iron and small diameter (approximately 0.5 μm) magnetite particles are synthesized. Their rheological behavior in homogeneous magnetic fields up to 600 mT is studied in detail. The addition of small magnetite particles facilitates fabrication of uniformly distributed magnetic elastomer composites by preventing aggregation and sedimentation of large particles during curing. It is shown that using the proposed bimodal filler particles it is possible to tailor various magnetorheological (MR) properties which can be useful for different target applications. In particular, either absolute or relative magnetorheological effects can be tuned. The value of the damping factor as well as the range of deformation amplitudes for the linear viscoelastic regime can be chosen. The interdependencies between different MR properties of bimodal MAEs are considered. The results are discussed in the model framework of particle network formation under the simultaneous influence of external magnetic fields and mechanical deformation. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.


Stadler D.,East Bavarian Center for Intelligent Materials | Hofmann M.J.,University of Regensburg | Motschmann H.,University of Regensburg | Shamonin M.,East Bavarian Center for Intelligent Materials
Measurement Science and Technology | Year: 2016

The surface dilational modulus is a crucial parameter for describing the rheological properties of aqueous surfactant solutions. These properties are important for many technological processes. The present paper describes a fully automated instrument based on the oscillating bubble technique. It works in the frequency range from 1 Hz to 500 Hz, where surfactant exchange dynamics governs the relaxation process. The originality of instrument design is the consistent combination of modern measurement technologies with advanced imaging and signal processing algorithms. Key steps on the way to reliable and precise measurements are the excitation of harmonic oscillation of the bubble, phase sensitive evaluation of the pressure response, adjustment and maintenance of the bubble shape to half sphere geometry for compensation of thermal drifts, contour tracing of the bubbles video images, removal of noise and artefacts within the image for improving the reliability of the measurement, and, in particular, a complex trigger scheme for the measurement of the oscillation amplitude, which may vary with frequency as a result of resonances. The corresponding automation and programming tasks are described in detail. Various programming strategies, such as the use of MATLAB® software and native C++ code are discussed. An advance in the measurement technique is demonstrated by a fully automated measurement. The instrument has the potential to mature into a standard technique in the fields of colloid and interface chemistry and provides a significant extension of the frequency range to established competing techniques and state-of-the-art devices based on the same measurement principle. © 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd.


Belyaeva I.A.,East Bavarian Center for Intelligent Materials | Kramarenko E.Yu.,Moscow State University | Stepanov G.V.,RAS Institute of Chemistry | Sorokin V.V.,Moscow State University | And 2 more authors.
Soft Matter | Year: 2016

Transient rheological response of magnetoactive elastomers is experimentally studied using dynamic torsion at a fixed oscillation frequency in temporally stepwise changing magnetic fields and oscillation amplitudes. For step magnetic-field excitations, at least three exponential functions are required to reasonably describe the time behavior of the storage shear modulus over long time scales (>103 s). The deduced characteristic time constants of the corresponding rearrangement processes of the filler network differ approximately by one order of magnitude: τ1 ≲ 101 s, τ2 ∼ 102 s, and τ3 ∼ 103 s. The sudden imposition of the external magnetic field activates a very fast rearrangement process with the characteristic time under 10 s, which cannot be determined more precisely due to the measurement conditions. Even more peculiar transient behavior has been observed during pyramid excitations, when either the external magnetic field was first stepwise increased and then decreased in a staircase manner at a fixed strain amplitude γ or the strain amplitude γ was first stepwise increased and then decreased in a staircase manner at a fixed magnetic field. In particular, the so-called "cross-over effect" has been identified in both dynamical loading programs. This cross-over effect seems to be promoted by the application of the external magnetic field. The experimental results are discussed in the context of the specific rearrangement of the magnetic filler network under the simultaneous action of the external magnetic field and shear deformation. Striking similarities of the observed phenomena to the structural relaxation processes in glassy materials and to the jamming transition of granular materials are pointed out. The obtained results are important for fundamental understanding of material behavior in magnetic fields as well as for the development of devices on the basis of magnetoactive elastomeric materials. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2016.


Sorokin V.V.,Moscow State University | Stepanov G.V.,RAS Institute of Chemistry | Shamonin M.,East Bavarian Center for Intelligent Materials | Monkman G.J.,East Bavarian Center for Intelligent Materials | And 2 more authors.
Polymer (United Kingdom) | Year: 2015

Hysteresis in dynamic modulus, loss factor and normal forces of magnetoactive elastomers (MAEs) comprising various proportions of small (3-5 μm) and large (50-60 μm) ferromagnetic particles are experimentally studied using dynamic torsion performed at a fixed oscillation frequency in varying DC magnetic fields. It is shown that hysteresis is a characteristic feature of MAEs observed both under increasing/decreasing magnetic field strength and increasing/decreasing strain amplitude. This hysteresis is attributed to the specific rearrangement of the magnetic filler network under simultaneously applied magnetic field and shear deformation. Rheological properties of the magnetic filler network formed in the magnetic field and, therefore, the rheological properties of MAEs depend strongly on the filler composition and the magnetic field magnitude. Larger magnetic particles and higher magnetic fields provide stronger magnetic networks. Both factors result in the extension of the linear viscoelastic regime to larger strain amplitudes and lead to higher values of shear storage and loss moduli. It is found that the hysteresis width maximises at an intermediate magnetic field where it is attributed to the balance between elastic and magnetic particle interactions. This is apparently where the most significant restructuring of the magnetic network occurs. The hysteresis width decreases with increasing fraction of large particles in the magnetic filler. The loss factor grows significantly when the magnetic network is physically broken by large strains γ > 1%. A huge (more than one order of magnitude) increase of normal force at maximum magnetic field strengths is observed. It is predicted that any physical quantity depending on the internal structuring of the magnetic filler should demonstrate hysteresis either with a changing magnetic field and constant deformation amplitude or under variable deformation in a constant magnetic field. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Sorokin V.V.,Moscow State University | Ecker E.,East Bavarian Center for Intelligent Materials | Stepanov G.V.,RAS Institute of Chemistry | Shamonin M.,East Bavarian Center for Intelligent Materials | And 3 more authors.
Soft Matter | Year: 2014

The dynamic modulus and the loss factor of magnetorheological elastomers (MREs) of various compositions and anisotropies are studied by dynamic torsion oscillations performed in the absence and in the presence of an external magnetic field. The emphasis is on the Payne effect, i.e. the dependence of the elastomer magnetorheological characteristics on the strain amplitude and their evolution with cyclically increasing and decreasing strain amplitudes. MREs are based on two silicone matrices differing in storage modulus (soft, G′ ∼ 103 Pa, and hard, G′ ∼ 103 Pa, matrices). For each matrix, the concentration of carbonyl iron particles with diameters of 3-5 μm was equal to 70 and 82 mass% (22 and 35 vol%, respectively) in the composite material. Samples for each filler content, isotropic and aligned-particles, are investigated. It is found that the Payne effect significantly increases in the presence of an external magnetic field and varies with the cyclical loading which reaches saturation after several cycles. The results are interpreted as the processes of formation-destruction-reformation of the internal filler structure under the simultaneously applied mechanical force and magnetic field. Impacts of matrix elasticity and magnetic interactions on the filler alignment are elucidated. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2014.


PubMed | East Bavarian Center for Intelligent Materials, Moscow State University and RAS Institute of Chemistry
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Soft matter | Year: 2016

Transient rheological response of magnetoactive elastomers is experimentally studied using dynamic torsion at a fixed oscillation frequency in temporally stepwise changing magnetic fields and oscillation amplitudes. For step magnetic-field excitations, at least three exponential functions are required to reasonably describe the time behavior of the storage shear modulus over long time scales (>10(3) s). The deduced characteristic time constants of the corresponding rearrangement processes of the filler network differ approximately by one order of magnitude: 1 10(1) s, 2 10(2) s, and 3 10(3) s. The sudden imposition of the external magnetic field activates a very fast rearrangement process with the characteristic time under 10 s, which cannot be determined more precisely due to the measurement conditions. Even more peculiar transient behavior has been observed during pyramid excitations, when either the external magnetic field was first stepwise increased and then decreased in a staircase manner at a fixed strain amplitude or the strain amplitude was first stepwise increased and then decreased in a staircase manner at a fixed magnetic field. In particular, the so-called cross-over effect has been identified in both dynamical loading programs. This cross-over effect seems to be promoted by the application of the external magnetic field. The experimental results are discussed in the context of the specific rearrangement of the magnetic filler network under the simultaneous action of the external magnetic field and shear deformation. Striking similarities of the observed phenomena to the structural relaxation processes in glassy materials and to the jamming transition of granular materials are pointed out. The obtained results are important for fundamental understanding of material behavior in magnetic fields as well as for the development of devices on the basis of magnetoactive elastomeric materials.


Kalita V.M.,National Technical University of Ukraine | Kalita V.M.,Ukrainian Academy of Sciences | Snarskii A.A.,National Technical University of Ukraine | Snarskii A.A.,Institute for Information Recording NAS of Ukraine | And 2 more authors.
Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics | Year: 2016

Magnetoactive elastomers (MAEs) are composite materials comprised of micrometer-sized ferromagnetic particles in a nonmagnetic elastomer matrix. A single-particle mechanism of magnetostriction in MAEs, assuming the rotation of a soft magnetic, mechanically rigid particle with uniaxial magnetic anisotropy in magnetic fields is identified and considered theoretically within the framework of an alternative model. In this mechanism, the total magnetic anisotropy energy of the filling particles in the matrix is the sum over single particles. Matrix displacements in the vicinity of the particle and the resulting direction of the magnetization vector are calculated. The effect of matrix deformation is pronounced well if the magnetic anisotropy coefficient K is much larger than the shear modulus μ of the elastic matrix. The feasibility of the proposed magnetostriction mechanism in soft magnetoactive elastomers and gels is elucidated. The magnetic-field-induced internal stresses in the matrix lead to effects of magnetodeformation and may increase the elastic moduli of these composite materials. © 2016 American Physical Society.


PubMed | East Bavarian Center for Intelligent Materials and National Technical University of Ukraine
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Physical review. E | Year: 2016

Magnetoactive elastomers (MAEs) are composite materials comprised of micrometer-sized ferromagnetic particles in a nonmagnetic elastomer matrix. A single-particle mechanism of magnetostriction in MAEs, assuming the rotation of a soft magnetic, mechanically rigid particle with uniaxial magnetic anisotropy in magnetic fields is identified and considered theoretically within the framework of an alternative model. In this mechanism, the total magnetic anisotropy energy of the filling particles in the matrix is the sum over single particles. Matrix displacements in the vicinity of the particle and the resulting direction of the magnetization vector are calculated. The effect of matrix deformation is pronounced well if the magnetic anisotropy coefficient K is much larger than the shear modulus of the elastic matrix. The feasibility of the proposed magnetostriction mechanism in soft magnetoactive elastomers and gels is elucidated. The magnetic-field-induced internal stresses in the matrix lead to effects of magnetodeformation and may increase the elastic moduli of these composite materials.


Burdin D.,Moscow Technological University | Chashin D.,Moscow Technological University | Ekonomov N.,Moscow Technological University | Fetisov L.,Moscow Technological University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics | Year: 2016

Recently, highly sensitive magnetic field sensors using the magnetoelectric effect in composite ferromagnetic-piezoelectric layered structures have been demonstrated. However, most of the proposed concepts are not useful for measuring dc magnetic fields, because the conductivity of piezoelectric layers results in a strong decline of the sensor's sensitivity at low frequencies. In this paper, a novel functional principle of magnetoelectric sensors for dc magnetic field measurements is described. The sensor employs the nonlinear effect of voltage harmonic generation in a composite magnetoelectric structure under the simultaneous influence of a strong imposed ac magnetic field and a weak dc magnetic field to be measured. This physical effect arises due to the nonlinear dependence of the magnetostriction in the ferromagnetic layer on the magnetic field. A sensor prototype comprising of a piezoelectric fibre transducer sandwiched between two layers of the amorphous ferromagnetic Metglas® alloy was fabricated. The specifications regarding the magnetic field range, frequency characteristics, and noise level were studied experimentally. The prototype showed the responsivity of 2.5 V mT-1 and permitted the measurement of dc magnetic fields in the range of ∼10 nT to about 0.4 mT. Although sensor operation is based on the nonlinear effect, the sensor response can be made linear with respect to the measured magnetic field in a broad dynamic range extending over 5 orders of magnitude. The underlying physics is explained through a simplified theory for the proposed sensor. The functionality, differences and advantages of the magnetoelectric sensor compare well with fluxgate magnetometers. The ways to enhance the sensor performance are considered. © 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd.

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