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Ozer H.,Atatürk University | Kordali S.,Atatürk University | Cavusoglu A.T.,East Anatolia Agricultural Research Institute | Akcin T.,Ondokuz Mayis University | And 2 more authors.
Records of Natural Products | Year: 2016

The essential oils and hexane extracts of four Achillea species were analyzed by GC/MS. Achillea biserrata Bieb., Achillea wilhelmsii C. Koch and Achillea biebersteinii Afan oils contained mainly 1,8-cineole (38.1-14.4%), camphor (46.6-23.6%) and borneol (11.7-2.9%). Achillea coarctata Poir. oil had more different composition, with its main components being viridiflorol (37.7%), α-cadinol (8.9%) and cubenol (6.1%). The hexane extracts of A. wilhelmsii, A. coarctata and A. biebersteinii had high percentages of camphor (44.7%, 16.2% and 18.0%, respectively) and 1,8-cineole (19.5%, 30.8% and 165.1%, respectively), whereas the most abundant components in A. biserrata extract were ethyl oleate (13.1%), n-nonadecane (11.3%), and n-eicosane (11.3%). Herbicidal activities of the oils and hexane, acetone and methanol extracts of four Achillea species were assessed against six weed species and germinations, root and shoot growths of weed species were significantly inhibited by both the oils and extracts. In the pest toxicity assay on Leptinotarsa decemlineata, the oils showed toxic effect against the pest. According to the present results, Achillea species could be used as alternative bio-insecticides and bio-herbicides. © 2015 ACG Publications. All rights reserved.

Gozubuyuk Z.,East Anatolia Agricultural Research Institute | Sahin U.,Atatürk University | Adiguzel M.C.,East Anatolia Agricultural Research Institute | Ozturk I.,Atatürk University | Celik A.,Atatürk University
Agricultural Water Management | Year: 2015

Fallow-winter wheat crop rotation under conventional tillage conditions is an agricultural system widely used in semi-arid regions. Water content of soil required for seed germination and plant growth can be improved performing tillage practices. Moreover, a crop rotation allowing sustainable and continuous production can be created. Therefore, the effect of four different tillage practices in a Hungarian vetch-winter wheat crop rotation (CR1) compared to fallow-winter wheat crop rotation (CR2) for water use efficiency was investigated in a semi-arid region with a high altitude (~1750m a.s.l.) for three years (2011-12, 2012-13 and 2013-14). Tillage practices consisted of; TS1: Conventional tillage (moldboard plough+cultivator+combined harrows+precision seeder); TS2: Reduced tillage-1 (cultivator+combined harrows+precision seeder); TS3: Reduced tillage-2 (rotary power harrow+precision seeder) and TS4: No-tillage (no-till seeder). Experiment was conducted applying randomized complete block design based on split-plot trial plan. The water content of soil in the CR1 was higher than the contents in the CR2. The TS4 practice significantly increased (P<0.01) the water content of soil in all measurement periods (sowing, winter, spring, harvesting and the whole year) and in soil layers (0-30cm, 30-60cm and 60-90cm) compared to the other tillage practices. Water contents of soil were the lowest in the TS1. For the 0-30-cm depth, compared to the TS1 practice, the TS4 practice provided higher water contents of soil by 21.3, 22.1, 14.4, 15.7 and 17.4% in sowing, winter, spring, harvesting and the whole year periods, respectively. Water contents in 30-60 and 60-90cm soil layers in the TS4 practice also were higher than the TS1 practice values. Higher water contents of soil of the sowing period in TS4 provided higher stand density. Although the amount of weeds in winter wheat plots was the highest in the TS4 practice (67.4kgha-1) when considering three-year average values, grain yield in TS4 was also high (2652kgha-1) and statistically similar to TS1 (2762kgha-1). There was no clear effect on water use efficiency of winter wheat of the no-tillage practice compared to conventional tillage practice. Stand density and fodder yield of vetch were the highest in TS4. Our results indicated that the no-till vetch-winter wheat rotation could be more suitable than the conventional tilled fallow-winter wheat rotation due to the opportunity of high crop production in semi-arid regions. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Tunc T.,East Anatolia Agricultural Research Institute | Sahin U.,Atatürk University
Agricultural Water Management | Year: 2015

Soil physical properties (bulk density, particle density, total porosity, pore size distribution and aggregate stability) and hydraulic properties (water retention and infiltration) may be affected significantly from wastewater irrigation. In addition, environmental conditions may change the magnitude of these effects. Therefore, we examined the effects of irrigation with simpler-reclaimed wastewaters on the certain soil properties under cauliflower and red cabbage planting with two-year study in a semi-arid region with a cool climate. W1 (filtered wastewater), W2 (filtered and aerated wastewater) and W1-FW (mix of filtered wastewater with the freshwater at the ratio of 1:1 as volume) were the wastewater treatments. Control plots were irrigated with freshwater (FW) provided from groundwater.Soil electrical conductivity and organic C content in wastewater irrigated plots were higher than the freshwater irrigated plots. Moreover, exchangeable sodium percentage was low in wastewater plots (<2.25%). Therefore, irrigation with especially W1 and W2 wastewaters markedly increased the aggregate stability. Particle density was not changed with wastewater applications. Although bulk density and porosity increased under the wastewater irrigation conditions, changes were not meaningful in terms of practical conditions. While available soil moisture increased with the increase of micropores, infiltration rate decreased with the decrease of macropores. This was probably because of the clogging of pores with suspended solids in wastewater. According to research findings, it was expressed that soil aggregation and available water content could be improved under irrigation with the mix of filtered wastewater and freshwater in a semi-arid region with a cool climate and the infiltration rate could also be protected. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Gozubuyuk Z.,East Anatolia Agricultural Research Institute | Sahin U.,Atatürk University | Ozturk I.,Atatürk University | Celik A.,Atatürk University | Adiguzel M.C.,East Anatolia Agricultural Research Institute
Catena | Year: 2014

The purpose of this study was to research the influence of four different tillage practices [T1: Conventional tillage (moldboard plow+disk harrow+combined harrows+precision seeder); T2: Reduced tillage-I (cultivator+combined harrows+precision seeder); T3: Reduced tillage-II (rotary power harrow+precision seeder) and T4: No-till (no-till seeder)] on bulk density, total porosity, penetration resistance, field capacity, field water content and the infiltration rate of a loamy soil in a semi-arid region with a cool climate and an annual mean temperature of 5.6. °C. In particular, the effectiveness of the no-till practice was investigated. Since 1999, the experimental field has been tilled by the above-mentioned tillage practices and also applied a crop rotation (vetch-winter wheat-fallow) in dry conditions. We made assessments of selected soil properties according to the data during the sowing-germination period of winter wheat only in 2012 autumn. Therefore, the number of germinated seedlings of winter wheat was also evaluated. The data of this study carried out in three replications were statistically analyzed using the ANOVA and the regression technique.The results indicated that the tillage treatments affected soil properties and wheat germination. The highest values in all examined parameters except for total porosity were obtained under the no-till practice for top soil layer of 30. cm. As was expected, the no-till treatment had the highest bulk density and provided the lowest total porosity. Generally, the plots tilled by conventional practice had the lowest values. Similar results were obtained for the top soil layer of 0-10. cm, which is seedbed. The penetration resistance measured to a depth of 30. cm in 5. cm increments increased as polynomial with increasing the soil depth in all treatments. The infiltration rate decreases as a function of elapsed time could be described by the Kostiakov equation. Also, significant linear relationships were obtained for penetration resistance-bulk density, field capacity-bulk density and field capacity-penetration resistance.Although no-till treatment improved the hydraulic properties of soil, it had no positive effect on the soil physical properties. However, the linear relations with high correlation coefficients between penetration resistance and bulk density with field capacity at the no-till showed that soil physical and hydraulic properties revealed that they are connected to each other. According to the results of our study it could be concluded that the no-till practice increased winter wheat germination due to higher water content. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

PubMed | East Anatolia Agricultural Research Institute and Atatürk University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Environmental science and pollution research international | Year: 2016

The objective of this 2-year field study was to evaluate the effects of drip irrigation with urban wastewaters reclaimed using primary (filtration) and secondary (filtration and aeration) processes on red cabbage growth and fresh yield, heavy metal content, water use and efficiency and soil chemical properties. Filtered wastewater (WW1), filtered and aerated wastewater (WW2), freshwater and filtered wastewater mix (1:1 by volume) (WW3) and freshwater (FW) were investigated as irrigation water treatments. Crop evapotranspiration decreased significantly, while water use efficiency increased under wastewater treatments compared to FW. WW1 treatment had the lowest value (474.2 mm), while FW treatments had the highest value (556.7 mm). The highest water use efficiency was found in the WW1 treatment as 8.41 kg m(-3), and there was a twofold increase with regard to the FW. Wastewater irrigation increased soil fertility and therefore red cabbage yield. WW2 treatment produced the highest total fresh yield (40.02 Mg ha(-1)). However, wastewater irrigation increased the heavy metal content in crops and soil. Cd content in red cabbage heads was above the safe limit, and WW1 treatment had the highest value (0.168 mg kg(-1)). WW3 treatment among wastewater treatments is less risky in terms of soil and crop heavy metal pollution and faecal coliform contamination. Therefore, WW3 wastewater irrigation for red cabbage could be recommended for higher yield and water efficiency with regard to freshwater irrigation.

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