Bari, Somalia
Bari, Somalia

The University of East Africa was established on June 29, 1963 and served Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda in the eastern African Great Lakes region. The University was originally instituted as an independent external college of the University of London. In 1970, it was split into three independent universities which are now:23x15px Kenya:University of Nairobi23x15px Uganda:Makerere University23x15px Tanzania:University of Dar es Salaam↑ Wikipedia.

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Niragire F.,College of Business and Economics, University of Rwanda | Achia T.N.O.,University of Witwatersrand | Lyambabaje A.,College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Rwanda | Lyambabaje A.,East Africa University | Ntaganira J.,College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Rwanda
Geospatial Health | Year: 2017

Child survival programmes are efficient when they target the most significant and area-specific factors. This study aimed to assess the key determinants and spatial variation of child mortality at the district level in Rwanda. Data from the 2010 Rwanda Demographic and Health Survey were analysed for 8817 live births that occurred during five years preceding the survey. Out of the children born, 433 had died before survey interviews were carried out. A full Bayesian geo-additive continuous-time hazard model enabled us to maximise data utilisation and hence improve the accuracy of our estimates. The results showed substantial district- level spatial variation in childhood mortality in Rwanda. District-specific spatial characteristics were particularly associated with higher death hazards in two districts: Musanze and Nyabihu. The model estimates showed that there were lower death rates among children from households of medium and high economic status compared to those from low-economic status households. Factors, such as four antenatal care visits, delivery at a health facility, prolonged breastfeeding and mothers younger than 31 years were associated with lower child death rates. Long preceding birth intervals were also associated with fewer hazards. For these reasons, programmes aimed at reducing child mortality gaps between districts in Rwanda should target maternal factors and take into consideration district-specific spatial characteristics. Further, child survival gains require strengthening or scaling-up of existing programmes pertaining to access to, and utilisation of maternal and child health care services as well as reduction of the household gap in the economic status. © F. Niragire et al., 2017 Licensee PAGEPress, Italy.

Hawkes M.,University of Toronto | Sivasivugha E.S.,University of Nairobi | Ngigi S.K.,East Africa University | Masumbuko C.K.,Catholic University of Graben | And 2 more authors.
Current HIV Research | Year: 2013

Objective: To explore the relationship between religious affiliation and HIV infection in a war-ravaged community in sub-Saharan Africa. Design: Mixed quantitative and qualitative methods. Methods: Individuals attending HIV voluntary counseling and testing clinics in Butembo in Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) completed a questionnaire and were tested for HIV infection. Risk factors for HIV seropositivity were explored, with attention to religious affiliation as a potential risk factor. Structured interviews of key informants were used to complement quantitative data. Results: Three hundred and eighty individuals attending six clinics were enrolled. Nearly all participants (97%) selfidentified as Christian (44% Catholic; 53% non-Catholic Christian). Twenty-eight patients (7.4%) tested positive for HIV. Age>30 years (adjusted OR 47 [95%CI 2.9-770, p=0.007]), married status (adjusted OR 3.7 [95%CI 1.1-13, p=0.037]), and Catholic religion (adjusted OR 2.7 [95%CI 1.1-6.8, p=0.030]) were independent risk factors for HIV seropositivity in a multivariable logistic regression model. Rates of HIV were higher among Catholic than non-Catholic Christian participants in both single and married participants. The proportion of participants reporting condom use as a primary prevention modality did not differ significantly between religious groups; however, within both Catholic and non-Catholic Christian groups, increasing church attendance was associated with decreased use of condoms. Qualitative data highlighted divergent views toward condom use among Catholic health workers. Conclusions: In this cross-sectional survey in Eastern DRC, Catholic (relative to non-Catholic Christian) religious affiliation was associated with an increased risk of HIV. Increasing dialogue between biomedical practitioners and religious leaders may strengthen HIV prevention efforts in SSA. © 2013 Bentham Science Publishers.

Negin J.,University of Sydney | Negin J.,Columbia University | Wariero J.,East Africa University | Cumming R.G.,University of Sydney | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes | Year: 2010

Background: Health challenges faced by older people in developing countries are often neglected amidst a wide range of competing priorities. This is evident in the HIV field where the upper age limit for reporting HIV prevalence remains 49 years. However, the long latency period for HIV infection, and the fact that older people continue to be sexually active, suggests that HIV and AIDS are likely to affect older people. To better understand this, we studied mortality due to AIDS in people aged 50 and older in an area of rural Kenya with high rates of HIV infection. Methods: A community health worker-administered verbal autopsy system was introduced in Nyanza Province, encompassing 63,500 people. Algorithms were used to determine cause of death. Results: A total of 1228 deaths were recorded during the study period; 368 deaths occurred in people aged 50 years and older. AIDS was the single most common cause of death, causing 27% of all deaths. AIDS continued to be the main cause of death up to age 70 years, causing 34% of deaths in people aged 50-59 years and 23% of deaths in people aged 60-69 years. Conclusions: AIDS remains the principle cause of death among older people in Nyanza Province in western Kenya up until the age of 70 years. Greater efforts are needed to integrate older people into the HIV response and to better understand the specific vulnerabilities and challenges faced by this group. © 2010 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Okori W.,Makerere University | Obua J.,East Africa University
Applied Artificial Intelligence | Year: 2013

The contribution of prior knowledge in prediction of change in food crop prices using ordinary linear regression (OLR) and Gaussian process (GP) based on a probabilistic approach in famine predictions was established in this study. Prior information was obtained from previous results and incorporated into a new dataset. For GP, both approaches incorporating weight-space view and function-space view were applied and results compared. The function-space view produced a more suitable model than the weight-space view and OLR. Probabilistic inference showed better famine prediction accuracy than the conventional inference approach. Addition of prior information into the prediction framework improved prediction. It is recommended that in addition to the developed model, further modeling should be carried out to include the effects of variables such as bumper harvest, availability of inexpensive alternative foodstuffs for consumption, imported foodstuffs to remedy famine, effect of neighborhood price, and cross-border trade. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Obua J.,East Africa University | Agea J.G.,Makerere University | Ogwal J.J.,Ministry of Water and Environment
African Journal of Ecology | Year: 2010

Trees, forests and woodlands cover about 14% of Uganda's land surface. Over the last 30-40-years, growth in human population and corresponding increase in demand for forest products for domestic and industrial use, expansion of agricultural land, illegal settlements and weak forest management capacity have adversely affected the status of natural forests in Uganda, particularly the biodiversity. Until recently, little attention had been paid to development of commercial forests which should have provided alternative forest products and services to relieve the pressure on natural forests and conserve biodiversity. As a result, Uganda's forests have been degraded, and in some cases, the biodiversity has been eroded. There is a need for regular data collection and monitoring of the status of the forests in terms of areal extent, distribution, plantation species introductions and biodiversity. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Cunningham P.,East Africa University
International Symposium on Technology and Society, Proceedings | Year: 2016

Innovation and ICT entrepreneurship are slowly being recognised as important enablers of socio-economic growth and realising national strategic goals in African Member States. However, the level of practical skills capacity, indigenous entrepreneurial expertise and policy support to take full advantage of this at national level varies considerably. This research study focused on identifying factors impacting on the current level of open innovation and ICT entrepreneurship in Africa. It was informed by a semi-structured, moderated focus group which captured the perspectives of senior public and education and research stakeholders from eight African Member States. The results highlighted six main factors: a) level of political will reflected by resource prioritisation; b) alignment with national development plans and associated funding priorities; c) level of understanding of strategic benefits by ministers and senior civil servants; d) level of awareness and sensitization of the general public, e) availability of national innovation and entrepreneurial expertise; and f) willingness and capacity to cooperate with other stakeholders to achieve common goals. Future research will capture perspectives from the private, societal and international donor sectors, and create and validate potential models/methodologies to address the challenges and opportunities identified in this study. © 2015 IEEE.

Cunningham M.,East Africa University
International Symposium on Technology and Society, Proceedings | Year: 2016

While infrastructure has improved and students state a preference for blended learning, there were few eLearning courses provided by Kenyan Higher Education Institutions in the 2012/2013 academic year. It is unclear what factors impact on the adoption of Technology-enhanced Learning (TEL) techniques in Nairobi Universities. Using semi-structured interviews and purposive and snowball sampling with ten institutions in Nairobi (4 public and 5 private Universities and the NREN) from 18 December 2014 to 12 January 2015, we explored the level of TEL usage, perceived benefits and challenges of using TEL from both an institutional and instructor perspective and the primary reasons why TEL is not being leveraged. Informants agreed that wider adoption of TEL is the way forward but this requires addressing current challenges and factors currently limiting uptake. These include: infrastructure challenges, need for training to up-skill faculty members; institutional policies; insufficient leadership and need to develop a strategic plan for eContent development. The findings highlight a number of practical issues that can be undertaken to mitigate the factors identified. © 2015 IEEE.

Beh A.,Wildlife Conservation Society | Bruyere B.L.,Colorado State University | Lolosoli S.,East Africa University
Society and Natural Resources | Year: 2013

In the remote region of Samburu East District in north-central Kenya, applied community-based participatory action research (CBPAR) may provide a way forward for realizing conservation goals. Past evaluations of community-based approaches have yielded mixed results, and no standardized method has emerged for how to best conduct such research with marginalized populations living in and around conservation areas. In this article, photovoice is evaluated as a strategy for realizing community-based research goals by addressing three core criteria: community-centered control, reciprocal knowledge production, and outcome-oriented results. Results indicated that the Samburu photovoice project legitimized local perspectives on conservation by involving park rangers and scouts, local teachers, researchers, and youth in a creative strategy to identify viable resource management options in their community. The photovoice method was determined as meeting the three criteria of successful CBPAR strategies. Implications for use as a methodology in Kenya and in other conservation contexts are discussed. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: SSH-2007-8.0-02;SSH-2007-2.1-01 | Award Amount: 857.67K | Year: 2008

This project seeks to improve research capacity and develop collaboration amongst researchers in Europe and East Africa, and by doing so to contribute to the larger objective of regional integration. The project will enhance integration in the research community in both Europe and East Africa through bringing researchers together in a series of training activities. These activities will focus on two kinds of transborder environment: mountains and Lake Tanganyika. Through this focus on resources which span the borders of the multiple political units of East Africa, the project will contribute directly to public understanding of some of the challenges to regional integration in East African context. The project is organized around four themes, all of which relate to human use and management of these cross border resources: resource management and livelihood sustainability, environmental and climate change, migration and identity and the role of small and medium cities. At the core of the project, five institutions four European, and one East African will be brought together; the project will also draw on the skills and knowledge of four university research institutions in Europe, whose staff will take the role of leaders for each of the four themes. All the individuals and institutions involved have substantial experience of work in Africa, and have commitment both to the enhancement of an integrated European research capacity and to the building of research capacity and regional integration in East Africa.

postoperative sore throat is the commonest complication after endotracheal intubation. The efficacy of intravenous non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in alleviating postoperative sore throat has not been investigated.To evaluate the effect of intravenous diclofenac sodium on the occurrence and severity of postoperative sore throat.42 in-patients scheduled for laparoscopic surgery were randomized into two equal groups to receive either a single dose of 75mg intravenous diclofenac sodium in addition to standard treatment taken at our hospital for the prevention of postoperative sore throat or to receive standard treatment only. All patients were interviewed postoperatively at 2, 6 and 18 hours. Data of the baseline characteristics, the incidence and severity of sore throat were collected. If sore throat was present, a Visual Analogue Score was used to assess its severity.the baseline characteristics of the participants were similar. The majority of the patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery were women. There was no statistically significant difference in the occurrence or severity of postoperative sore throat between the diclofenac and standard treatment groups at 2, 6 and 18 hours postoperatively.Intravenous diclofenac sodium does not reduce the occurrence or severity of postoperative sore throat.

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