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Guacimo, Costa Rica

EARTH University , located in Guácimo, Limón and EARTH University – La Flor, in Guanacaste – both locations in Costa Rica – is a private non-profit university which offers an undergraduate program leading to a licenciatura degree in agricultural science. Wikipedia.

The banana is the most consumed fruit at the world only surpassed by processed citrus. The most important banana types are the Cavendish group with 47 %, Prata types and others,with 24 % and types for cooking,with 17 %.The group Gros Michael is 12 %. India is the biggest producer, with 19 % of the total, followed by Brazil with 15 %, Equador with 12 % and others with less than 10 %. In 2009 the banana importations were about 14,5 million tons, mainly by Europe Union, USA-Canada, Japan and others with less than one million tons each one. In 1,999 the banana importations were about 12 million tons. Equador is the most important exporting country with 4,7 million tons, followed by Phillipines, Costa Rica, Colômbia, Guatemala, Honduras and Panama. Prices variation were observed during the last years for banana market around the world, but the market is mantained stable and the organic banana with higher prices. Source

Sanguankeo P.P.,California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo | Leon R.G.,EARTH University
Weed Research | Year: 2011

In the Central Coast of California, USA, wine grape growers are making efforts to identify weed control practices that preserve biodiversity in their vineyards while maintaining yields. A field study was conducted in Paso Robles, California in 2006 and 2007 evaluating the effect on plant and ground dwelling arthropod communities of five weed control practices conducted under the vines within the row (berm): (i) flumioxazin, (ii) simazine, (iii) cultivation, (iv) cover crop and (v) untreated control. The cover crop, cultivation and untreated control had 4-50 times higher plant density and more than 15 times higher plant diversity compared with the herbicide treatments. The arthropod activity-density differed among treatments only in 2007, being higher in the cover crop and untreated control. There was a positive relationship between plant and arthropod diversity (r 2=0.42, P=0.02 in 2006; r 2=0.64, P<0.001 in 2007). Laboratory seed predation tests of the two most frequently captured carabid beetles, Calathus ruficollis and Tanystoma maculicolle, indicated they predated more of the common weed species Brassica nigra and Capsella bursa-pastoris, than other weed species tested. Under field conditions, treatments with higher plant diversity and density favoured arthropod seed predation of these weeds. Predation rates were 20-40% in the cover crop and untreated control, double that observed in the herbicide treatments. The cultivation treatment balanced the benefits of promoting diversity while minimising yield reductions caused by weed competition. The results indicate that weed management practices that promote higher plant diversity and density have the potential to yield ecological benefits within vineyards, for example, enhancing the activity of beneficial organisms. © 2011 The Authors. Weed Research © 2011 European Weed Research Society. Source

Arevalo-Garcia E.B.,Educational Research Institute | Arevalo-Garcia E.B.,EARTH University
Heterocyclic Communications | Year: 2014

A novel and efficient synthesis of (+)-preussin (7) starting from N-butoxycarbonyl-L-phenylalaninal (1) is described. This natural product was synthesized under mild conditions and with good overall yield.© 2014 by Walter de Gruyter Berlin Boston. Source

Leon R.G.,University of West Florida | Kellon D.,EARTH University
HortTechnology | Year: 2012

'MD-2' is the predominant pineapple (Ananas comosus) cultivar for fresh fruit export worldwide. Costa Rica is one of the most important producers and exporters of 'MD-2', and many growers in this country have switched to this crop. However, growers have expressed concerns about the limited technical information available about how to grow this cultivar. We conducted a survey to gather information about the production practices implemented by commercial pineapple growers in Costa Rica and use this information to describe the response of the crop to these practices. Planting density was the most limiting factor affecting yield. Average planting density was 62,594 plants/ha although planting densities above 70,000 plants/ha produced highest yields. Average yields were 7130 and 4723 boxes/ha for the mother plant and ratoon crops, respectively. Fruit weight ranged from 1.5 to 2.0 kg and was not evidently affected by planting density or fertilization. Fertilization levels were between 632 and 520 kg·ha -1L1 nitrogen (N), 129 and 93 kg·ha -1L1 phosphorous (P), and 400 and 340 kg·ha -1L1 potassium for the mother plant and ratoon crops, respectively. In focus groups, growers considered that N and P levels could be reduced by 20% and 66% respectively, without jeopardizing yield. Results indicated that management practices must be modified for the ratoon crop to avoid yield reductions. The present study illustrated how a collaborative effort in which growers share information about their production practices can generate valuable data needed to identify adequate practices when funding and technical support are not available to experimentally generate these type of data. Source

The following new species of geotrupids and scarabs from Costa Rica and Panama are described: Athyreus gulesseriani new species, Ateuchus alutacius new species (the first recorded brachypterous Ateuchus species), Coprophanaeus geph-yra new species, Deltochilum acanthus new species, and Onthophagus turgidus new species. The following two species of Coprophanaeus are revalidated: C. kohlmanni Arnaud and C. uhleri Malý & Pokorný. Illustrations of the dorsal habitus of the new species are provided, as well as distribution maps for all species. Copyright © 2012 · Magnolia Press. Source

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