Guacimo, Costa Rica
Guacimo, Costa Rica

EARTH University , located in Guácimo, Limón and EARTH University – La Flor, in Guanacaste – both locations in Costa Rica – is a private non-profit university which offers an undergraduate program leading to a licenciatura degree in agricultural science. Wikipedia.

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The following new species of geotrupids and scarabs from Costa Rica and Panama are described: Athyreus gulesseriani new species, Ateuchus alutacius new species (the first recorded brachypterous Ateuchus species), Coprophanaeus geph-yra new species, Deltochilum acanthus new species, and Onthophagus turgidus new species. The following two species of Coprophanaeus are revalidated: C. kohlmanni Arnaud and C. uhleri Malý & Pokorný. Illustrations of the dorsal habitus of the new species are provided, as well as distribution maps for all species. Copyright © 2012 · Magnolia Press.

Lansing S.,University of Maryland University College | Martin J.F.,Ohio State University | Botero R.B.,EARTH University | da Silva T.N.,EARTH University | da Silva E.D.,EARTH University
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2010

A co-digestion investigation was conducted using small-scale digesters in Costa Rica to optimize their ability to treat animal wastewater and produce renewable energy. Increases in methane production were quantified when swine manure was co-digested with used cooking grease in plug-flow digesters that operated at ambient temperate without mixing. The co-digestion experiments were conducted on 12 field-scale digesters (250 L each) using three replications of four treatment groups: the control (T0), which contained only swine manure and no waste oil, and T2.5, T5, and T10, which contained 2.5%, 5%, and 10% used cooking grease (by volume) combined with swine manure. The T2.5 treatment had the greatest methane (CH4) production (45 L/day), a 124% increase from the control, with a total biogas production of 67.3 L/day and 66.9% CH4 in the produced biogas. Increasing the grease concentration beyond T2.5 produced biogas with a lower percentage of CH4, and thus, did not result in any additional benefits. A batch study showed that methane production could be sustained for three months in digesters that co-digested swine manure and used cooking grease without daily inputs. The investigation proved that adding small amounts of grease to the influent is a simple way to double energy production without affecting other digester benefits. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Solis A.,INBio | Kohlmann B.,EARTH University
Zootaxa | Year: 2012

The 182 species of Scarabaeinae known to occur in Costa Rica are listed with synonymies included. We place Uroxys macrocularis Howden and Young as a synonym of U. Boneti Pereira and Halffter (new synonym); we also place Uroxys depressifrons Howden and Young as a synonym of U. pauliani Balthasar (new synonym). We conducted a mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase I barcoding analysis in order to clarify some taxonomic uncertainties with Phanaeus pyrois Bates and Sulcophanaeus noctis (Bates). We elevate Phanaeus pyrois malyi Arnaud to Phanaeus malyi and revalidate Phanaeus excelsus Bates as valid species. We consider the species Dichotomius nevermanni Luederwaldt as incertae sedis. A Costa Rican distribution map is provided for all species except Dichotomius costaricensis, which is only known from a country record. We report, map, and estimate the spread of the invasive species Euoniticellus intermedius (Reiche) for Central America, from Chiapas to Costa Rica. Copyright © 2012 Magnolia Press .

Nygren P.,University of Helsinki | Leblanc H.A.,EARTH University
Tree Physiology | Year: 2015

Natural abundance of 15N (δ 15N) was determined in bulk soil, rhizospheric soil and vegetation in an organically managed cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) plantation with Inga edulis Mart. legume trees (inga) as the principal shade for studying the nitrogen (N) cycle in the system. Cacao without contact with legumes in an adjacent plantation was used as the reference for N2 fixation and direct N transfer calculations. Bulk and rhizospheric soils contained 72 and 20%, respectively, of whole-system N. No vegetation effect on δ 15N in rhizospheric soil was detected, probably due to the high native soil N pool. Fine roots of the cacaos associated with inga contained ∼35% of N fixed from the atmosphere (Nf) out of the total N. Leaves of all species had significantly higher δ 15N than fine roots. Twenty percent of system Nf was found in cacao suggesting direct N transfer from inga via a common mycelial network of mycorrhizal fungi or recycling of N-rich root exudates of inga. Inga had accumulated 98 kg [Nf] ha-1 during the 14-year history of the plantation. The conservative estimate of current N2 fixation rate was 41 kg [Nf] ha-1 year-1 based on inga biomass only and 50 kg [Nf] ha-1 year-1 based on inga and associated trees. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

DeClerck F.A.J.,Tropical Agriculture Research and Higher Education Center | Jessica F.,Bioversity | Cheryl P.,Catholic University of Leuven | Roseline R.,EARTH University
Food and Nutrition Bulletin | Year: 2011

Background. Malnutrition affects a large number of people throughout the developing world. Approaches to reducing malnutrition rarely focus on ecology and agriculture to simultaneously improve human nutrition and environmental sustainability. However, evidence suggests that interdisciplinary approaches that combine the knowledge bases of these disciplines can serve asa central strategy in alleviating hidden hunger for the world's poorest. Objective. To describe the role that ecological knowledge plays in alleviating hidden hunger, considering human nutrition as an overlooked ecosystem service. Methods. We review existing literature and propose a framework that expands on earlier work on econutrition. We provide novel evidence from casestudies conducted by the authors in western Kenya and propose a framework for interdisciplinary collaboration to alleviate hidden hunger, increase agricultural productivity, and improve environmental sustainability. Results. Our review supports the concept that an integrated approach will impact human nutrition. We provide evidence that increased functional agrobiodiversity can alleviate anemia, and interventions that contribute to environmental sustainability can have both direct and indirect effects on human health and nutritional well-being. Conclusions. Integrated and interdisciplinary approaches are critical to reaching development goals. Ecologists must begin to consider not only how their field can contribute to biodiversity conservation, but also, the relationship between biodiversity and provisioning of nontraditional ecosystem services such as human health. Likewise, nutritionists and agronomists must recognize that many of the solutions to increasing human wellbeing and health can best be achieved by focusing on a healthy environment and the conservation of ecosystem services. © 2011, The United Nations University.

The banana is the most consumed fruit at the world only surpassed by processed citrus. The most important banana types are the Cavendish group with 47 %, Prata types and others,with 24 % and types for cooking,with 17 %.The group Gros Michael is 12 %. India is the biggest producer, with 19 % of the total, followed by Brazil with 15 %, Equador with 12 % and others with less than 10 %. In 2009 the banana importations were about 14,5 million tons, mainly by Europe Union, USA-Canada, Japan and others with less than one million tons each one. In 1,999 the banana importations were about 12 million tons. Equador is the most important exporting country with 4,7 million tons, followed by Phillipines, Costa Rica, Colômbia, Guatemala, Honduras and Panama. Prices variation were observed during the last years for banana market around the world, but the market is mantained stable and the organic banana with higher prices.

Sanguankeo P.P.,California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo | Leon R.G.,EARTH University
Weed Research | Year: 2011

In the Central Coast of California, USA, wine grape growers are making efforts to identify weed control practices that preserve biodiversity in their vineyards while maintaining yields. A field study was conducted in Paso Robles, California in 2006 and 2007 evaluating the effect on plant and ground dwelling arthropod communities of five weed control practices conducted under the vines within the row (berm): (i) flumioxazin, (ii) simazine, (iii) cultivation, (iv) cover crop and (v) untreated control. The cover crop, cultivation and untreated control had 4-50 times higher plant density and more than 15 times higher plant diversity compared with the herbicide treatments. The arthropod activity-density differed among treatments only in 2007, being higher in the cover crop and untreated control. There was a positive relationship between plant and arthropod diversity (r 2=0.42, P=0.02 in 2006; r 2=0.64, P<0.001 in 2007). Laboratory seed predation tests of the two most frequently captured carabid beetles, Calathus ruficollis and Tanystoma maculicolle, indicated they predated more of the common weed species Brassica nigra and Capsella bursa-pastoris, than other weed species tested. Under field conditions, treatments with higher plant diversity and density favoured arthropod seed predation of these weeds. Predation rates were 20-40% in the cover crop and untreated control, double that observed in the herbicide treatments. The cultivation treatment balanced the benefits of promoting diversity while minimising yield reductions caused by weed competition. The results indicate that weed management practices that promote higher plant diversity and density have the potential to yield ecological benefits within vineyards, for example, enhancing the activity of beneficial organisms. © 2011 The Authors. Weed Research © 2011 European Weed Research Society.

Arevalo-Garcia E.B.,Educational Research Institute | Arevalo-Garcia E.B.,EARTH University
Heterocyclic Communications | Year: 2014

A novel and efficient synthesis of (+)-preussin (7) starting from N-butoxycarbonyl-L-phenylalaninal (1) is described. This natural product was synthesized under mild conditions and with good overall yield.© 2014 by Walter de Gruyter Berlin Boston.

Leon R.G.,University of West Florida | Kellon D.,EARTH University
HortTechnology | Year: 2012

'MD-2' is the predominant pineapple (Ananas comosus) cultivar for fresh fruit export worldwide. Costa Rica is one of the most important producers and exporters of 'MD-2', and many growers in this country have switched to this crop. However, growers have expressed concerns about the limited technical information available about how to grow this cultivar. We conducted a survey to gather information about the production practices implemented by commercial pineapple growers in Costa Rica and use this information to describe the response of the crop to these practices. Planting density was the most limiting factor affecting yield. Average planting density was 62,594 plants/ha although planting densities above 70,000 plants/ha produced highest yields. Average yields were 7130 and 4723 boxes/ha for the mother plant and ratoon crops, respectively. Fruit weight ranged from 1.5 to 2.0 kg and was not evidently affected by planting density or fertilization. Fertilization levels were between 632 and 520 kg·ha -1L1 nitrogen (N), 129 and 93 kg·ha -1L1 phosphorous (P), and 400 and 340 kg·ha -1L1 potassium for the mother plant and ratoon crops, respectively. In focus groups, growers considered that N and P levels could be reduced by 20% and 66% respectively, without jeopardizing yield. Results indicated that management practices must be modified for the ratoon crop to avoid yield reductions. The present study illustrated how a collaborative effort in which growers share information about their production practices can generate valuable data needed to identify adequate practices when funding and technical support are not available to experimentally generate these type of data.

Teamey K.,EARTH University | Mandel U.,EARTH University
Journal of Environmental Education | Year: 2016

In response to Stefan Bengtsson's search for alternatives to Education for Sustainable Development practices outside the mainstream of the state and its policy formulations, this response outlines how our journey, experiences, and approaches reflect a de-professionalizing encounter with autonomous places of learning emerging from indigenous knowledge, social, and ecological movements in different parts of the world. The article proposes an enlivened form of inquiry-in-solidarity as an ethical and intellectual framework for such encounters. Such an alternative approach to research opens up for official policy makers in ESD and academically institutionalized researchers contributing to the "politics of policy" the possibility of an ongoing ecological conversation between different knowledge traditions and practices and ways that they may engage, critique, celebrate, and deepen the questions we each ask in times that increasingly require innovative, hopeful, and urgent answers. © 2016 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

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