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Hough S.E.,U.S. Geological Survey | Martin S.S.,Earth Observatory of Singapore
Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America | Year: 2015

The 21 October 1868 Hayward, California, earthquake is among the best-characterized historical earthquakes in California. In contrast to many other moderate-to-large historical events, the causative fault is clearly established. Published magnitude estimates have been fairly consistent, ranging from 6.8 to 7.2, with 95% confidence limits including values as low as 6.5. The magnitude is of particular importance for assessment of seismic hazard associated with the Hayward fault and, more generally, to develop appropriate magnitude–rupture length scaling relations for partially creeping faults. The recent reevaluation of archival accounts by Boatwright and Bundock (2008), together with the growing volume of well-calibrated intensity data from the U.S. Geological Survey “Did You Feel It?” (DYFI) system, provide an opportunity to revisit and refine the magnitude estimate. In this study, we estimate the magnitude using two different methods that use DYFI data as calibration. Both approaches yield preferred magnitude estimates of 6.3–6.6, assuming an average stress drop. A consideration of data limitations associated with settlement patterns increases the range to 6.3–6.7, with a preferred estimate of 6.5. Although magnitude estimates for historical earthquakes are inevitably uncertain, we conclude that, at a minimum, a lower-magnitude estimate represents a credible alternative interpretation of available data. We further discuss implications of our results for probabilistic seismic-hazard assessment from partially creeping faults. © 2015, Seismological Society of America. All rights reserved.

Krischer L.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Megies T.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Barsch R.,EGU Executive Office Munich | Beyreuther M.,Muller BBM Active Sound Technology GmbH | And 3 more authors.
Computational Science and Discovery | Year: 2015

The Python libraries NumPy and SciPy are extremely powerful tools for numerical processing and analysis well suited to a large variety of applications. We developed ObsPy (http://obspy.org), a Python library for seismology intended to facilitate the development of seismological software packages and workflows, to utilize these abilities and provide a bridge for seismology into the larger scientific Python ecosystem. Scientists in many domains who wish to convert their existing tools and applications to take advantage of a platform like the one Python provides are confronted with several hurdles such as special file formats, unknown terminology, and no suitable replacement for a non-trivial piece of software. We present an approach to implement a domain-specific time series library on top of the scientific NumPy stack. In so doing, we show a realization of an abstract internal representation of time series data permitting I/O support for a diverse collection of file formats. Then we detail the integration and repurposing of well established legacy codes, enabling them to be used in modern workflows composed in Python. Finally we present a case study on how to integrate research code into ObsPy, opening it to the broader community. While the implementations presented in this work are specific to seismology, many of the described concepts and abstractions are directly applicable to other sciences, especially to those with an emphasis on time series analysis. © 2015 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Obrebski M.,Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory | Foster A.,Earth Observatory of Singapore
Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems | Year: 2015

The deep magmatic processes in volcanic arcs are often poorly understood. We analyze the shear wave velocity (VS) distribution in the crust and uppermost mantle below Mount Rainier, in the Cascades arc, resolving the main velocity contrasts based on converted phases within P coda via source normalization or receiver function (RF) analysis. To alleviate the trade-off between depth and velocity, we use long period phase velocities (25-100 s) obtained from earthquake surface waves, and at shorter period (7-21 s) we use seismic noise cross correlograms. We use a transdimensional Bayesian scheme to explore the model space (VS in each layer, number of interfaces and their respective depths, level of noise on data). We apply this tool to 15 broadband stations from permanent and Earthscope temporary stations. Most results fall into two groups with distinctive properties. Stations east of the arc (Group I) have comparatively slower middle-to-lower crust (VS=3.4-3.8 km/s at 25 km depth), a sharp Moho and faster uppermost mantle (VS=4.2-4.4 km/s). Stations in the arc (Group II) have a faster lower crust (VS=3.7-4 km/s) overlying a slower uppermost mantle (VS=4.0-4.3 km/s), yielding a weak Moho. Lower crustal velocities east of the arc (Group I) most likely represent ancient subduction mélanges mapped nearby. The lower crust for Group II ranges from intermediate to felsic. We propose that intermediate-felsic to felsic rocks represent the prearc basement, while intermediate composition indicates the mushy andesitic crustal magmatic system plus solidified intrusion along the volcanic conduits. We interpret the slow upper mantle as partial melt. © 2014. American Geophysical Union.

The new benthic foraminifer Nodocantabricus duplexmurus n. gen., n. sp. is introduced from the lower-lower middle Cenomanian of the Bielba and Altamira formations (North Cantabrian Basin, Spain). This distinctive and atypical Polymorphinidae combines primitive and advanced test characteristics. On the one hand, it fully develops uniserially arranged chambers from an initial spiral coiling, a tendency usually observed in advanced polymorphinids. On the other hand, it possesses a composite, double-layered calcitic wall, made of inner dark microgranular and outer fibro-hyaline layers, a structure seldom documented in post-Paleozoic foraminifers. In the Cretaceous, various polymorphinid groups record significant diversification periods, which taxonomic, phylogenetic and stratigraphic significances have not been evaluated yet. We here discuss the long term evolution of the family Polymorphinidae and its phylogenetic relationship(s) with the family Nodosariidae. A tendency to reversal in the chamber arrangement, from spiral to uniserial, is initiated in the Cenomanian. This evolutive inclination may later have originated a false "nodosariid" lineage, casting doubt upon the assumed monophyly of the family Nodosariidae. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

Chardot L.,Montserrat Volcano Observatory | Voight B.,Pennsylvania State University | Foroozan R.,Pennsylvania State University | Sacks S.,Carnegie Institute of Washington | And 12 more authors.
Geophysical Research Letters | Year: 2010

Vulcanian explosions with plumes to 12 km occurred at Soufrire Hills volcano (SHV) between July 2008 and January 2009. We report strainmeter and barometric data, featuring quasi-linear strain changes that correlate with explosive evacuation of the conduit at rates of ∼0.9-2 × 10 7 kg s-1. July and January explosion-generated strains were similar, ∼20 nanostrain at ∼5 km, and interpreted as contractions of a quasi-cylindrical conduit, with release of magmastatic pressure, and exsolution-generated overpressure of order 10 MPa. The 3 December 2008 event was distinctive with larger signals (∼140-200 nanostrain at 5-6 km) indicating that a rapid pressurization preceded and triggered the explosion. Modeling suggests a dike with ENE trend, implying that feeder dikes at SHV had diverse attitudes at different times during the eruption. All explosions were associated with acoustic pulses and remarkable atmospheric gravity waves. © 2010 by the American Geophysical Union.

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