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Notti D.,University of Pavia | Notti D.,Geological Survey of Spain | Calo F.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience | Cigna F.,Natural Environment Research Council | And 8 more authors.
Pure and Applied Geophysics | Year: 2015

Recent advances in multi-temporal Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Interferometry (DInSAR) have greatly improved our capability to monitor geological processes. Ground motion studies using DInSAR require both the availability of good quality input data and rigorous approaches to exploit the retrieved Time Series (TS) at their full potential. In this work we present a methodology for DInSAR TS analysis, with particular focus on landslides and subsidence phenomena. The proposed methodology consists of three main steps: (1) pre-processing, i.e., assessment of a SAR Dataset Quality Index (SDQI) (2) post-processing, i.e., application of empirical/stochastic methods to improve the TS quality, and (3) trend analysis, i.e., comparative implementation of methodologies for automatic TS analysis. Tests were carried out on TS datasets retrieved from processing of SAR imagery acquired by different radar sensors (i.e., ERS-1/2 SAR, RADARSAT-1, ENVISAT ASAR, ALOS PALSAR, TerraSAR-X, COSMO-SkyMed) using advanced DInSAR techniques (i.e., SqueeSAR™, PSInSAR™, SPN and SBAS). The obtained values of SDQI are discussed against the technical parameters of each data stack (e.g., radar band, number of SAR scenes, temporal coverage, revisiting time), the retrieved coverage of the DInSAR results, and the constraints related to the characterization of the investigated geological processes. Empirical and stochastic approaches were used to demonstrate how the quality of the TS can be improved after the SAR processing, and examples are discussed to mitigate phase unwrapping errors, and remove regional trends, noise and anomalies. Performance assessment of recently developed methods of trend analysis (i.e., PS-Time, Deviation Index and velocity TS) was conducted on two selected study areas in Northern Italy affected by land subsidence and landslides. Results show that the automatic detection of motion trends enhances the interpretation of DInSAR data, since it provides an objective picture of the deformation behaviour recorded through TS and therefore contributes to the understanding of the on-going geological processes. © 2015, Springer Basel.

Boni R.,University of Pavia | Herrera G.,Instituto Geologico Y Minero Of Espana Igme | Herrera G.,University of Alicante | Herrera G.,Earth Observation and Geohazards Expert Group EOEG | And 19 more authors.
Engineering Geology | Year: 2015

A twenty-year period of severe land subsidence evolution in the Alto Guadalentín Basin (southeast Spain) is monitored using multi-sensor SAR images, processed by advanced differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar (DInSAR) techniques. The SAR images used in this study consist of four datasets acquired by ERS-1/2, ENVISAT, ALOS and COSMO-SkyMed satellites between 1992 and 2012. The integration of ground surface displacement maps retrieved for different time periods allows us to quantify up to 2.50 m of cumulated displacements that occurred between 1992 and 2012 in the Alto Guadalentín Basin. DInSAR results were locally compared with global positioning system (GPS) data available for two continuous stations located in the study area, demonstrating the high consistency of local vertical motion measurements between the two different surveying techniques. An average absolute error of 4.6 ± 4 mm for the ALOS data and of 4.8 ± 3.5 mm for the COSMO-SkyMed data confirmed the reliability of the analysis. The spatial analysis of DInSAR ground surface displacement reveals a direct correlation with the thickness of the compressible alluvial deposits. Detected ground subsidence in the past 20 years is most likely a consequence of a 100-200 m groundwater level drop that has persisted since the 1970s due to the overexploitation of the Alto Guadalentín aquifer system. The negative gradient of the pore pressure is responsible for the extremely slow consolidation of a very thick (> 100 m) layer of fine-grained silt and clay layers with low vertical hydraulic permeability (approximately 50 mm/h) wherein the maximum settlement has still not been reached. © 2015 Published by Elsevier B.V.

Przylucka M.,Polish Geological Institute National Research Institute | Przylucka M.,Earth Observation and Geohazards Expert Group EOEG | Herrera G.,Earth Observation and Geohazards Expert Group EOEG | Herrera G.,Geological Survey of Spain | And 6 more authors.
Remote Sensing | Year: 2015

In this work, the analysis of TerraSAR-X satellite images combining both conventional and advanced Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR) approaches has proven to be effective to detect and monitor fast evolving mining subsidence on urban areas in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (Poland). This region accounts for almost three million inhabitants where mining subsidence has produced severe damage to urban structures and infrastructures in recent years. Conventional DInSAR approach was used to generate 28 differential interferograms between 5 July 2011 and 21 June 2012 identifying 31 subsidence troughs that account up to 245 mm of displacement in 54 days (equivalent to 1660 mm/year). SqueeSARTM processing yielded a very dense measurement point distribution, failing to detect faster displacements than 330 mm/year, which occur within the subsidence troughs detected with conventional DInSAR. Despite this limitation, this approach was useful to delimit stable areas where mining activities are not conducted and areas affected by residual subsidence surrounding the detected subsidence troughs. These residual subsidence mining areas are located approximately 1 km away from the 31 detected subsidence troughs and account for a subsidence rate greater than 17 mm/year on average. The validation of this methodology has been performed over Bytom City were underground mining activity produced severe damages in August 2011. Conventional DInSAR permitted to successfully map subsidence troughs between July and August 2011 that coincide spatially and temporally with the evolution of underground mining excavations, as well as with the demolition of 28 buildings of Karb district. Additionally, SqueeSARTM displacement estimates were useful to delimit an area of 8.3 km2 of Bytom city that is affected by a residual mining subsidence greater than 5 mm/year and could potentially suffer damages in the midterm. The comparison between geodetic data and SqueeSARTM for the common monitoring period yields and average absolute difference of 7 mm/year, which represents 14% of the average displacement rate measured by the geodetic benchmarks. These results demonstrate that the combined exploitation of high-resolution satellite SAR data through both conventional and advanced DInSAR techniques could be crucial to monitor fast evolving mining subsidence, which may severely impact highly populated mining areas such as the Upper Silesia Coal Basin (USCB). © 2015 by the authors.

Ezquerro P.,Technical University of Madrid | Ezquerro P.,Geological Survey of Spain | Herrera G.,Geological Survey of Spain | Herrera G.,University of Alicante | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Hydrology | Year: 2014

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the quasi-elastic deformational behavior that has been induced by groundwater withdrawal of the Tertiary detrital aquifer of Madrid (Spain). The spatial and temporal evolution of ground surface displacement was estimated by processing two datasets of radar satellite images (SAR) using Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI). The first SAR dataset was acquired between April 1992 and November 2000 by ERS-1 and ERS-2 satellites, and the second one by the ENVISAT satellite between August 2002 and September 2010. The spatial distribution of PSI measurements reveals that the magnitude of the displacement increases gradually towards the center of the well field area, where approximately 80. mm of maximum cumulated displacement is registered. The correlation analysis made between displacement and piezometric time series provides a correlation coefficient greater than 85% for all the wells. The elastic and inelastic components of measured displacements were separated, observing that the elastic component is, on average, more than 4 times the inelastic component for the studied period. Moreover, the hysteresis loops on the stress-strain plots indicate that the response is in the elastic range. These results demonstrate the quasi-elastic behavior of the aquifer. During the aquifer recovery phase ground surface uplift almost recovers from the subsidence experienced during the preceding extraction phase. Taking into account this unique aquifer system, a one dimensional elastic model was calibrated in the period 1997-2000. Subsequently, the model was used to predict the ground surface movements during the period 1992-2010. Modeled displacements were validated with PSI displacement measurements, exhibiting an error of 13% on average, related with the inelastic component of deformation occurring as a long-term trend in low permeability fine-grained units. This result further demonstrates the quasi-elastic deformational behavior of this unique aquifer system. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

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