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Bandfield J.L.,Space Science Institute | Hayne P.O.,Jet Propulsion Laboratory | Williams J.-P.,Earth | Greenhagen B.T.,Jet Propulsion Laboratory | Paige D.A.,Earth
Icarus | Year: 2015

Sunlit and shaded slopes have a variety of temperatures based on their orientation with respect to the Sun. Generally, greater slope angles lead to higher anisothermality within the field of view. This anisothermality is detected by measuring changing emitted radiance as a function of viewing angle or by measuring the difference in brightness temperatures with respect to observation wavelength. Thermal infrared measurements from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Diviner Radiometer were used to derive lunar surface roughness via two observation types: (1) nadir multispectral observations with full diurnal coverage and (2) multiple emission angle targeted observations. Measurements were compared to simulated radiance from a radiative equilibrium thermal model and Gaussian slope distribution model. Nadir observations most closely match a 20° RMS slope distribution, and multiple emission angle observations can be modeled using 20-35° RMS slope distributions. Limited sampling of the lunar surface did not show any clear variation in roughness among surface units. Two-dimensional modeling shows that surfaces separated by distances greater than 0.5-5. mm can remain thermally isolated in the lunar environment, indicating the length scale of the roughness features. Non-equilibrium conditions are prevalent at night and near sunrise and sunset, preventing the use of the equilibrium thermal model for roughness derivations using data acquired at these local times. Multiple emission angle observations also show a significant decrease in radiance at high emission angles in both daytime and nighttime observations, and hemispherical emissivity is lower than is apparent from nadir observations. These observations and models serve as a basis for comparison with similar measurements of other airless bodies and as an initial template for the interpretation of TIR measurements acquired under a variety of geometric conditions. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Bale S.D.,University of California at Berkeley | Goetz K.,University of Minnesota | Harvey P.R.,University of California at Berkeley | Turin P.,University of California at Berkeley | And 80 more authors.
Space Science Reviews | Year: 2016

NASA’s Solar Probe Plus (SPP) mission will make the first in situ measurements of the solar corona and the birthplace of the solar wind. The FIELDS instrument suite on SPP will make direct measurements of electric and magnetic fields, the properties of in situ plasma waves, electron density and temperature profiles, and interplanetary radio emissions, amongst other things. Here, we describe the scientific objectives targeted by the SPP/FIELDS instrument, the instrument design itself, and the instrument concept of operations and planned data products. © 2016 The Author(s)

News Article | November 2, 2016

— Earth and Sky, Inc launched a responsive new SEO-friendly website, complete with a brand new blog focusing on IT cost reduction and Microsoft Enterprise Agreement (EA) software licensing contracts. Since 2012, Earth & Sky has helped companies around the country negotiate more cost-effective Microsoft EA renewal terms and otherwise cut their software licensing costs, saving them millions of dollars in unnecessary Information Technology expenditures. The responsive new Earth & Sky website accommodates devices of all kinds gracefully, making for improved browsing experiences on everything from smartphones to desktop computers. Fully optimized for search engines, the new website will also make it easier for others to discover and learn about the company's services. With a unique focus that will help readers save money for their own organizations, the brand-new Earth & Sky blog already hosts a number of useful, exclusive posts. "We're happy to report that our new website is now online, along with our new blog, as well," said Earth & Sky co-owner and 18-year Microsoft veteran Jim Fine, "The new website is a real pleasure to read and navigate with any kind of device, and that is already proving useful to our clients and those learning about what we have to offer. The blog is a big hit, as well, with many readers reaching out to thank us for posting such helpful information. It's always a pleasure to help our clients save money on their licensing agreements, and the new blog and site are going to allow us to do even more of this rewarding work." Licensing of commercial software is more important to Microsoft than any of its other activities, with somewhere around half of its $90-plus billion in average annual revenue stemming from this source. Most of its commercial licensing takes the form of volume-based agreements that entitle enterprises to use particular versions of software at a certain number of seats or servers organization-wide. As with just about every agreement at such scales, the details are typically negotiable. With many companies facing annual costs of millions of dollars for software licensing alone, obtaining more attractive terms can make a big difference on the bottom line. Earth & Sky is one of the world's leading information technology cost reduction companies, helping its clients achieve their goals since 2012. By accurately assessing current software usage patterns and requirements against a company's most recent Enterprise Agreement with Microsoft, for example, Earth & Sky can often point out productive ways of saving money without interfering with its clients operations when it comes time for renewal. The responsive new Earth & Sky website will make it even simpler than before to learn about the company's valuable services. With the new Earth & Sky blog they’re also posting helpful, actionable posts for visitors to read and make use of. These tips make saving money on software licensing even easier. About Earth & Sky, Inc.: Helping customers cut software licensing costs and other IT expenditures, Earth & Sky provides informed analysis, expert advice, and valuable strategic direction. For more information, please visit

Laipert F.E.,AIAA - American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics | Longuski J.M.,AIAA - American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics | Minton D.A.,Earth
Advances in the Astronautical Sciences | Year: 2014

A study is performed to design a robotic sample return mission to the asteroid (216) Kleopatra. Kleopatra is located in the asteroid belt, is an M-type asteroid, and has two moons in orbit around it. Questions about its composition, and about M-type asteroids in general, make Kleopatra a desirable target for a sample return mission. A search is conducted for low-thrust trajectories between 2020 and 2040 with a 1 km/s departure V∞ and 20 kW solar electric propulsion system. The search covers trajectories with gravity assists from one or two bodies selected from Venus, Earth, and Mars. Regular launch opportunities are found delivering net masses of at least 1000 kg using a single gravity assist from Earth or Mars and returning to Earth in less than 10 years, with maay missions returning in 6.5 to 8 years.

Melosh H.J.,Earth | Melosh H.J.,Purdue University
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences | Year: 2014

Recent comparisons of the isotopic compositions of the Earth and the Moon show that, unlike nearly every other body known in the Solar System, our satellite's isotopic ratios are nearly identical to the Earth's for nearly every isotopic system. The Moon's chemical make-up, however, differs from the Earth's in its low volatile content and perhaps in the elevated abundance of oxidized iron. This surprising situation is not readily explained by current impact models of the Moon's origin and offers a major clue to the Moon's formation, if we only could understand it properly. Current ideas to explain this similarity range from assuming an impactor with the same isotopic composition as the Earth to postulating a pure ice impactor that completely vaporized upon impact. Several recent proposals follow from the suggestion that the Earth-Moon system may have lost a great deal of angular momentum during early resonant interactions. The isotopic constraint may be the most stringent test yet for theories of the Moon's origin. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society.

Joosten M.M.,Earth | Joosten M.M.,Wageningen University | Van Erk M.J.,Earth | Pellis L.,Earth | And 2 more authors.
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2012

Moderate alcohol consumption has various effects on immune and inflammatory processes, which could accumulatively modulate chronic disease risk. So far, no comprehensive, integrative profiling has been performed to investigate the effects of longer-term alcohol consumption. Therefore, we studied the effects of alcohol consumption on gene expression patterns using large-scale profiling of whole-genome transcriptomics in blood cells and on a number of proteins in blood. In a randomised, open-label, cross-over trial, twenty-four young, normal-weight men consumed 100 ml vodka (30 g alcohol) with 200 ml orange juice or only orange juice daily during dinner for 4 weeks. After each period, blood was sampled for measuring gene expression and selected proteins. Pathway analysis of 345 down-regulated and 455 up-regulated genes revealed effects of alcohol consumption on various signalling responses, immune processes and lipid metabolism. Among the signalling processes, the most prominently changed was glucocorticoid receptor signalling. A network on immune response showed a down-regulated NF-B gene expression together with increased plasma adiponectin and decreased pro-inflammatory IL-1 receptor antagonist and IL-18, and acute-phase proteins ferritin and α1-antitrypsin concentrations (all P < 0.05) after alcohol consumption. Furthermore, a network of gene expression changes related to lipid metabolism was observed, with a central role for PPARα which was supported by increased HDL-cholesterol and several apo concentrations (all P < 0.05) after alcohol consumption. In conclusion, an integrated approach of profiling both genes and proteins in blood showed that 4 weeks of moderate alcohol consumption altered immune responses and lipid metabolism. © 2011 The Authors.

Goldberg D.N.,Earth | Heimbach P.,Earth
Cryosphere | Year: 2013

To date, assimilation of observations into large-scale ice models has consisted predominantly of time-independent inversions of surface velocities for basal traction, bed elevation, or ice stiffness, and has relied primarily on analytically derived adjoints of glaciological stress balance models. To overcome limitations of such "snapshot" inversions-i.e., their inability to assimilate time-dependent data for the purpose of constraining transient flow states, or to produce initial states with minimum artificial drift and suitable for time-dependent simulations-we have developed an adjoint of a time-dependent parallel glaciological flow model. The model implements a hybrid shallow shelf-shallow ice stress balance, solves the continuity equation for ice thickness evolution, and can represent the floating, fast-sliding, and frozen bed regimes of a marine ice sheet. The adjoint is generated by a combination of analytic methods and the use of algorithmic differentiation (AD) software. Several experiments are carried out with idealized geometries and synthetic observations, including inversion of time-dependent surface elevations for past thicknesses, and simultaneous retrieval of basal traction and topography from surface data. Flexible generation of the adjoint for a range of independent uncertain variables is exemplified through sensitivity calculations of grounded ice volume to changes in basal melting of floating and basal sliding of grounded ice. The results are encouraging and suggest the feasibility, using real observations, of improved ice sheet state estimation and comprehensive transient sensitivity assessments. © 2013 Author(s).

Panigrahy S.,Earth | Jain V.,Earth | Patnaik C.,Earth | Parihar J.S.,Earth
Journal of the Indian Society of Remote Sensing | Year: 2012

In-season rice area estimation using C-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data from RADARSAT-1 is being done in India for more than a decade. Decision rule based models in backscatter domain have been calibrated and validated using extensive field data and a long term backscatter signature bank of rice fields has been developed. Since the rice crop growing environment in India is a diverse one in the world having all the rice cultural types, the rice backscatter is quite exhaustive. This paper highlights the results of classification of rice lands in Bangladesh using the signature bank of India. The results showed that the Aman rice crop of Bangladesh has a typical temporal backscatter of shallow and intermediate rice fields of that of West Bengal state. The mean backscatter of the intermediate/deep water fields in southern Bangladesh was -19 dB, while that of shallow cultural types mostly in northern Bangladesh was -17 dB. The signature of the rice crop in Southern Bangladesh matched well with that of Gangetic West Bengal, particularly that of the 24 Parganas, Howrah and Hughli districts. The signature of rice crop in the Sub-Himalayan West Bengal particularly that of Dinajpur and Maldah districts matched well with that of the northern area of Bangladesh. State level rice area estimated using the selected models was found with in 5% deviation from that of the reported acreage. © 2012 Indian Society of Remote Sensing.

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