Bogota, Colombia
Bogota, Colombia
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Gonzalez-Curbelo M.,University of La Laguna | Gonzalez-Curbelo M.,EAN University | Socas-Rodriguez B.,University of La Laguna | Herrera-Herrera A.V.,University of La Laguna | And 3 more authors.
TrAC - Trends in Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2015

It is widely recognized that the QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) method is relevant in pesticide residue analysis. Many official laboratories around the globe are routinely using it due to the advantages encapsulated in its name. However, the frontiers of the application of QuEChERS are not yet established. The method is effective for the analysis of other groups of compounds, including pharmaceuticals, mycotoxins, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, in a wide variety of complex matrices. This review article provides a general overview of the most relevant modifications of the QuEChERS method that have been widely accepted and applied (including both extraction and clean-up) and a general view of the different groups of compounds to which it has been fruitfully applied. We do not include those approaches where only half the method has been used. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Gabriel Carmona L.,Pilot University of Colombia | Whiting K.,EAN University | Valero A.,University of Zaragoza
Resources Policy | Year: 2015

Natural non-renewable resources, such as minerals, are becoming increasingly depleted against a backdrop of intense industrialisation. Through the exergy analysis and thermoeconomic tools it is possible to assign a figure to the degree of depletion. This is because the exergy replacement cost represents the effort needed by humankind to return minerals to their original conditions from the "commercially dead state", Thanatia. The authors undertake an evaluation of the ten most significantly produced minerals in Colombia, since 1990. Via the 2011 mineral balance, this paper shows that the highest exergetic losses are in the extraction for export and not national consumption rates. The loss in mineral wealth, quantified in exergy terms for 2011 is 119.2Mtoe (4.99×109GJ) and has, since 1990, accumulated to 1,543.4Mtoe (6.46×1010GJ). In converting these losses into economic terms, it becomes clear that the nation must re-think its mineral export strategy, if it is develop sustainably. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Evaluating sustainability from EIA-based assessments has been problematic at best. This is due to the use of reductionist and qualitative approaches which is dependent upon the perspective of the assessor(s). Therefore, a more rigorous and holistic approach is required to evaluate sustainability in a more consistent way. In this paper, a matrix-based methodology in order to assess the indicated level and nature of sustainability for any project, policy, indicators, legislation, regulation, or other framework is described. The Geocybernetic Assessment Matrix (GAM) is designed to evaluate the level and nature of sustainability or unsustainability occurring in respect the fundamental and complex geocybernetic paradigms. The GAM method is described in detail in respect to the theory behind it and the methodology. The GAM is then demonstrated using an appropriate case study - Part 1 of the UK Climate Change Act (2008) concerning carbon budgets and targets. The results indicate that the Part 1 of Act may not achieve the desired goals in contributing towards sustainable development through the stated mechanisms for carbon budgets and targets. The paper then discusses the broader context of the GAM with respect to the core themes evident in the development and application of the GAM of: sustainability science; sustainability assessment; application value of the GAM; and future research and development. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.


Segura-Contreras J.F.,University of Los Andes, Colombia | Franco J.F.,EAN University
Revista de Salud Publica | Year: 2016

Objective This pilot study aimed to characterize pedestrians’ exposure to air pollution alongside three routes with high traffic in Bogota, Colombia (ninth avenue, eleventh avenue and seventh avenue). Method Black carbon (BC) was used as an air quality indicator since it is recognized as a tracer compound for emissions from mobile sources. The concentrations of BC were recorded continuously with a portable MicroAethalometer Model AE51. The instrument was carried by the people doing the 1.5 kilometer-long routes, while they filled in an activity form that recorded the events occurring during the walk. Results A direct (observed) relationship between BC concentration peaks and documented events at each route was found. Although BC concentrations at all three studied corridors indicate an inadequate air quality, different concentration distributions were found for each route. The authors attribute this result to the difference in the volume of heavy traffic (mainly buses and minibuses). Eleventh Avenue was the route with the greatest flow of such vehicles and higher concentrations of BC. Conclusion The collected evidence reinforces the importance of involving air quality as a critical variable when designing non-motorized transport oriented infrastructure. © 2016, Universidad Nacional de Colombia. All rights reserved.


Abstract In this paper, a quantitative-based evaluation of the environmental impact of a proposed wind farm is presented using the Rapid Impact Assessment Matrix (RIAM). The paper uses the revised Environmental Statement of the Grove Farm Wind Energy Project, which was rejected during the planning decision consent stage initially and upheld on appeal. The paper evaluates quantitatively the potential impact of an onshore wind farm at the construction and operation stages. Based on the RIAM evaluation conducted, the paper then goes on to apply a mathematical model to the results to determine the indicated potential level and nature of sustainability of the proposed wind farm. The results indicate that the Grove Farm project was deemed, as a whole, detrimental to the environment-human system, particularly in respect to impacts to visual amenity and cultural heritage. The application of the model to the RIAM indicated that in both the construction and operation stages, the project was considered as unsustainable. The results obtained raised legitimate questions as to the benefits of such projects as a major contributor to the UK's renewable and sustainable energy mix. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Sepulveda J.A.M.,EAN University
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences | Year: 2016

The Municipal Solid Waste is a new target of the municipal government because their negative consequences if the management is inadequate (health diseases, pollution, etc.); In Latin America, the most frequency solution is the final disposal in landfill, but, no-all the Solid Waste is really waste (or unusable material): (i) The Inorganic Fraction that, for the no source separation, lost the use possibility in value chains and (ii) The Organic Fraction, which is produced during food processing in houses, restaurants and enterprises, has a potential uses (traditional as Compost, or new uses as matter for other process). For those, the solid waste management is a challenge in many cities on this “developing countries” as Brazil, Peru, Ecuador, Colombia or the Caribbean nations; this paper find to explain how they have handled solid waste in the capital of Colombia (Bogotá), without the landscape of all Latin America reality. The possibilities of use and valorization of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) and the importance of the adequate management into the cities will be the new actions on many cities for to obtain economic development and a rational use of this resources. © 2016 José Alejandro Martínez Sepúlveda.


Mura I.,EAN University
Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing | Year: 2014

HER members of the tyrosine-kinase family of transmembrane receptors are initiators of signaling cascades driving crucial cellular process, such as gene transcription, cell cycle progression, apoptosis. Given their capacity of oncogenic transformation these receptors are the target of selective anticancer drugs, which in-vivo are however not as effective as anticipated by in-vitro experiments. Translating HER inhibitors into effective therapies to block the oncogenic signaling cascades will be facilitated by models that can provide reliable predictions for the evolution of the intricate HER mediated signaling networks. This work presents a process-algebra based approach to compactly specify and simulate HER signaling models. The proposed HER activation model can be easily reused as a building block in larger models of signaling. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014.


Phillips J.,EAN University | Gholamalifard M.,Tarbiat Modares University
International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2016

Iran has been seeking to develop fully functional waste management strategies to address the problem of its rapidly growing cities. This requires proper evaluation to determine the most appropriate strategies to meet the goals of sustainable waste management. Environmental Impact Assessment is capable of contributing towards this goal. However, such assessments tend to involve a qualitative approach in the evaluation of the sustainability or unsustainability of potential options. Therefore, a suitable quantitative approach to evaluate sustainability/unsustainability is necessary. The paper applies a mathematical model to evaluate the sustainability of unmitigated options for a municipal solid waste disposal site in Tabriz, Iran. This was based upon rapid impact assessment matrix evaluation of the options. The model’s application determines whether the options are sustainable or unsustainable. The model application results indicate that all of the options were considered as unsustainable in an unmitigated state. The results for Tabriz were then compared and contrasted with results obtained by the authors for another MSW disposal site near Tehran. Based on this, there are questions as to the potential value of current waste management strategies. The paper concludes by stating that economic costs are the largest single barrier to achieving sustainable waste management. Furthermore, it is important to develop solutions which disposes and manages waste in a manner conducive to the long-term sustainability of the environment–human relationship. © 2016, Islamic Azad University (IAU).


Phillips J.,EAN University | Phillips J.,Institute ForWARD
Applied Geography | Year: 2016

How climate change interacts upon human activities necessary for meeting the needs of a society is important to understand. Mining is such an activity, as it provides the fundamental raw materials required in everyday life. However, mining is potentially extremely vulnerable to climate change. This is because of the exacerbation of interactions already occurring to the local environment-human system, as well as the development of new interactions and their subsequent impacts. Within the literature, there has been no generic review or synthesis of the fundamental interactions between climate change and surface mining. This paper intends to undertake such a review and synthesis of the literature. The paper discusses the potential and actual interactions between climate change and surface mining in relation to five core themes: Heavy Metals; Hydrological Processes & Resources; Ecological Impacts; Air Pollution; and Mass Movement. This is based upon an extensive and focussed review of the current and available literature. The paper then concludes with a discussion of open themes and future research concerning climate change and surface mining in relation to three fundamental spatial dynamic questions. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd


Phillips J.,EAN University
Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology | Year: 2015

There is a perception that tunnelling is sustainable. This is because it occurs underground, and consequently does not significantly interfere with surface or atmospheric processes unlike other anthropogenic activities. However, the tools and assessments used in tunnelling projects to evaluate sustainability in the construction and operational phases are primarily concerned with the reduction of carbon footprint and environmental performance. This does not provide a suitable approach to determining the sustainability of a tunnelling project directly. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) on the other hand does have this potential. However, it requires two things: (1) a suitable quantitative-based method of EIA; and most critically and (2) a means to evaluate sustainability from the EIA results. Based upon the recent work of Namin et al. (2014) concerning a new EIA methodology for tunnelling projects, this paper applies an established mathematical model of sustainability to the results of the EIA to determine the sustainability or unsustainability of tunnelling projects. The model's application, in the form of an algorithm, evaluates three case studies assessed by Namin et al. (2014). The results are analysed and discussed in respect to the three projects' construction and operation phases. The broader context of the results is then discussed in respect to the use of underground space as a means to achieve sustainability. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

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