Ea Energy Analyses

Copenhagen, Denmark

Ea Energy Analyses

Copenhagen, Denmark
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Douglass P.J.,Technical University of Denmark | Garcia-Valle R.,Technical University of Denmark | Nyeng P.,Energinet.dk | Ostergaard J.,Technical University of Denmark | Togeby M.,EA Energy Analyses
IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid | Year: 2013

As renewable energy sources increase their penetration, the traditional providers of frequency regulation service, i.e., fossil fueled thermal power plants, will be displaced, motivating the search for novel providers such as demand-side resources. This paper presents the results of field experiments using demand as a frequency controlled reserve (DFCR) on appliances with programmable thermostats. The experiments conducted showed the response of a population of thermostatically controlled loads acting as normal reserves (up and down regulation) and disturbance reserves (up regulation only) as defined by the Nordic Grid Codes. In addition, industrial pump loads and relay-controlled loads were tested as DFCR. The tests show that a population of refrigerators was able to deliver frequency reserves approximately equal to their average power consumption. Electric space heaters in the autumn season were able to provide frequency reserves of a magnitude 2.7 times their average power consumption. © 2010-2012 IEEE.

Douglass P.J.,Technical University of Denmark | Garcia-Valle R.,Technical University of Denmark | Nyeng P.,Energinet.dk | Ostergaard J.,Technical University of Denmark | Togeby M.,EA Energy Analyses
IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference Europe | Year: 2011

One of the challenges in electric power systems with a high penetration of renewable generation is the provision of ancillary services. Traditionally these services have been provided by conventional generation, but as power from renewable sources (wind and PV) displaces conventional generation, new providers of ancillary services are needed. Frequency regulation is critical because fluctuating energy sources increase the need for this service. At very high levels of renewable penetration, all available frequency regulation services will be called on, including demand-side resources. Electric loads that provide thermal energy services are attractive because their heat capacity allows electric power consumption to be moved in time without degrading the quality of service. This concept is being demonstrated in field tests on the island of Bornholm, Denmark. © 2011 IEEE.

Jicheng D.,China Electric Power Research Institute | Yongning C.,China Electric Power Research Institute | Lin Z.,Heilongjiang Electric Power Company | Sandholt K.,Ea Energy Analyses | And 3 more authors.
Energy Education Science and Technology Part A: Energy Science and Research | Year: 2011

In recent years, there has been a dramatically development of Chinese wind power, and the scale of the wind farms are increasing. Wind power is a fluctuating energy source, which means that the other power generation units have to adjust to accommodate the fluctuations and ensure the power balance in the grid. This poses the question of how to optimize the power grid to accommodate the increased amount of fluctuating energy. This paper analyses the power system's capability to accommodate wind energy while ensuring the power balance in the system, considering how to achieve the lowest system cost and different constraints such as electricity balance equation, unit minimum load level, unit start-up time etc. The Heilongjiang power system has been chosen as a case study and three scenarios have been analyzed. © Sila Science.

Cleary B.,Dublin Institute of Technology | Duffy A.,Dublin Institute of Technology | Bach B.,Ea Energy Analyses | Vitina A.,Ea Energy Analyses | And 2 more authors.
Energy Policy | Year: 2016

The share of wind generation in the Irish and British electricity markets is set to increase by 2020 due to renewable energy (RE) targets. The United Kingdom (UK) and Ireland have set ambitious targets which require 30% and 40% of electricity demand to come from RE, mainly wind, by 2020, respectively. Ireland has sufficient indigenous onshore wind energy resources to exceed the RE target, while the UK faces uncertainty in achieving its target. A possible solution for the UK is to import RE directly from large scale onshore and offshore wind energy projects in Ireland; this possibility has recently been explored by both governments but is currently on hold. Thus, the aim of this paper is to estimate the effects of large scale wind energy in the Irish and British electricity markets in terms of wholesale system marginal prices, total generation costs and CO2 emissions. The results indicate when the large scale Irish-based wind energy projects are connected directly to the UK there is a decrease of 0.6% and 2% in the Irish and British wholesale system marginal prices under the UK National Grid slow progression scenario, respectively. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

Nyeng P.,Technical University of Denmark | Ostergaard J.,Technical University of Denmark | Togeby M.,Ea Energy Analyses | Hethey J.,Ea Energy Analyses
Proceedings of the Universities Power Engineering Conference | Year: 2010

A power system's AC frequency is a system-wide indicator of the immediate power balance in the system. This is used by selected generators to adjust the generation to level out imbalances continuously, as well as in the case of disturbances in the system. However, previous theoretical and empirical studies indicate that this service might as well be provided by demandside control. In this paper we investigate in detail how thermal energy storage capacity in thermostatically controlled electric loads can be utilised for frequency-responsive control. We use two specific applications as cases for our work: Refrigerators and electric space heating. These two cases clearly illustrate the vast diversity of critical parameters like heat capacity, switching cycles, and temperature tolerance. Based on these, we design appropriate control algorithms that bridge the gap, between on the one hand, the unique properties and needs of each application, and on the other hand the requirements of the system operator. The control algorithms are implemented on a microcontroller unit that is interfaced with existing thermostats for each application. To validate the control algorithms and overall system design, a series of experiments are conducted, where the controller is subject to the actual grid frequency as well as designed frequency inputs, such as step inputs. The results demonstrate that frequency-responsive thermostats can indeed provide a wide range of the frequency-responsive ancillary services requested by the system operators, with little negative impact on device operation and performance. The design analyses and the implementation experience also show that the retro-fitting approach to frequency response limits the ability for some devices to provide these services, compared with integrating the frequency response when designing the thermostat.

Larsen A.,Roskilde University | Leth-Petersen S.,Copenhagen University | Togeby M.,Ea Energy Analyses
Energy Journal | Year: 2010

This paper analyzes the effect of supplying feedback by text messages (SMS) and email about electricity consumption on the level of total household electricity consumption. An experiment was conducted in which 1,452 households were randomly allocated to three experimental groups and two control groups. Feedback was supplied throughout 2007 to members of the experiment groups who accepted the invitation, and data on consumption of electricity for 2006 and 2007 collected for all participants and control group members. 30% of the households invited to receive feedback accepted the invitation. Results suggest that email and SMS messaging that communicated timely information about a household's 'exceptional' consumption periods (e.g. highest week of electricity use in past quarter) produced average reductions in total annual electricity use of about 3%. The feedback technology is cheap to implement and therefore likely to be cost-effective. Copyright © 2010 by the IAEE. All rights reserved.

Togeby M.,Ea Energy Analyses | Dyhr-Mikkelsen K.,Ea Energy Analyses | Larsen A.E.,Roskilde University | Bach P.,Danish Energy Agency
Energy Efficiency | Year: 2012

A political agreement from 2005 stated that an evaluation of the entire Danish energy efficiency policy portfolio must be carried out before the end of 2008, with the aim to assess the following: (1) Is the policy portfolio sufficient to meet the energy efficiency targets? (2) Do the policies enable the national goals to be met in a cost-effective manner? (3) Is the overall design of the policy portfolio appropriate? The evaluation gave recommendations on how to improve and develop the portfolio, mainly using cost-effectiveness as criteria. The evaluation was completed in December 2008, and this paper presents the main findings and the subsequent impact on Danish policy. A key lesson learned is the importance of including all energy efficiency policies in the evaluation. Examining the entire portfolio of policies (as opposed to only selected policies) gave way to findings that would otherwise not have been captured. With its broad perspective, the evaluation found that the policy instruments prioritised the commercial and industrial sectors less than the household and public sectors. The recommendations made by the authors contributed to the implementation of new taxes for the commercial and industrial sectors together with the reform of the Electricity Saving Trust to a Centre for Energy Savings charged with energy savings within all sectors, except transport-both which have been important steps towards a more cost-effective solution. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

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