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Xu Z.,Hong Kong Polytechnic University | Ostergaard J.,Technical University of Denmark | Togeby M.,Ea Energianalyse A S
IEEE Transactions on Power Systems | Year: 2011

Relying on generation side alone is deemed insufficient to fulfill the system balancing needs for future Danish power system, where a 50% wind penetration is outlined by the government for year 2025. This paper investigates use of the electricity demand as frequency controlled reserve (DFR), which has a high potential and can provide many advantages. Firstly, the background of the research is reviewed, including conventional power system reserves and the demand side potentials. Subsequently, the control logics and corresponding design considerations for the DFR technology have been developed and analyzed, based on which simulation models have been built using the DIgSILENT Power Factory. The simulation studies of different scenarios confirm that the DFR can provide reliable performance of frequency control. Furthermore, relevant issues regarding implementing DFR in reality have been discussed. © 2011 IEEE. Source

Hansen J.B.,Haldor Topsoe | Fock F.,Ea Energianalyse A S | Lindboe H.H.,Ea Energianalyse A S
ECS Transactions | Year: 2013

Biogas can be upgraded by means of SOEC technology. Steam added to biogas and the CO2 content can be co-electrolyzed generating a CO rich synthesis gas. Alternatively hydrogen from steam electrolysis can be added to the biogas. In both cases the synthesis gas is methanated. Waste heat from the methanator is used as feed for the SOEC. The paper will compare the energy and exergy efficiency as well as the economics of the two routes in future energy scenarios with a large power fraction from wind. © The Electrochemical Society. Source

Munster M.,Technical University of Denmark | Morthorst P.E.,Technical University of Denmark | Larsen H.V.,Technical University of Denmark | Bregnbaek L.,Ea Energianalyse A S | And 3 more authors.
Energy | Year: 2012

In the EU and in Denmark, the aim is to reduce dependence on fossil fuels and to use energy more efficiently. District heating and combined heat and power have significant potential with regard to achieving this aim. New technologies may make individual solutions such as electric heating, heat pumps and micro-CHP more attractive than previously. Therefore, the competitive conditions between district heating and other types of heating may change in the future. The question is therefore whether district heating can contribute to ensuring the sustainability of future energy systems? Denmark is used as a case as the country has a high share of district heating and produces 20% of the electricity with wind power. The analyses are carried out using the electricity market model Balmorel, which facilitates cost optimization of operation and investments in energy production plants as well as electricity transmission. To be able to perform the analysis an extension of the model is developed, where it is also possible to optimize between investments in individual heating plants or in expansion of the district heating networks, depending on investment costs, energy density of the potential areas and their distance to existing district heating networks. Results show that district heating may contribute to the sustainability and security of supply of future energy systems and that under the given assumptions it is cost effective to increase the share of district heating up to 55-57% of the heat demand although substantial heat saving measures are installed. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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