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Quirie A.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Quirie A.,University of Burgundy | Hervieu M.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Hervieu M.,University Hospital | And 12 more authors.

Physical exercise constitutes an innovative strategy to treat deficits associated with stroke through the promotion of BDNF-dependent neuroplasticity. However, there is no consensus on the optimal intensity/duration of exercise. In addition, whether previous stroke changes the effect of exercise on the brain is not known. Therefore, the present study compared the effects of a clinically-relevant form of exercise on cerebral BDNF levels and localization in control versus stroke rats. For this purpose, treadmill exercise (0.3 m/s, 30 min/day, for 7 consecutive days) was started in rats with a cortical ischemic stroke after complete maturation of the lesion or in control rats. Sedentary rats were run in parallel. Mature and proBDNF levels were measured on the day following the last boot of exercise using Western blotting analysis. Total BDNF levels were simultaneously measured using ELISA tests. As compared to the striatum and the hippocampus, the cortex was the most responsive region to exercise. In this region, exercise resulted in a comparable increase in the production of mature BDNF in intact and stroke rats but increased proBDNF levels only in intact rats. Importantly, levels of mature BDNF and synaptophysin were strongly correlated. These changes in BDNF metabolism coincided with the appearance of intense BDNF labeling in the endothelium of cortical vessels. Notably, ELISA tests failed to detect changes in BDNF forms. Our results suggest that control beings can be used to find conditions of exercise that will result in increased mBDNF levels in stroke beings. They also suggest cerebral endothelium as a potential source of BDNF after exercise and highlight the importance to specifically measure the mature form of BDNF to assess BDNF-dependent plasticity in relation with exercise. © 2012 Quirié et al. Source

Laroche D.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Joussain C.,University Hospital of Dijon | Espagnac C.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Morisset C.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 5 more authors.
Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

Objective: To assess the safety and acute effects of a procedure using perceived exertion during a prior submaximal concentric (CON) test to individualize eccentric (ECC) cycling exercise intensity. Design: Prospective, monocentric open study. Setting: Technological investigation platform at a physical medicine and rehabilitation department in a university hospital. Participants: Healthy subjects (N=18; 15 men, 3 women) aged between 22 and 37 years. Interventions: The subjects performed 3 cycling exercises: (1) incremental CON test to determine the comfortable pedaling power (CPP) corresponding to a Borg scale rating of 12 (rate of perceived exertion); (2) steady-state CON exercise at the CPP workload to determine the corresponding plantar pressure; and (3) steady-state ECC exercise with an imposed resistance corresponding to the CPP plantar pressure. Main Outcome Measures: Rate of perceived exertion on Borg scale, oxygen uptake (V̇o2), heart rate, cardiac output, and stroke volume using inert gas rebreathing techniques were measured during steady-state CON and ECC exercises. Muscle soreness was rated on a visual analog scale immediately, 24, and 48 hours after the tests. Results: No adverse effects were reported. V̇o2 was about 5 times the resting value during CON exercise, while it was twice that during ECC exercise. Cardiac output was lower during ECC exercise (P<.05). This moderate increase of cardiac output was exclusively linked to a greater increase in stroke volume during ECC exercise than during CON exercise (P<.05). Conclusions: Moderate-intensity ECC cycling exercise tailored according to perceived exertion during a prior CON test is well tolerated. It corresponds to a limited muscular use of oxygen and to an isolated increase in stroke volume. It appears to be a feasible procedure for preconditioning before ECC training. © 2013 by the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Source

Senejoux F.,EA 4267 Fonctions et Dysfonctions Epitheliales | Demougeot C.,EA 4267 Fonctions et Dysfonctions Epitheliales | Karimov U.,CAS Xinjiang Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry | Muyard F.,EA 4267 Fonctions et Dysfonctions Epitheliales | And 3 more authors.
Biochemical Systematics and Ecology

The present study constitutes the first phytochemical investigation of Echinops integrifolius Kar. & Kir. (Asteraceae). Four triterpenes, six flavonoids and one coumarin were isolated and identified. Among them, 6-methoxyflavones and 6-methoxyflavonols and the coumarin umbelliferone are reported from a species of Echinops for the first time. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Totoson P.,EA 4267 Fonctions et Dysfonctions Epitheliales | Maguin-Gate K.,EA 4267 Fonctions et Dysfonctions Epitheliales | Prati C.,EA 4267 Fonctions et Dysfonctions Epitheliales | Prati C.,Besancon University Hospital Center | And 2 more authors.
Arthritis Research and Therapy

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic systemic inflammatory disease characterized by articular and extra-articular manifestations involving cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), which account for 30% to 50% of all deaths. In patients with RA, atherosclerosis lesions occur earlier and have a more rapid evolution than in the general population. Beyond mortality, the impact of CVD on quality of life, combined with the associated increase in health-care costs, renders CVD in RA a major public health problem. Recent studies showed that patients with RA are characterized by the presence of endothelial dysfunction (ED), which is recognized as a key event in the development of atherosclerosis. By definition, ED is a functional and reversible alteration of endothelial cells, leading to a shift of the actions of the endothelium toward reduced vasodilation, proinflammatory state and proliferative and prothrombotic properties. Although the improvement of endothelial function is becoming an important element of the global management of patients with RA, the mechanistic determinants of ED in RA are still poorly understood. Animal models of RA provide the unique opportunity to unravel the pathophysiological features of ED in RA. The present review summarizes the available data on mechanisms underlying ED in animal models of RA and proposes attractive prospects in order to discover novel therapeutic strategies of RA-associated ED. © 2014 Totoson et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

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