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Tutt J.H.,Open University Milton Keynes | Holland A.D.,Open University Milton Keynes | Murray N.J.,Open University Milton Keynes | Harriss R.D.,Open University Milton Keynes | And 4 more authors.
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering

Charge-Coupled Devices (CCDs) have been traditionally used on high resolution soft X-ray spectrometers, but with their ability to increase the signal level in the detector before the readout noise of the system is added, Electron-Multiplying CCDs (EM-CCDs) have the potential to offer many advantages in soft X-ray detection. Through this signal multiplication an EM-CCD has advantages over conventioanl CCDs of increased signal, suppressed noise, faster readout speeds for the same equivalent readout noise and an increased inmmunity to Electro-Magnetic Intereference. This paper will look at present and future spacel applications for high resolution soft X-ray spectrometers and assess the advantages and disadvantage of using EM-CCDs in these applications. © 2011 Copyright Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Source

Kameshima T.,Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute | Ono S.,RIKEN | Kudo T.,RIKEN | Ozaki K.,RIKEN | And 12 more authors.
Review of Scientific Instruments

This paper presents development of an X-ray pixel detector with a multi-port charge-coupled device (MPCCD) for X-ray Free-Electron laser experiments. The fabrication process of the CCD was selected based on the X-ray radiation hardness against the estimated annual dose of 1.6 × 10 14 photon/mm2. The sensor device was optimized by maximizing the full well capacity as high as 5 Me- within 50 μm square pixels while keeping the single photon detection capability for X-ray photons higher than 6 keV and a readout speed of 60 frames/s. The system development also included a detector system for the MPCCD sensor. This paper summarizes the performance, calibration methods, and operation status. © 2014 Author(s). Source

Wingender M.,E2v | Benn A.,E2v
IEEE National Radar Conference - Proceedings

In advanced applications such as digital radar, Ultra Wide Bandwidth communications and software defined radio, the need for instantaneous bandwidth often drives system design decisions. Access to high speed data converters enabling up and down conversion directly in the L Band and S Band removes the limit imposed by bandwidth scarcity and allows the design of flexible and simplified system architectures. Broadband ADC's (Analogue to Digital Converters) are key enabling components which open up new design opportunities for digital Receiver systems. In this regard, this paper describes a new 10bit 3GS/s ADC with 5 GHz Bandwidth, based on a 200 GHz SiGeC bipolar Technology, which enables the direct digitizing of 1GHz arbitrary broadband waveforms directly in the high IF region closer to the Antenna (L-Band or S-Band). © 2010 IEEE. Source

Brugiere T.,Institute Of Physique Nucleaire Of Lyon | Brugiere T.,University of Lyon | Mayer F.,E2v | Fereyre P.,E2v | And 7 more authors.
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment

Abstract Scientific low light imaging devices benefit today from designs for pushing the mean noise to the single electron level. When readout noise reduction reaches its limit, signal-to-noise ratio improvement can be driven by an electron multiplication process, driven by impact ionization, before adding the readout noises. This concept already implemented in CCD structures using extra-pixel shift registers can today be integrated inside each pixel in CMOS technology. The EBCMOS group at IPNL is in charge of the characterization of new prototypes developed by E2V using this concept: the electron multiplying CMOS (EMCMOS). The CMOS technology enables electron multiplication inside the photodiode itself, and thus, an overlap of the charge integration and multiplication. A new modeling has been developed to describe the output signal mean and variance after the impact ionization process in such a case. In this paper the feasibility of impact ionization process inside a 8μm-pitch pixel is demonstrated. The new modeling is also validated by data and a value of 0.32% is obtained for the impact ionization parameter α with an electric field intensity of 24V/μm. © 2015 Published by Elsevier B.V. Source

Glascott-Jones A.,E2v | Chantier N.,E2v | Schwanke R.,INPHI
Electronic Products

The input bandwidth of an analog-to-digital converter sets its ability to be able to digitize high-frequency input signals. While the analog bandwidth of existing high-speed ADCs is relatively high (for example, EV10AS150 has an analog bandwidth of 5 GHz), accurately sampling signals which are greater than 5 GHz becomes difficult. Most ADCs use an internal track-and-hold amplifier, which freezes the input signal at a given sample point allowing a more stable signal to be input to the conversion elements. However the internal track-and-hold is not optimized for higher frequencies. A new generation of test equipment has expanded on the testing of high-speed signals using digital sampling oscilloscope techniques with high-sample-rate ADCs that can measure data eye diagrams of Gigabit-per-second signals with spectral content from 100 kHz to 30+ GHz. Many of the 10+ Gbits/s signals come out of the various optical communications networks. Source

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