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Krivoshapkin A.L.,Novosibirsk State Medical University | Chikisheva T.A.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Zubova A.V.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Kurbatov V.P.,Meshalkin Novosibirsk State Research Institute of Circulation Pathology | And 2 more authors.
World Neurosurgery | Year: 2014

Objective To report the analysis of 3 cases of ancient trepanation discovered in the craniological collection (153 skulls) of the Pazyryk nomadic culture (500-300 bc) from the Gorny Altai, Russia, and to evaluate the technique, instrumentation, and materials used for cranial surgery as well as the motivation for the trepanations in Scythian timesMethods A multidisciplinary approach was chosen to study the trepanned skulls. Visual inspection and examination under magnification, multislice computed tomography, high-field magnetic resonance imaging, and coupled plasma mass spectrometry and synchrotron radiation-induced x-ray fluorescence analysis of the bone samples from the site of trephination were used.Results In the Pazyryk culture, trepanation was very likely used to perform the intracranial procedures that were not yet indicated by Hippocrates. No signs of bone infection were detected. Higher copper abundance found at the site of trepanation showed that a bronze knife was the most likely tool used by Scythian surgeons.Conclusions Our data suggest that the Scythian population of the Altai Mountains had sufficient medical knowledge to perform sophisticated and successful manipulations on the human skulls. Scraping technique with bronze tools was quite effective for prevention of wound infection and resulted in a high survival rate after surgery. In the era of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, it may be useful to consider some ancient surgical technologies. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Source


Bryzgunova O.E.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Tamkovich S.N.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Cherepanova A.V.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Yarmoshchuk S.V.,Meshalkin Novosibirsk State Research Institute of Circulation Pathology | And 3 more authors.
Acta Naturae | Year: 2015

A direct correlation between the concentration of cell-free and cell-surface-bound circulating DNA (cfDNA and csbDNA, respectively) was demonstrated. Based on an inverse correlation between blood plasma DNase activity and the cfDNA concentration, blood DNases are supposed to regulate the cfDNA concentration. However, no correlation was found between the DNase activity in blood plasma and the csbDNA concentration, indicating that blood DNases are not involved in csbDNA dissociation from the cell surface. The possibility of DNA redistribution between cfDNA and csbDNA indicates that the total pool of circulating DNA (cfDNA + csbDNA) should be used for a correct analysis of marker DNA concentrations and data standardization. © 2015 Park-media, Ltd. Source


Krivoshapkin A.L.,Meshalkin Novosibirsk State Research Institute of Circulation Pathology | Krivoshapkin A.L.,Novosibirsk State Medical University | Chikisheva T.A.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Zubova A.V.,Russian Academy of Sciences | And 3 more authors.
World Neurosurgery | Year: 2014

Objective: To report the analysis of 3 cases of ancient trepanation discovered in the craniological collection (153 skulls) of the Pazyryk nomadic culture (500-300 . bc) from the Gorny Altai, Russia, and to evaluate the technique, instrumentation, and materials used for cranial surgery as well as the motivation for the trepanations in Scythian times. Methods: A multidisciplinary approach was chosen to study the trepanned skulls. Visual inspection and examination under magnification, multislice computed tomography, high-field magnetic resonance imaging, and coupled plasma mass spectrometry and synchrotron radiation-induced x-ray fluorescence analysis of the bone samples from the site of trephination were used. Results: In the Pazyryk culture, trepanation was very likely used to perform the intracranial procedures that were not yet indicated by Hippocrates. No signs of bone infection were detected. Higher copper abundance found at the site of trepanation showed that a bronze knife was the most likely tool used by Scythian surgeons. Conclusions: Our data suggest that the Scythian population of the Altai Mountains had sufficient medical knowledge to perform sophisticated and successful manipulations on the human skulls. Scraping technique with bronze tools was quite effective for prevention of wound infection and resulted in a high survival rate after surgery. In the era of methicillin-resistant . Staphylococcus aureus, it may be useful to consider some ancient surgical technologies. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Source

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