E Institute of TCM Internal Medicine

Shanghai, China

E Institute of TCM Internal Medicine

Shanghai, China

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Yin X.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Peng J.,Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine | Zhao L.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Zhao L.,Shanghai Center for Systems Biomedicine | And 7 more authors.
Systematic and Applied Microbiology | Year: 2013

Accumulating evidence indicates that disruption of the gut microbiota by a high-fat diet (HFD) may play a pivotal role in the progression of metabolic disorders such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In this study, the structural changes of gut microbiota were analyzed in an HFD-induced NAFLD rat model during treatment with an ancient Chinese herbal formula (CHF) used in clinical practice - Qushi Huayu Fang. CHF treatment significantly reduced body weight, alleviated hepatic steatosis, and decreased the content of triglycerides and free fatty acids in the livers of the rats. Gut microbiota of treated and control rats were profiled with polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and bar-coded pyrosequencing of the V3 region of 16S rRNA genes. Both analyses indicated that the CHF-treated group harbored significantly different gut microbiota from that of model rats. Partial least squares discriminant analysis and taxonomy-based analysis were further employed to identify key phylotypes responding to HFD and CHF treatment. Most notably, the genera Escherichia/. Shigella, containing opportunistic pathogens, were significantly enriched in HFD-fed rats compared to controls fed normal chow (P< 0.05) but they decreased to control levels after CHF treatment. Collinsella, a genus with short chain fatty acid producers, was significantly elevated in CHF-treated rats compared to HFD-fed rats (P< 0.05). The results revealed that the bacterial profiles of HFD-induced rats could be modulated by the CHF. Elucidation of these differences in microbiota composition provided a basis for further understanding the pharmacological mechanism of the CHF. © 2013 Elsevier GmbH.


Xie H.,Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine | Xie H.,Taizhou Municipal Hospital | Tao Y.,Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine | Lv J.,Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine | And 5 more authors.
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine | Year: 2013

Hepatic fibrosis is a common pathological process of chronic liver diseases and would lead to cirrhosis, and Fuzheng Huayu (FZHY) is an effective Chinese herbal product against liver fibrosis. This study observes FZHY influence on proteome of fibrotic liver with differential proteomic approach and aims to understand FZHY multiple action mechanisms on liver fibrosis. The liver fibrosis models were induced with intraperitoneal injection of dimethylnitrosamine for 4 weeks in rats and divided into model control (model) and FZHY-treated (FZHY) groups, while normal rats were used as normal control (normal). After model establishment, rats in FZHY groups were administered 4 g/kg wt of FZHY for 4 weeks, and normal and model groups were given the same volume of saline. The liver proteins in the above 3 groups were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), the differentially expressed spots were analyzed and compared between normal and model or model and FZHY groups, and then the proteins were identified with mass spectrum analysis and validated partially with western blot and real-time PCR. 10001200 spots were displayed on each 2D gel, and a total of 61 protein spots were found with significant intensity difference between normal control or FZHY and model control. 23 most obviously differential spots were excised, and in-gel digestion and 21 peptide mass fingerprints (PMF) were obtained with MALDI-TOF MS analysis, and 14 proteins were identified through protein database searching. Among 14 differentially expressed proteins, 8 proteins in normal and FZHY groups had the same tendency of differential expression compared with the ones in model group. And one of them, vimentin, was validated by western blot and real-time PCR analyses. Our study reveals 12 proteins responsible for fibrogenesis induced by DMN in rats, and among them, 8 proteins in fibrotic liver were regulated by FZHY, including aldehyde dehydrogenase, vimentin isoform (CRA-b), gamma-actin, vimentin, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase B, aldo-keto reductase, S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase isoform, and HSP90. It indicates that the action mechanism of FZHY antiliver fibrosis may be associated with modulation of proteins associated with metabolism and stress response, as well as myofibroblast activation. The study provides new insights and data for exploring the liver fibrogenesis pathophysiology and FZHY action mechanism against liver fibrosis. © 2013 Hongdong Xie et al.


Peng J.-H.,Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine | Peng J.-H.,Shanghai Key Laboratory of Traditional Chinese Clinical Medicine | Cui T.,Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine | Huang F.,Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics | Year: 2013

Puerarin, an isoflavone component extracted from Kudzu (Pueraria lobata), has been demonstrated to alleviate alcoholrelated disorders. Our study examined whether puerarin ameliorates chronic alcoholic liver injury through inhibition of endotoxin gut leakage, the subsequent Kupffer cell activation, and endotoxin receptors expression. Rats were provided with the Liber-DeCarli liquid diet for 8 weeks. Puerarin (90 mg/kg or 180 mg/kg daily) was orally administered from the beginning of the third week until the end of the experiment. Chronic alcohol intake caused increased serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, hepatic gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, and triglyceride levels as well as fatty liver and neutrophil infiltration in hepatic lobules as determined by biochemical and histologic assays. A significant increase of liver tumor necrosis factor a was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. These pathologic effects correlated with increased endotoxin level in portal vein and upregulated protein expression of hepatic CD68, lipopolysaccharide- binding protein, CD14, Toll-like receptor 2, and Toll-like receptor 4. Meanwhile, the intestinal microvilli were observed to be sparse, shortened, and irregularity in distribution under the transmission electron microscope in conjunction with the downregulated intestinal zonula occludens-1 protein expression. These hepatic pathologic changes were significantly inhibited in puerarintreated animals as were the endotoxin levels and hepatic CD68 and endotoxin receptors. Moreover, the pathologic changes in intestinal microvillus and the decreased intestinal zonula occludens-1 were also ameliorated with puerarin treatment. These results thus demonstrate that puerarin inhibition of endotoxin gut leakage, Kupffer cell activation, and endotoxin receptors expression is involved in the alleviation of chronic alcoholic liver injury in rats. © 2013 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.


Tao Y.-Y.,Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine | Yan X.-C.,Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine | Zhou T.,Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine | Shen L.,Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine | And 4 more authors.
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine | Year: 2014

Background: What was the relationship of Fuzheng Huayu recipe (FZHY) inhibiting hepatocyte apoptosis and HSC activation at different stage of liver fibrosis? In order to answer this question, the study was carried out to dynamically observe FZHY's effect on hepatocyte apoptosis and HSC activation and further explored underling mechanism of FZHY against hepatocyte apoptosis. Methods: Mice were randomly divided into four groups: normal, model, FZHY, and N-acetylcystein (NAC) groups. Acute hepatic injury and liver fibrosis in mice were induced by CCl4. Three days before the first CCl4 injection, treatment with FZHY powder or NAC respectively was started. In vitro, primary hepatocytes were pretreated with FZHY medicated serum or Z-VAD-FMK and then incubated with ActD and TNF-α. Primary HSCs were treated with DNA from apoptotic hepatocytes incubated by Act D/TNF-α or FZHY medicated. Liver sections were analyzed for HE staining and immunohistochemical evaluation of apoptosis. Serum ALT and AST, Alb content and TNF-α expression in liver tissue were detected. Hyp content was assayed and collagen deposition was visualized. Expressions of α-SMA and type I collagen were analyzed by immunofluorescence and immunoblotting. Flow cytometry, immunofluorescence, and DNA ladder for hepatocyte apoptosis and immunoblotting for TNF-R1, Bcl-2 and Bax were also analyzed. Results: Mice showed characteristic features of massive hepatocytes apoptosis in early stage of liver injury and developed severe hepatic fibrosis in later phase. FZHY treatment significantly alleviated acute liver injury and hepatocyte apoptosis, and inhibited liver fibrosis by decreasing α-SMA expression and hepatic Hyp content. In vitro, primary hepatocytes were induced by TNF-α and Act D. The anti-apoptotic effect of FZHY was generated by reducing TNFR1 expression and balancing the expressions of Bcl-2 and Bax. Meanwhile, the nuclear DNA from apoptotic hepatocytes stimulated HSC activation in a dose dependent manner, and the DNA from apoptotic hepatocytes treated with FZHY or Z-VAD-FMK reduced HSC activation and type I collagen expression. Conclusion: These findings suggested that FZHY suppressed hepatocyte apoptosis through regulating mediators in death receptor and mitochondrial pathways, and the effect of FZHY on hepatocyte apoptosis might play an important role in inhibiting liver fibrosis. © 2014 Tao et al.


Li Y.,Suzhou Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine | Wang X.,Suzhou Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine | Wang X.,Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine | Wang X.,Nanjing University | And 10 more authors.
Oncology Reports | Year: 2015

Diosgenin is a major compound of Dioscoreaceae plants such as yam, which is used as a drug in Traditional Chinese Medicine, and a common vegetable worldwide. The anticancer effect of diosgenin has been reported in various tumor cells, including leukemia, gastric, colorectal, and breast cancer. However, the activity of diosgenin on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and the underlying mechanism have not been completely investigated. Therefore, we investigated the efficacy and associated mechanisms of diosgenin in HCC cells. Flow cytometric analysis was performed to determine the presence of cell cycle arrest and apopotic cells. Diosgenin significantly inhibited the growth of Bel-7402, SMMC-7721 and HepG2 HCC cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Diosgenin treatment for 24 h induced G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of hepatoma cells. Diosgenin inhibited Akt phosphorylation and upregulated p21 and p27 expression, but did not alter the expression of p53, suggesting diosgenininduced upregulation of p21 and p57 is p53-independent in HCC cells. Diosgenin induced HCC cell apoptosis by activating caspase cascades-3,-8 and-9. However, diosgenin did not affect Bcl-2 and Bax levels. In conclusion, results of the present study suggest that diosgenin may be an active anti-HCC agent obtained from natural plants and provide new insights in understanding the mechanisms of diosgenin.


Li S.,Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine | Wang Q.,Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine | Tao Y.,Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine | Liu C.,Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics | Year: 2016

The rennin-angiotensin system (RAS) is crucial in hepatic fibrosis development, and therapies targeting this system may be a promising treatment for hepatic fibrosis. In this study, we investigated the effects of swertiamarin (Swe), an ethanol extract of Gentiana manshurica Kitag, on hepatic fibrosis and its underlying mechanisms through regulating RAS. Primary rat hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) were isolated and treated with angiotensin II (Ang II) with or without Swe and losartan. The proliferation and activation of HSCs were measured. Rat hepatic fibrosis was induced by intraperitoneal dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) injection for 4 weeks. Rats were treated with Swe or losartan from the third week until the end of the experiment. Hydroxyproline content in liver tissue was assayed with Jamall's method, and liver collagen deposition was visualized using Sirius red staining. RAS components were analyzed by Western blot, immunofluorescent staining, and real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that Swe significantly inhibited Ang II-induced HSC proliferation and activation. Swe also significantly suppressed DMN-induced α-smooth muscle actin production in rat livers and improved liver function. Swe partially inhibited Ang II-induced angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) up-regulation and suppressed Ang II-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-jun phosphorylation in HSCs. In the DMN-treated rats, Swe treatment significantly inhibited the plasma Ang II levels. DMN-induced AT1R up-regulation, and phosphorylation of ERK and c-jun in rat liver were also inhibited by Swe. In conclusion, Swe may attenuate hepatic fibrosis through inhibiting HSC activation by regulating the RAS. © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.


Wang Q.-L.,Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine | Tao Y.-Y.,Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine | Yuan J.-L.,Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine | Shen L.,Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine | And 2 more authors.
BMC Cell Biology | Year: 2010

Background: Salvianolic Acid B (Sal B) is a water-soluble component from Danshen (a traditional Chinese herb widely used for chronic renal diseases) with anti-oxidative and cell protective properties. Sal B also has potential protective effects on renal diseases. Tubular epithelial cells can undergo epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which plays an important role in the pathogenesis of renal interstitial fibrosis (RIF) and is mainly regulated by TGF-β1/Smads pathway. The aims of the study are to investigate the effect of Sal B on tubular EMT in vivo and in vitro, and to elucidate its underlying mechanism against EMT related to TGF-β1/Smads pathway.Results: For in vivo experiments, RIF was induced in rats by oral administration of HgCl2and prophylaxised with Sal B and vitamin E. The protein expression of E-cadherin was down-regulated, while the expression of α-SMA, TGF-β1, TβR-I, p-Smad2/3 and the activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) were up-regulated in kidneys of model rats when compared with those of normal rats. In contrast, Sal B and vitamin E significantly attenuated the expression of α-SMA, TGF-β1, TβR-I, p-Smad2/3, and MMP-2 activity, but increased E-cadherin expression. For in vitro experiments, HK-2 cells were incubated with TGF-β1 to induce EMT, and the cells were co-cultured with 1 and 10 μM Sal B or SB-431542 (a specific inhibitor of TβR-I kinase). TGF-β1 induced a typical EMT in HK-2 cells, while it was blocked by Sal B and SB-431542, as evidenced by blocking morphologic transformation, restoring E-cadherin and CK-18 expression, inhibiting α-SMA expression and F-actin reorganization, and down-regulating MMP-2/9 activities in TGF-β1 mediated HK-2 cells. Furthermore, Sal B and SB-431542 profoundly down-regulated the expressions of TβR-I and p-Smad2/3 but prevented the decreased expression of Smad7 in TGF-β1 stimulated HK-2 cells.Conclusions: Sal B can prevent tubular EMT in the fibrotic kidney induced by HgCl2as well as HK-2 cells triggered by TGF-β1, the mechanism of Sal B is closely related to the regulation of TGF-β1/Smads pathway, manifested as the inhibition of TGF-β1 expression, suppression of TβR-I expression and function, down-regulation of Smad2/3 phosphorylation, and restoration of the down-regulation of Smad7, as well as inhibition of MMP-2 activity. © 2010 Wang et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Yan X.,Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine | Zhou T.,Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine | Tao Y.,Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine | Wang Q.,Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine | And 4 more authors.
Experimental Biology and Medicine | Year: 2010

Salvianolic acid B (Sal B) is a water-soluble compound found in the traditional Chinese medicine, Radix Salviae miltiorrhizae, and has been widely used to treat a variety of diseases in Asian cultures. Sal B was shown to inhibit apoptosis in many cell types, but its effect on hepatocyte apoptosis is unknown. In this study, we attempt to show that Sal B attenuates hepatocyte apoptosis and hepatic injury induced by lipopolysaccharide and D-galactosamine in mice. Sal B also inhibits apoptosis that is induced by the death receptor in the HL-7702 hepatocyte cell line. Apoptosis in vitro is determined by flow cytometry, DNA electrophoresis and high content screening assay. The antiapoptotic effect is generated by reducing the expression of tumor necrosis factor α receptor type 1, balancing the expression of Bcl-2 family members, decreasing the release of cytochrome C from the mitochondria into the cytosol and inhibiting activated Caspase-3. These findings suggest that Sal B can effectively inhibit hepatocyte apoptosis as well as the underlying mechanisms related to regulating mediators in death receptor and mitochondrial pathways. Copyright © 2010 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.


Xu H.,Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine | Zhou Y.,Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine | Lu C.,Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine | Ping J.,Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine | And 2 more authors.
Laboratory Investigation | Year: 2012

The contraction of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) has a critical role in the regulation of intrahepatic vascular resistance and portal hypertension. Previous studies have confirmed that salvianolic acid B (Sal B) is effective against liver fibrosis. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of Sal B on portal hypertension and on HSCs contractility. Liver cirrhosis was induced in rats by peritoneal injection of dimethylnitrosamine and the portal pressure was measured. HSCs contraction was evaluated by collagen gel contraction assay. Glycerol-urea gel electrophoresis was performed to determine the phosphorylation of myosin light chain 2 (MLC2). F-actin stress fiber polymerization was detected by fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled phalloidin. Intracellular Ca 2+ and RhoA signaling activation were also measured. Sal B effectively reduced the portal pressure in DMN-induced cirrhotic rats. It decreased the contraction by endothelin-1 (ET-1)-activated HSCs by ∼66.5% and caused the disassembly of actin stress fibers and MLC2 dephosphorylation. Although Sal B reduced ET-1-induced intracellular Ca 2+ increase, blocking Ca 2+ increase completely by BAPTA-AM, a Ca 2+ chelator, barely affected the magnitude of contraction. Sal B decreased ET-1-induced RhoA and Rho-associated coiled coil-forming protein kinase (ROCK) II activation by 66.84% and by 76.79%, respectively, and inhibited Thr 696 phosphorylation of MYPT1 by 80.09%. In vivo, Sal B lowers the portal pressure in rats with DMN-induced cirrhosis. In vitro, Sal B attenuates ET-1-induced HSCs contraction by inhibiting the activation of RhoA and ROCK II and the downstream MYPT1 phosphorylation at Thr 696. We consider Sal B a potential candidate for the pharmacological treatment of portal hypertension. © 2012 USCAP, Inc All rights reserved.


PubMed | E Institute of TCM Internal Medicine and Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine
Type: | Journal: Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM | Year: 2014

Cultured mycelium Cordyceps sinensis (CMCS) is a Chinese herbal medicine, which is widely used for a variety of diseases including liver injury in clinic. The current study aims to investigate the protective effects of CMCS against liver fibrosis and to exploit its active antifibrotic substances in vivo and in vitro. For evaluating the antifibrotic effect of CMCS and ergosterol, male C57BL/6 mice were injected intraperitoneally with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and treated with CMCS (120mg/kg/d) or ergosterol (50mg/kg/d). Four weeks later, serum liver function, hepatic hydroxyproline (Hyp) content, liver inflammation, collagen deposition, and expression of alpha smooth muscle actin (-SMA) in liver tissue were evaluated. Besides, toxicological effects of active compounds of CMCS on hepatocytes and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) were detected and expressions of permeability of the lysosomal membrane, EdU, F-actin, and -SMA of activated HSCs were analyzed to screen the antifibrotic substance in CMCS in vitro. Our results showed that CMCS could significantly alleviate levels of serum liver functions, attenuate hepatic inflammation, decrease collagen deposition, and relieve levels of -SMA in liver, respectively. Ergosterol, the active compound in CMCS that was detected by HPLC, played a dose-dependent inhibition role on activated HSCs via upregulating expressions of permeability of the lysosomal membrane and downregulating levels of EdU, F-actin, and -SMA on activated HSCs in vitro. Moreover, ergosterol revealed the antifibrotic effect alike in vivo. In conclusion, CMCS is effective in alleviating liver fibrosis induced by CCl4 and ergosterol might be the efficacious antifibrotic substance in CMCS in vivo and in vitro.

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