Hospital da Clinicas da UFPR

Curitiba, Brazil

Hospital da Clinicas da UFPR

Curitiba, Brazil
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Rodriguez-Nunez A.,Hospital Clinico Universitario Of Santiago Of Compostela | Rodriguez-Nunez A.,Hospital Clinico Universitario | Lopez-Herce J.,Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon | Del Castillo J.,Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon | And 41 more authors.
Resuscitation | Year: 2014

Objective: To analyze the results of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) that included defibrillation during in-hospital cardiac arrest (IH-CA) in children. Methods: A prospective multicenter, international, observational study on pediatric IH-CA in 12 European and Latin American countries, during 24 months. Data from 502 children between 1 month and 18 years were collected using the Utstein template. Patients with a shockable rhythm that was treated by electric shock(s) were included. The primary endpoint was survival at hospital discharge. Univariate logistic regression analysis was performed to find outcome factors. Results: Forty events in 37 children (mean age 48 months, IQR: 7-15 months) were analyzed. An underlying disease was present in 81.1% of cases and 24.3% had a previous CA. The main cause of arrest was a cardiac disease (56.8%). In 17 episodes (42.5%) ventricular fibrillation (VF) or pulseless ventricular tachycardia (pVT) was the first documented rhythm, and in 23 (57.5%) it developed during CPR efforts. In 11 patients (27.5%) three or more shocks were needed to achieve defibrillation. Return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) was obtained in 25 cases (62.5%), that was sustained in 20 (50.0%); however only 12 children (32.4%) survived to hospital discharge. Children with VF/pVT as first documented rhythm had better sustained ROSC (64.7% vs. 39.1%, p=0.046) and survival to hospital discharge rates (58.8% vs. 21.7%, p=0.02) than those with subsequent VF/pVT. Survival rate was inversely related to duration of CPR. Clinical outcome was not related to the cause or location of arrest, type of defibrillator and waveform, energy dose per shock, number of shocks, or cumulative energy dose, although there was a trend to better survival with higher doses per shock (25.0% with <2Jkg-1, 43.4% with 2-4Jkg-1 and 50.0% with >4Jkg-1) and worse with higher number of shocks and cumulative energy dose. Conclusion: The termination of pediatric VF/pVT in the IH-CA setting is achieved in a low percentage of instances with one electrical shock at 4Jkg-1. When VF/pVT is the first documented rhythm, the results of defibrillation are better than in the case of subsequent VF/pVT. No clear relationship between defibrillation protocol and ROSC or survival has been observed. The optimal pediatric defibrillation dose remains to be determined; therefore current resuscitation guidelines cannot be considered evidence-based, and additional research is needed. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Lopez-Herce J.,Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon | Lopez-Herce J.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria Del Hospital Gregorio Maranon Of Madrid | Del Castillo J.,Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon | Del Castillo J.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria Del Hospital Gregorio Maranon Of Madrid | And 58 more authors.
Critical Care | Year: 2014

Introduction: Most studies have analyzed pre-arrest and resuscitation factors associated with mortality after cardiac arrest (CA) in children, but many patients that reach return of spontaneous circulation die within the next days or weeks. The objective of our study was to analyze post-return of spontaneous circulation factors associated with in-hospital mortality after cardiac arrest in children.Methods: A prospective multicenter, multinational, observational study in 48 hospitals from 12 countries was performed. A total of 502 children aged between 1 month and 18 years with in-hospital cardiac arrest were analyzed. The primary endpoint was survival to hospital discharge. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the influence of each post-return of spontaneous circulation factor on mortality.Results: Return of spontaneous circulation was achieved in 69.5% of patients; 39.2% survived to hospital discharge and 88.9% of survivors had good neurological outcome. In the univariate analysis, post- return of spontaneous circulation factors related with mortality were pH, base deficit, lactic acid, bicarbonate, FiO2, need for inotropic support, inotropic index, dose of dopamine and dobutamine at 1 hour and at 24 hours after return of spontaneous circulation as well as Pediatric Intensive Care Unit and total hospital length of stay. In the multivariate analysis factors associated with mortality at 1 hour after return of spontaneous circulation were PaCO2 < 30 mmHg and >50 mmHg, inotropic index >14 and lactic acid >5 mmol/L. Factors associated with mortality at 24 hours after return of spontaneous circulation were PaCO2 > 50 mmHg, inotropic index >14 and FiO2≥ 0.80. Conclusions: Secondary in-hospital mortality among the initial survivors of CA is high. Hypoventilation, hyperventilation, FiO2 ≥ 0.80, the need for high doses of inotropic support, and high levels of lactic acid were the most important post-return of spontaneous circulation factors associated with in-hospital mortality in children in our population. © 2014 López-Herce et al.

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