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Modesto, CA, United States

Huber F.,Julius Kuhn Institute | Rockel F.,Julius Kuhn Institute | Schwander F.,Julius Kuhn Institute | Maul E.,Julius Kuhn Institute | And 3 more authors.
Vitis - Journal of Grapevine Research | Year: 2016

The Vitis vinifera background of 'Catawba' and 'Concord' was investigated by using SSR analysis: 'Sémillon' was shown to be an ancestor of 'Catawba', while the wild parent remains unknown. 'Concord' was confirmed to be an offspring of 'Catawba' and another unknown wild parent. Since these two important American varieties most likely resulted from random natural crosses and successful selection, the original, wild growing wild donors remain unknown. © The author(s).

Scheiner J.J.,Cornell University | Vanden Heuvel J.E.,Cornell University | Pan B.,E and J Gallo Winery | Sacks G.L.,Cornell University
American Journal of Enology and Viticulture | Year: 2012

A study was conducted to determine the key environmental and viticultural variables affecting the concentration of 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IBMP) in Cabernet franc grapes. Berries were sampled from individual vines at 30 days after anthesis (DAA), 50 DAA, and harvest from 10 and 8 commercial New York State vineyards in 2008 and 2009, respectively. IBMP concentrations at 50 DAA were significantly higher in the warmer 2008 growing season (2008, 103 to 239 pg/g; 2009, 12 to 87 pg/g). However, in the cooler 2009 growing season a smaller percent decrease in IBMP from 50 DAA to harvest was observed, so that IBMP at harvest was not significantly different between years (2008, 1 to 13 pg/g; 2009, 5 to 14 pg/g). IBMP accumulation up to 50 DAA and log-fold decrease of IBMP from 50 DAA to harvest was modeled as a function of >120 viticultural and environmental variables (122 in 2008 and 140 in 2009). Important variables identified for modeling IBMP at 50 DAA were those associated with vine vigor, which was positively correlated with IBMP accumulation. Cluster light exposure did not explain differences in IBMP accumulation across sites, but it was important for modeling smaller differences within some sites. IBMP decrease could not be satisfactorily modeled across multiple sites, but within sites the decrease was most consistently correlated with classic fruit maturity indices (total soluble solids [TSS], TSS*pH 2). The intensity of herbaceous aromas in wines produced from each site was not correlated with IBMP concentration, but multivariate models indicated that lower vine water status was the best predictor of increased herbaceousness. © 2012 by the American Society for Enology and Viticulture. All rights reserved.

Cousins P.,E and J Gallo Winery | Zhong G.-Y.,U.S. Department of Agriculture
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2015

Grapevines of most species and cultivars produce lateral meristems (tendrils and inflorescences) on at least two successive nodes in three. Lateral meristems complicate rootstock cutting production, since tendrils are removed from rootstock cuttings prior to propagation and since tendrils clinging to wires, canes, or other tendrils make collecting cuttings more time consuming and expensive. To develop improved grapevine rootstocks with reduced lateral meristems, an elite nematode resistant rootstock selection ((Vitis berlandieri × V. riparia) × V. Biformis) was crossed with 'Roger's Red' (Vitis hybrid), and 'Roger's Red' was also self-pollinated. Seedlings from controlled pollinations were grown in a greenhouse and trained up a stake. Starting at the first node in alternate phyllotaxy (that is, a node with a lateral meristem) and continuing for twelve nodes, the presence or absence of lateral meristems was observed and the type of lateral meristem was reported. There were 141 cross-pollinated seedlings. There were 83 seedlings from 'Roger's Red' selfpollination. The expected pattern of lateral meristem distribution was wild type: two successive lateral meristem bearing nodes, followed by a single lateral meristem-free node. However, 43 of 83 seedlings from 'Roger's Red' self-pollination showed two or more successive lateral meristem-free nodes (flanked by lateral meristem-bearing nodes), and 12 of these 43 showed at least two sets of two successive lateral meristem-free nodes. One self-pollinated seedling showed three successive lateral meristem-free nodes in the alternate phyllotaxy. In contrast, in the hybrid population only 33 of 141 seedlings showed the non-wild type pattern of two successive lateral meristem-free nodes, and only 6 of these 33 showed at least two sets of two successive lateral meristem-free nodes. Tendril distribution is under genetic control and the production of extra tendril-free nodes was segregating in these populations. Dominant alleles at two genes are required for the mutant phenotype. A genetic model and the gene names Successive Tendril free Node-1 and Successive Tendril free Node-2 are proposed. © 2015 ISHS.

Dunn B.,Stanford University | Richter C.,E and J Gallo Winery | Kvitek D.J.,Stanford University | Pugh T.,E and J Gallo Winery | Sherlock G.,Stanford University
Genome Research | Year: 2012

Although the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is arguably one of the most well-studied organisms on earth, the genome-wide variation within this species - i.e., its "pan-genome" - has been less explored. We created a multispecies microarray platform containing probes covering the genomes of several Saccharomyces species: S. cerevisiae, including regions not found in the standard laboratory S288c strain, as well as the mitochondrial and 2-μm circle genomes-plus S. paradoxus, S. mikatae, S. kudriavzevii, S. uvarum, S. kluyveri, and S. castellii. We performed array-Comparative Genomic Hybridization (aCGH) on 83 different S. cerevisiae strains collected across a wide range of habitats; of these, 69 were commercial wine strains, while the remaining 14 were from a diverse set of other industrial and natural environments. We observed interspecific hybridization events, introgression events, and pervasive copy number variation (CNV) in all but a few of the strains. These CNVs were distributed throughout the strains such that they did not produce any clear phylogeny, suggesting extensive mating in both industrial and wild strains. To validate our results and to determine whether apparently similar introgressions and CNVs were identical by descent or recurrent, we also performed whole-genome sequencing on nine of these strains. These data may help pinpoint genomic regions involved in adaptation to different industrial milieus, as well as shed light on the course of domestication of S. cerevisiae. © 2012, Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

Mendez-Costabel M.P.,E and J Gallo Winery | Mendez-Costabel M.P.,University of Adelaide | Wilkinson K.L.,University of Adelaide | Bastian S.E.P.,University of Adelaide | And 3 more authors.
American Journal of Enology and Viticulture | Year: 2013

A field study was conducted from 2007 to 2010 to examine regional and seasonal variability of the main compounds responsible for green aromas in grapes and wines, 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine and C6 compounds. Sixty-nine commercial Vitis vinifera L. Merlot vineyards located in three distinctly different winegrape growing regions within the Central Valley of California were sampled at commercial harvest, fruit samples were analyzed for green aroma compounds and standard chemometrics, and several weather parameters such as growing degree days and rainfall were recorded at the vineyard level. Seasonal variation was found to be more important than regional variation, and similar trends among regions were found within each season. Temperature during the spring, a period of active growth, was found to be a significant driver of fruit green aroma compounds at harvest, likely due to its interactions with vine vigor and fruit shading. © 2013 by the American Society for Enology and Viticulture. All rights reserved.

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