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Gartner F.,E And H Klessmann Institute For Cardiovascular Research And Development | Seidel T.,Bielefeld University | Schulz U.,E And H Klessmann Institute For Cardiovascular Research And Development | Gummert J.,E And H Klessmann Institute For Cardiovascular Research And Development | Milting H.,E And H Klessmann Institute For Cardiovascular Research And Development
Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2013

Endothelin receptor A (ETA), a G protein-coupled receptor, mediates endothelin signaling, which is regulated by GRK2. Three Ser and seven Thr residues recently proven to be phosphoacceptor sites are located in the C-terminal extremity (CTE) of the receptor following its palmitoylation site.Wecreated various phosphorylation-deficient ETA mutants. The phospholipase C activity of mutant receptors in HEK-293 cells was analyzed during continuous endothelin stimulation to investigate the impact of phosphorylation sites on ETA desensitization. Total deletion of phosphoacceptor sites in the CTE affected proper receptor regulation. However, proximal and distal phosphoacceptor sites both turned out to be sufficient to induceWTlike desensitization. Overexpression of the Gαq coupling-deficient mutant GRK2-D110A suppressed ETA-WT signaling but failed to decrease phospholipase C activity mediated by the phosphorylation- deficient mutant ETA-6PD. In contrast, GRK2-WT acted on both receptors, whereas the kinase-inactive mutant GRK2-D110A/K220R failed to inhibit signaling of ETA-WT and ETA-6PD. This demonstrates that ETA desensitization involves at least two autonomous GRK2-mediated components: 1) a phosphorylation-independent signal decrease mediated by blocking of Gαq and 2) a mechanism involving phosphorylation of Ser and Thr residues in the CTE of the receptor in a redundant fashion, able to incorporate either proximal or distal phosphoacceptor sites. High level transfection of GRK2 variants influenced signaling of ETA-WTand ETA-6PD and hints at an additional phosphorylation-independent regulatory mechanism. Furthermore, internalization of mRuby-tagged receptors was observed with ETA-WT and the phosphorylation-deficient mutant ETA-14PD (lacking 14 phosphoacceptor sites) and turned out to be based on a phosphorylation-independent mechanism. © 2013 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc. Source

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