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Cernuda C.,Johannes Kepler University | Lughofer E.,Johannes Kepler University | Hintenaus P.,University of Salzburg | Marzinger W.,I RED Infrarot Systeme GmbH | And 3 more authors.
8th Conference of the European Society for Fuzzy Logic and Technology, EUSFLAT 2013 - Advances in Intelligent Systems Research | Year: 2013

In this paper we investigate the usage of non-linear chemometric models, which are calibrated based on near infrared (FTNIR) spectra, in order to increase efficiency and to improve quantification quality in melamine resin production. They rely on fuzzy systems model architecture and are able to incrementally adapt themselves during the on-line process, resolving dynamic process changes, which may cause severe error drifts of static models. The most informative wavebands in NIR spectra are extracted by a new variant of forward selection, termed as forward selection with bands (FSB) and used as inputs for the fuzzy models. A specific ensemble strategy is developed which is able to properly compensate noise in repeated spectra measurements. Results on high-dimensional data from four independent types of melamine resin show that 1.) our fuzzy modeling methodology can outperform state-of-the-art chemometric modeling methods in terms of validation error, 2.) the ensemble strategy is able to improve the performance of models without ensembling and 3.) incremental model updates are necessary in order to preventdrifting residuals. © 2013. The authors -Published by Atlantis Press. Source


Cernuda C.,Johannes Kepler University | Lughofer E.,Johannes Kepler University | Hintenaus P.,University of Salzburg | Marzinger W.,I RED Infrarot Systeme GmbH | And 3 more authors.
Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems | Year: 2013

In melamine resin production process, it is essential to supervise the condensation process. Monitoring the value of the cloud point indicates the best point of time to stop the condensation. Currently, the supervision is conducted manually by operators, which from time to time need to draw and analyze samples from the production process. In order to increase efficiency and to improve quantification quality, in this paper we investigate the usage of non-linear chemometric models, which are calibrated based on near infrared (FTNIR) process spectrum measurements. They rely on fuzzy systems model architecture and are able to incrementally adapt themselves during the on-line process, resolving dynamic process changes which may appear on-line over time due to long-term fluctuations (e.g., caused by dirt) and changes in the composition of the educt, often leading to severe error drifts of static models. Extracting the most informative wavebands prior to model training is essential to avoid a curse of dimensionality; this is achieved by a new extended variant of forward selection, termed as forward selection with bands (. FSB). Furthermore, variants of how to integrate auxiliary sensor information (temperature, pH value, pressure) together with the FTNIR spectra are presented (. hybridity). A specific ensemble strategy is developed which is able to properly compensate noise in repeated spectrum measurements. Results on high-dimensional data from four independent types of melamine resin show that 1) our non-linear modeling methodology can outperform state-of-the-art linear and non-linear chemometric modeling methods in terms of validation error, 2) the ensemble strategy is able to improve the performance of models without ensembling significantly and 3) incremental model updates are necessary in order to keep the predictive quality of the models high by preventing drifting residuals. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source


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Dynea Austria GmbH | Date: 2013-04-22

Chemicals used in industry, science and photography, as well as in agriculture, horticulture and forestry; unprocessed artificial resins, unprocessed plastics; manures; fire extinguishing compositions; tempering and soldering preparations; chemical substances for preserving foodstuffs; tanning substances; adhesives used in industry; reducing agents for use in photography; agar-agar; acrylic resins, unprocessed; actinium; activated carbons; alum; albumin animal or vegetable, raw material; albuminized paper; ammonium aldehyde; aldehydes; seaweeds fertilizers; alginates for the food industry; alginates for industrial purposes; alkalies; alkaline iodides for industrial purposes; alkaline metals; salts of alkaline metals; alkaloids; alcohol; aluminium alum; aluminium chloride; aluminium iodide; alumina; aluminium silicate; formic acid; americium; ammonia; anhydrous ammonia; ammonia alum; ammoniacal salts; ammonium salts; amyl alcohol; amyl acetate; acidulated water for recharging batteries; anhydrides; antranilic acid; anti-knock substances for internal combustion engines; antimony; antimony oxide; antimony sulphide; antistatic preparations, other than for household purposes; size for finishing and priming; dressing and finishing preparations for textiles; argon; arsenic; arsenious acid; astatine; ethane; ethers; ethyl alcohol; ethyl ether; caustic alkali; corrosive preparations; caustics for industrial purposes; caustic soda for industrial purposes; renovating preparations for phonograph records; textile-brightening chemicals; acetates chemicals; acetone; acetylene; acetylene tetrachloride; preparations for stimulating cooking for industrial purposes; bacterial preparations other than for medical and veterinary use; bacteriological preparations other than for medical and veterinary use; bacteriological preparations for acetification; chemicals used in fermenting wine; barium; barium sulphate; barium compounds; baryta; baryta paper; bases chemical preparations; grafting mastic for trees; glutinous tree-banding preparations; grafting wax for trees; bauxite; bentonite; benzoic acid; benzoic sulphinide; benzene derivatives; berkelium; agglutinants for concrete; concrete preservatives, except paints and oils; beer-clarifying and preserving agents; beer preserving agents; foundry binding substances; biochemical catalysts; biological tissue cultures other than for medical or veterinary purposes; biological preparations, other than for medical or veterinary purposes; expanded-clay for hydroponic plant growing substrate; lead arsenate; lead acetate; organic-bleaching chemicals; lead oxide; flashlight preparations; humus; blood charcoal; soil conditioning preparations; drilling muds; chemical additives to drilling muds; borax; boric acid for industrial purposes; brake fluid; fuel for atomic piles; fuel-saving preparations; bromine for chemical purposes; californium; caesium; cerium; chemical preparations to prevent wheat smut; concrete-aeration chemicals; enamel-staining chemicals; engine-decarbonising chemicals; horticulture chemicals, except fungicides, herbicides, insecticides and parasiticides; chemicals for forestry, except fungicides, herbicides, insecticides and parasiticides; chemical preparations for use in photography; agricultural chemicals, except fungicides, weedkillers, herbicides, insecticides and parasiticides; industrial chemicals; chemical substances for analyses in laboratories, other than for medical or veterinary purposes; chemical preparations for scientific purposes, other than for medical or veterinary use; chemical preparations for facilitating the alloying of metals; chemical preparations, except pigments, for the manufacture of enamel; chemical preparations to prevent mildew; textile-impregnating chemicals; leather-impregnating chemicals; chemical condensation preparations; leather-renovating chemicals; compositions for the manufacture of technical ceramics; vine disease preventing chemicals; chemical preparations for the manufacture of paints; radiator flushing chemicals; chemical reagents, other than for medical or veterinary purposes; chemical additives to motor fuel; chemical additives for oils; chlorine; chlorates; hydrochlorates; chlorides; lime chloride; cholic acid; chrome alum; chromates; chromium oxide; chromic salts; chrome salts; chromic acid; curium; distilled water; detergents for use in manufacturing processes; dextrine size; diagnostic preparations, other than for medical or veterinary purposes; diastase for industrial purposes; diatomaceous earth; diazo paper; nitrous oxide; dolomite for industrial purposes; fertilizing preparations; fertilizers; dysprosium; salts of precious metals for industrial purposes; electrophoresis gels, other than for medical or veterinary purposes; opacifiers for enamel; emulsifiers; decolorants for industrial purposes; mold-release preparations; scale removing preparations, other than for household purposes; defoliants; dehydrating preparations for industrial purposes; photographic developers; 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filtering materials vegetable substances; filtering preparations for the beverages industry; isinglass other than for stationery, household or alimentary purposes; fish meal fertilizers; fixing baths photography; fixing solutions photography; stain-preventing chemicals for use on fabrics; meat tenderizers for industrial purposes; flocculants; limestone hardening substances; transmission fluid; power steering fluid; fluorine; fluorspar compounds; hydrofluoric acid; liquids for removing sulphates from batteries; brazing fluxes; soldering fluxes; formic aldehyde for chemical purposes; foundry molding preparations; photographic emulsions; photographic paper; photographic sensitizers; photometric paper; francium; antifreeze; gadolinium; gallnuts; gallium; gallotannic acid; gallic acid for the manufacture of ink; galvanizing baths; galvanizing preparations; gambier; gas purifying preparations; solidified gases for industrial purposes; gelatine for photographic purposes; gelatine for industrial purposes; genes of seeds for agricultural production; bate for dressing skins; tan wood; tanning substances; oils for tanning leather; tannic acid; getters chemically active substances; compositions for threading; foundry sand; toxic gas neutralizers; glaziers putty; opacifiers for glass; glass-staining chemicals; glucose for the food industry; glucosides; gluten for the food industry; gluten for industrial purposes; glycol; glycol ether; glycerides; glycerine for industrial purposes; gold salts; graphite for industrial purposes; guano; gums adhesives, other than for stationery or household purposes; gum arabic for industrial purposes; gum solvents; chemical intensifiers for rubber; balm of gurjun gurjon, gurjan for making varnish; helium; holmium; pyroligneous acid wood vinegar; wood alcohol; preparations of the distillation of wood alcohol; wood pulp; humus top dressing; hydrates; fluids for hydraulic circuits; hydrazine; hyposulphites; ion exchangers chemicals; isotopes for industrial purposes; iodine for chemical purposes; iodised albumen; iodine for industrial purposes; iodised salts; iodic acid; kainite; potassium; lime acetate; potassium dioxalate; bichromate of potassium; potash water; nitrogenous lime manure; refrigerants; calcium carbide; calcium salts; camphor, for industrial purposes; kaolin; carbide; carbolineum for the protection of plants; carbonates; potato flour for industrial purposes; casein for the food industry; casein for industrial purposes; catalysts; catechu; ceramic glazings; ceramic materials in particulate form, for use as filtering media; ceramic compositions for sintering granules and powders; disincrustants; anti-incrustants; ketones; kieselgur; cement for mending broken articles; purification preparations; adhesive preparations for surgical bandages; gluten glue, other than for stationery or household purposes; adhesives for industrial purposes; adhesives for wall tiles; sorrel salt; bone charcoal; cobalt oxide for industrial purposes; carbonic hydrates; carbonic acid; lime carbonate; coal saving preparations; carbon; collodion; compost; chemical substances for preserving foodstuffs; preservatives for tiles, except paints and oils; rubber preservatives; masonry preservatives, except paints and oils; preservatives for pharmaceutical preparations; brickwork preservatives, except paints and oils; salt for preserving, other than for foodstuffs; creosote for chemical purposes; crotonic aldehyde; krypton; cryogenic preparations; coolants for vehicle engines; cultures of microorganisms other than for medical and veterinary use; earth for growing; artificial resins, unprocessed; artificial sweeteners chemical preparations; dispersions of plastics; synthetic materials for absorbing oil; plastics, unprocessed; litmus paper; lactose for the food industry; lactose for industrial purposes; lactose raw material; lanthanum; mastic for leather; leather glues; currying preparations for leather; oils for currying leather; wine finings; glue for industrial purposes; ungluing preparations; lecithin for the food industry; lecithin for industrial purposes; lecithin raw material; sensitized photographic plates; cinematographic film, sensitized but not exposed; sensitized cloth for photography; photosensitive plates; sensitized films, unexposed; sensitized paper; solutions for cyanotyping; blueprint paper; blueprint cloth; lithium; lithia lithium oxide; tan; anti-frothing solutions for batteries; solvents for varnishes; brazing preparations; cassiopium lutetium; magnesite; magnesium chloride; magnesium carbonate; magnetic fluid for industrial purposes; malt albumen; manganate; manganese dioxide; mangrove bark for industrial purposes; compositions for the manufacture of phonograph records; polish removing substances; glass frosting chemicals; sea water for industrial purposes; flour for industrial purposes; mordants for metals; metal hardening preparations; soap metallic for industrial purposes; metal annealing preparations; methane; methyl ether; methyl benzene; methyl benzol; milk ferments for chemical purposes; milk ferments for the food industry; milk ferments for industrial purposes; lactic acid; mineral acids; preparations for preventing the tarnishing of lenses; anti-sprouting preparations for vegetables; anti-tarnishing chemicals for windows; preparations for preventing the tarnishing of glass; substances for preventing runs in stockings; leather-dressing chemicals; flower preservatives; plant growth regulating preparations; condensation-preventing chemicals; moderating materials for nuclear reactors; must-fining preparation; loam; naphthalene; sodium; bicarbonate of soda for chemical purposes; bichromate of soda; hypochlorite of soda; perborate of soda; sodium salts chemical preparations; by-products of the processing of cereals for industrial purposes; neodymium; neon; neptunium; wetting preparations for use in dyeing; wetting preparations for use in the textile industry; wetting preparations for use in bleaching; metalloids; nitrates; tensio-active agents; hormones for hastening the ripening of fruit; sensitized plates for offset printing; oil-separating chemicals; oil-bleaching chemicals; oil dispersants; oils for preparing leather in the course of manufacture; oils for the preservation of food; olivine chemical preparations; oil cement putty; oil-purifying chemicals; oleic acid; oxalates; oxalic acid; palladious chlorides; paper pulp; chemical intensifiers for paper; pectin for the food industry; pectin photography; pectin for industrial purposes; perchlorates; percarbonates; persulphuric acid; persulphates; phenol for industrial purposes; phosphates fertilisers; phosphatides; phosphorus; phosphoric acid; picric acid; adhesives for billposting; plastisols; plutonium; polonium; potash; preparations of trace elements for plants; anti-boil preparations for engine coolants; praseodymium; promethium; protactinium; protein raw material; pyrogallic acid; quebracho for industrial purposes; mercury; mercuric oxide; mercury salts; radioactive elements for scientific purposes; radium for scientific purposes; radon; chemical preparations for smoking meat; reagent paper, other than for medical or veterinary purposes; tire repairing compositions; mastic for tires; detergent additives to gasoline; compositions for repairing inner tubes of tires tyres; rhenium; x-ray films, sensitized but not exposed; rubidium; soot for industrial or agricultural purposes; lamp black for industrial purposes; carbon black for industrial purposes; seed preserving substances; saccharin; salicylic acid; sal ammoniac; spirits of salt; ammonia volatile alkali for industrial purposes; salpetre; nitrate paper; nitric acid; salt, raw; salts chemical preparations; salts from rare earth metals; salts fertilisers; salts for galvanic cells; salts for industrial purposes; hydrochloric acid; samarium; oxygen; acid proof chemical compositions; acids; benzene-based acids; slag fertilisers; sizing preparations; chimney cleaners, chemical; cement for footwear; protective gases for welding; sulphur; sulphuric ether; flowers of sulphur for chemical purposes; carbon sulphide; sulphuric acid; sulphurous acid; welding chemicals; heavy water; barytes; sebacic acid; self-toning paper photography; selenium; rare earths; silver nitrate; silver salt solutions for silvering; silicates; silicones; silicon; scandium; calcined soda; soda ash; sauce for preparing tobacco; car body fillers; fissionable chemical elements; fissionable material for nuclear energy; spinel chemical preparations; finishing preparations for use in the manufacture of steel; stem cells other than for medical or veterinary purposes; starch for industrial purposes; starch paste adhesive, other than for stationery or household purposes; starch-liquifying chemicals ungluing agents; stearic acid; rock salt; nitrogen; nitrogenous fertilisers; strontium; substrates for soil-free growing agriculture; sulphates; sulphides; sulphonic acids; sumac for use in tanning; superphosphates fertilisers; synthetic resins, unprocessed; talc magnesium silicate; tannin; wallpaper removing preparations; adhesives for wallpaper; tapioca flour for industrial purposes; technetium; tellurium; terbium; test paper, chemical; tetrachlorides; carbon tetrachloride; thallium; thiocarbanilide; thorium; thulium; animal albumen raw material; animal charcoal; animal carbon; animal carbon preparations; titanium dioxide for industrial purposes; titanite; toluol; aluminium hydrate; toning salts photography; toning baths photography; peat fertiliser; peat pots for horticulture; tragacanth gum for use in manufactures; glucose for industrial purposes; gas propellents for aerosols; dry ice carbon dioxide; enamel and glass-staining-chemicals; opacifiers for enamel or glass; uranium; uranium oxide; nitrate of uranium; tree cavity fillers forestry; viscose; vitriol; birdlime; vulcanisation accelerators; vulcanising preparations; wax-bleaching chemicals; fullers earth for use in textile industry; fulling preparations; fulling preparations for use in textile industry; water softening preparations; water glass soluble glass; water purifying chemicals; hydrogen; hydrogen peroxide; emollients for industrial purposes; plasticizers; vinic alcohol; tartar other than for pharmaceutical purposes; cream of tartar for chemical purposes; cream of tartar for the food industry; cream of tartar for industrial purposes; tartaric acid; bismuth; basic gallate of bismuth; bismuth nitrite for chemical purposes; witherite; tungstic acid; xenon; ytterbium; yttrium; cellulose; cellulose ethers for industrial purposes; acetate of cellulose, unprocessed; cellulose derivatives chemicals; cellulose esters for industrial purposes; cement metallurgy; cement preservatives, except paints and oils; bichloride of tin; zirconia; citric acid for industrial purposes; combusting preparations chemical additives to motor fuel; currying preparations for skins; auxiliary fluids for use with abrasives; chemical additives to fungicides; chemical additives to insecticides; prussiates; cymene. Paints, varnishes, lacquers; preservatives against rust and against deterioration of wood; colorants; mordants; raw natural resins; metals in foil and powder form for painters, decorators, printers and artists; alizarine dyes; aluminium paints; aluminium powder for painting; aniline dyes; paints; anti-fouling paints; asbestos paints; black japan; auramine; bactericidal paints; mordants; colorants for beer; agglutinants for paints; bitumen varnish; silver foil leaf; litharge; white lead; bronze powder; bronzing lacquers; colorants for butter; cochineal carmine; coatings for tarred felt paints; thickeners for paints; printers pastes ink; printing ink; enamels varnishes; enamel paints; dyes; colorants for liqueurs; shoe dyes; colorants; fireproof paints; repositionable paint patches; dyewood; wood dyestuffs; malt colorants; colorants for beverages; varnishes; fixatives for watercolors; fixatives varnishes; yellowwood colorant; turmeric colorant; glazes paints, lacquers; engraving ink; primers; gamboge for painting; gum resins; gum-lac; wood coatings paints; wood mordants; wood stains; wood preservatives; preservative oils for wood; indigo colorant; lime wash; canada balsam; malt caramel food colorant; carbonyl wood preservative; ceramic paints; mastic natural resin; cobalt oxide colorant; carbon black pigment; colophony; copal; copal varnish; anti-corrosive bands; anti-corrosive preparations; creosote for wood preservation; lacquers; food dyes; stains for leather; ink for leather; minium; metal foil for painters, decorators, printers and artists; metals in powder form for painters, decorators, printers and artists; protective preparations for metals; anti-tarnishing preparations for metals; natural resins, raw; annatto dyestuff; paper for dyeing easter eggs; pigments; anti-rust greases; anti-rust preparations for preservation; anti-rust oils; soot colorant; lamp black pigment; saffron colorant; sandarac; sienna earth; siccatives drying agents for paints; silver emulsions pigments; silver paste; silvering powders; sumac for varnishes; turpentine thinner for paints; marking ink for animals; ink for skin-dressing; titanium dioxide pigment; ink toner for photocopiers; toner cartridges, filled, for printers and photocopiers; badigeon; whitewash; coatings paints; undercoating for vehicle chassis; thinners for paints; thinners for lacquers; gildings; distempers; whites colorants or paints; zinc oxide pigment; caramel food colorant. Bleaching preparations and other substances for laundry use; cleaning, polishing, scouring and abrasive preparations; soaps; perfumery, essential oils, cosmetics, hair lotions; dentifrices; scouring solutions; make-up removing preparations; astringents for cosmetic purposes; alum stones astringents; aloe vera preparations for cosmetic purposes; amber perfume; antistatic preparations for household purposes; antiperspirants toiletries; aromatics essential oils; flavorings for beverages essential oils; breath freshening strips; breath freshening sprays; ethereal essences; ethereal oils; essential oils of citron; essential oils of cedarwood; eyebrow cosmetics; eyebrow pencils; soap for brightening textile; cake flavourings essential oils; bath salts, not for medical purposes; cosmetic preparations for baths; balms other than for medical purposes; beard dyes; mustache wax; bergamot oil; pumice stone; skin whitening creams; bleaching preparations decolorants for cosmetic purposes; laundry bleach; bleaching salts; bleaching soda; extracts of flowers perfumes; polish for furniture and flooring; floor wax; deodorants for pets; deodorants for human beings or for animals; disinfectant soap; deodorant soap; detergents other than for use in manufacturing operations and for medical purposes; diamantine abrasive; canned pressurized air for cleaning and dusting purposes; scented wood; sachets for perfuming linen; scented water; javelle water; depilatories; depilatory wax; scale removing preparations for household purposes; color-brightening chemicals for household purposes laundry; colorants for toilet purposes; paint stripping preparations; color-removing preparations; cosmetic dyes; greases for cosmetic purposes; degreasers other than for use in manufacturing processes; varnish-removing preparations; stain removers; gaultheria oil; geraniol; shining preparations polish; laundry glaze; starch glaze for laundry purposes; glass cloth; smoothing preparations starching; smoothing stones; bases for flower perfumes; hair dyes; hair spray; hair lotions; cosmetic creams; cosmetic preparations for skin care; heliotropine; henna cosmetic dye; ionone perfumery; jasmine oil; adhesives for affixing false hair; adhesives for cosmetic purposes; adhesives for affixing false eyelashes; eau de cologne; corundum abrasive; cosmetics; cosmetic kits; cosmetic pencils; cleaning chalk; false nails; false eyelashes; lacquer-removing preparations; lavender oil; lavender water; leather bleaching preparations; waxes for leather; leather preservatives polishes; lip glosses; lipsticks; floor wax removers scouring preparations; lotions for cosmetic purposes; air fragrancing preparations; almond milk for cosmetic purposes; almond oil; almond soap; massage gels other than for medical purposes; medicated soap; carbides of metal abrasives; cloths impregnated with a detergent for cleaning; preparations for unblocking drain pipes; preparations to make shiny the leaves of plants; douching preparations for personal sanitary or deodorant purposes toiletries; musk perfumery; mouth washes, not for medical purposes; nail art stickers; nail polish; nail care preparations; washing soda, for cleaning; soda lye; neutralizers for permanent waving; oils for toilet purposes; oils for cosmetic purposes; oils for cleaning purposes; hair waving preparations; oils for perfumes and scents; perfumery; perfumes; pastes for razor strops; mint for perfumery; mint essence essential oil; polishing creams; polishing preparations; denture polishes; polishing paper; polishing rouge; polishing stones; polishing wax; pomades for cosmetic purposes; potpourris fragrances; dry-cleaning preparations; furbishing preparations; quillaia bark for washing; shaving preparations; shaving soap; shaving stones astringents; after-shave lotions; fumigation preparations perfumes; joss sticks; windscreen cleaning liquids; cleansing milk for toilet purposes; cleaning preparations; preparations for cleaning dentures; rose oil; rust removing preparations; non-slipping liquids for floors; non-slipping wax for floors; safrol; ammonia volatile alkali detergent; sandpaper; whiting; cosmetic preparations for slimming purposes; grinding preparations; abrasive paper; abrasives; make-up; make-up preparations; make-up powder; emery; emery cloth; emery paper; sandcloth; tailors wax; beauty masks; shoe cream; shoe polish; shoe wax; cobblers wax; shoemakers wax; antiperspirant soap; soap; soap for foot perspiration; shampoos; silicon carbide abrasive; sunscreen preparations; sun-tanning preparations cosmetics; laundry starch; badian essence; talcum powder, for toilet use; wallpaper cleaning preparations; terpenes essential oils; turpentine, for degreasing; oil of turpentine for degreasing; cosmetics for animals; shampoos for pets; toiletries; cakes of soap; toilet water; tripoli stone for polishing; dry shampoos; drying agents for dishwashing machines; tissues impregnated with cosmetic lotions; petroleum jelly for cosmetic purposes; volcanic ash for cleaning; laundry wax; laundry blueing; laundry soaking preparations; laundry preparations; hydrogen peroxide for cosmetic purposes; cotton wool for cosmetic purposes; cotton sticks for cosmetic purposes; fabric softeners for laundry use; incense; cosmetic preparations for eyelashes; mascara; dental bleaching gels; dentifrices; decorative transfers for cosmetic purposes; essential oils of lemon. 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Pharmaceutical and veterinary preparations; sanitary preparations for medical purposes; dietetic food and substances adapted for medical or veterinary use, food for babies; dietary supplements for humans and animals; plasters, materials for dressings; material for stopping teeth, dental wax; disinfectants; preparations for destroying vermin; fungicides, herbicides; dental impression materials; evacuants; medical preparations for slimming purposes; slimming pills; adjuvants for medical purposes; acaricides; aconitine; aldehydes for pharmaceutical purposes; algicides; alginates for pharmaceutical purposes; alkaline iodides for pharmaceutical purposes; alkaloids for medical purposes; medicinal alcohol; alcohol for pharmaceutical purposes; aloe vera preparations for pharmaceutical purposes; dental amalgams; amino acids for medical purposes; amino acids for veterinary purposes; analgesics; anaesthetics; angostura bark for medical purposes; antibiotics; anti-rheumatism bracelets; anti-rheumatism rings; antiseptics; antiseptic cotton; appetite suppressants for medical purposes; appetite suppressant pills; bracelets for medical purposes; medicines for human purposes; medicines for veterinary purposes; medicines for dental purposes; medicines for alleviating constipation; aseptic cotton; asthmatic tea; ethers for pharmaceutical purposes; caustics for pharmaceutical purposes; caustic pencils; eye-washes; eyepatches for medical purposes; acetates for pharmaceutical purposes; babies diaper-pants; food for babies; babies napkins diapers; bath salts for medical purposes; bath preparations, medicated; therapeutic preparations for the bath; bacterial poisons; bacterial preparations for medical and veterinary use; bacteriological preparations for medical and veterinary use; dietary fiber; balms for medical purposes; balsamic preparations for medical purposes; bandages for dressings; barks for pharmaceutical purposes; cotton for medical purposes; sedatives; biological tissue cultures for medical purposes; biological tissue cultures for veterinary purposes; biological preparations for medical purposes; biological preparations for veterinary purposes; biocides; lead water; blood for medical purposes; hematogen; leeches for medical purposes; blood plasma; depuratives; candy, medicated; tanning pills; bromine for pharmaceutical purposes; powder of cantharides; chemical preparations to treat wheat smut; chemical preparations for treating phylloxera; vine disease treating chemicals; chemico-pharmaceutical preparations; chemical contraceptives; chemical conductors for electrocardiograph electrodes; chemical preparations to treat mildew; chemical preparations for the diagnosis of pregnancy; chemical preparations for medical purposes; chemical preparations for pharmaceutical purposes; chemical preparations for veterinary purposes; chemical reagents for medical or veterinary purposes; cinchona for medical purposes; quinine for medical purposes; chinoline for medical purposes; surgical tissues; surgical implants living tissues; hydrated chloral for pharmaceutical purposes; chloroform; condurango bark for medical purposes; curare; sanitary towels; decoctions for pharmaceutical purposes; dental cements; deodorants, other than for human beings or for animals; deodorants for clothing and textiles; disinfectants for chemical toilets; disinfectants for hygiene purposes; detergents for medical purposes; diabetic bread adapted for medical use; diagnostic preparations for medical purposes; diastase for medical purposes; dietetic beverages adapted for medical purposes; dietetic substances adapted for medical use; dietetic foods adapted for medical purposes; digitalin; dill oil for medical purposes; drugs for medical purposes; alloys of precious metals for dental purposes; albuminous preparations for medical purposes; elixirs pharmaceutical preparations; gentian for pharmaceutical purposes; enzymes for medical purposes; enzymes for veterinary purposes; enzyme preparations for medical purposes; enzyme preparations for veterinary purposes; aluminium acetate for pharmaceutical purposes; esters for pharmaceutical purposes; eucalyptol for pharmaceutical purposes; eucalyptus for pharmaceutical purposes; fennel for medical purposes; ferments for pharmaceutical purposes; greases for medical purposes; greases for veterinary purposes; febrifuges; fish meal for pharmaceutical purposes; fly catching paper; fly glue; fly destroying preparations; formic aldehyde for pharmaceutical purposes; chilblain preparations; frostbite salve for pharmaceutical purposes; fungicides; gallic acid for pharmaceutical purposes; gases for medical purposes; gelatine for medical purposes; royal jelly for pharmaceutical purposes; poisons; glycerine for medical purposes; glycerophosphates; dental amalgams of gold; guaiacol for pharmaceutical purposes; gum for medical purposes; gamboge for medical purposes; gurjun gurjon, gurjan balsam for medical purposes; belts for sanitary napkins towels; hemostatic pencils; adhesives for dentures; hemoglobin; hemorrhoid preparations; preparations for destroying dry rot fungus; yeast for pharmaceutical purposes; adhesive plasters; remedies for foot perspiration; remedies for perspiration; charcoal for pharmaceutical purposes; extracts of hops for pharmaceutical purposes; hormones for medical purposes; cement for animal hooves; corn remedies; corn rings for the feet; repellents for dogs; dog lotions; dog washes; hydrastine; hydrastinine; vaccines; pants, absorbent, for incontinents; insecticides; insect repellents; personal sexual lubricants; irish moss for medical purposes; isotopes for medical purposes; jalap; iodine for pharmaceutical purposes; iodides for pharmaceutical purposes; iodoform; tincture of iodine; jujube, medicated; potassium salts for medical purposes; preparations of lime for pharmaceutical purposes; calomel; cooling sprays for medical purposes; camphor for medical purposes; camphor oil for medical purposes; candy for medical purposes; capsules for medicines; cachets for pharmaceutical purposes; carbolineum parasiticide; poultices; cachou for pharmaceutical purposes; chewing gum for medical purposes; rubber for dental purposes; germicides; adhesive bands for medical purposes; bone cement for surgical and orthopaedic purposes; cocaine; collodion for pharmaceutical purposes; collyrium; compresses; headache pencils; smoking herbs for medical purposes; herbal teas for medicinal purposes; creosote for pharmaceutical purposes; croton bark; cultures of microorganisms for medical and veterinary use; liquorice for pharmaceutical purposes; stick liquorice for pharmaceutical purposes; larvae exterminating preparations; laxatives; cod liver oil; linseed for pharmaceutical purposes; linseed meal for pharmaceutical purposes; lecithin for medical purposes; liniments; solutions for contact lenses; solvents for removing adhesive plasters; lotions for pharmaceutical purposes; lotions for veterinary purposes; air purifying preparations; lupulin for pharmaceutical purposes; magnesia for pharmaceutical purposes; malt for pharmaceutical purposes; malted milk beverages for medical purposes; milk of almonds for pharmaceutical purposes; mangrove bark for pharmaceutical purposes; preparations for destroying mice; medicinal drinks; medicinal herbs; medicinal infusions; medicinal hair growth preparations; medicinal tea; sea water for medicinal bathing; meal for pharmaceutical purposes; melissa water for pharmaceutical purposes; milking grease; menthol; articles for headache; milk ferments for pharmaceutical purposes; lactose for pharmaceutical purposes; mineral food supplements; mineral waters for medical purposes; mineral water salts; preparations for the treatment of burns; soil-sterilising preparations; anti-uric preparations; preparations for callouses; air deodorising preparations; preparations to facilitate teething; douching preparations for medical purposes; preparations for reducing sexual activity; preparations for destroying noxious animals; molding wax for dentists; moleskin for medical purposes; sanitary pads; sanitary pants; mud for baths; medicinal mud; mothproofing preparations; mothproof paper; mouthwashes for medical purposes; ergot for pharmaceutical purposes; myrobalan bark for pharmaceutical purposes; bacteriological culture mediums; lacteal flour for babies; albuminous foodstuffs for medical purposes; nutritive substances for microorganisms; nutritional supplements; albumin dietary supplements; alginate dietary supplements; enzyme dietary supplements; royal jelly dietary supplements; glucose dietary supplements; yeast dietary supplements; casein dietary supplements; linseed dietary supplements; linseed oil dietary supplements; lecithin dietary supplements; pollen dietary supplements; propolis dietary supplements; protein dietary supplements; wheat germ dietary supplements; dietary supplements for animals; narcotics; bicarbonate of soda for pharmaceutical purposes; sodium salts for medical purposes; by-products of the processing of cereals for dietetic or medical purposes; nervines; medicinal oils; opiates; opium; opodeldoc; opotherapy preparations; antioxidant pills; paper for mustard plasters; antiparasitic collars for animals; antiparasitic preparations; parasiticides; lozenges for pharmaceutical purposes; pectin for pharmaceutical purposes; pepsins for pharmaceutical purposes; peptones for pharmaceutical purposes; pearl powder for medical purposes; pesticides; mint for pharmaceutical purposes; bunion pads; pharmaceutical preparations; pharmaceutical preparations for treating dandruff; pharmaceutical preparations for skin care; phenol for pharmaceutical purposes; phosphates for pharmaceutical purposes; anticryptogamic preparations; pomades for medical purposes; porcelain for dental prostheses; bronchodilating preparations; preparations of trace elements for human and animal use; sterilising preparations; propolis for pharmaceutical purposes; protein supplements for animals; pyrethrum powder; quassia for medical purposes; quebracho for medical purposes; mercurial ointments; radioactive substances for medical purposes; radium for medical purposes; rat poison; fumigating sticks; fumigation preparations for medical purposes; reagent paper for medical or veterinary purposes; contact lens cleaning preparations; medicine cases, portable, filled; rhubarb roots for pharmaceutical purposes; smelling salts; castor oil for medical purposes; radiological contrast substances for medical purposes; ointments for pharmaceutical purposes; salts for medical purposes; salts for mineral water baths; sarsaparilla for medical purposes; oxygen for medical purposes; oxygen baths; acids for pharmaceutical purposes; lint for medical purposes; soporifics; dental abrasives; slug exterminating preparations; flowers of sulphur for pharmaceutical purposes; sulphur sticks disinfectants; mustard for pharmaceutical purposes; mustard oil for medical purposes; mustard plasters; serums; serotherapeutic medicines; siccatives drying agents for medical purposes; syrups for pharmaceutical purposes; scapulars for surgical purposes; panty liners sanitary; sunburn ointments; sunburn preparations for pharmaceutical purposes; semen for artificial insemination; stem cells for medical purposes; stem cells for veterinary purposes; starch for dietetic or pharmaceutical purposes; steroids; breast-nursing pads; strychnine; styptic preparations; sulphonamides medicines; suppositories; tobacco extracts insecticides; tobacco-free cigarettes for medical purposes; sanitary tampons; turpentine for pharmaceutical purposes; oil of turpentine for pharmaceutical purposes; thermal water; thymol for pharmaceutical purposes; animal washes; tinctures for medical purposes; tonics medicines; glucose for medical purposes; tissues impregnated with pharmaceutical lotions; vermin destroying preparations; herbicides; vaginal washes; petroleum jelly for medical purposes; gauze for dressings; first-aid boxes, filled; dressings, medical; surgical dressings; absorbent cotton; digestives for pharmaceutical purposes; vesicants; veterinary preparations; cattle washes; vitamin preparations; wart pencils; hydrogen peroxide for medical purposes; wadding for medical purposes; insect repellent incense; tartar for pharmaceutical purposes; cream of tartar for pharmaceutical purposes; diapers for pets; napkins for incontinents; bismuth preparations for pharmaceutical purposes; bismuth subnitrate for pharmaceutical purposes; vulnerary sponges; vermifuges; medicinal roots; teeth filling material; dental mastics; dental lacquer; cedar wood for use as an insect repellent; cellulose ethers for pharmaceutical purposes; cellulose esters for pharmaceutical purposes; sugar for medical purposes.


Stockel F.,Kompetenzzentrum Holz GmbH | Stockel F.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna | Konnerth J.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna | Kantner W.,Dynea Austria GmbH | And 3 more authors.
Holzforschung | Year: 2010

The tensile shear strength of veneer lap joints was characterised. The joints were produced with an Automated Bonding Evaluation System (ABES) using urea-formaldehyde (UF) as well as melamine-urea-formaldehyde (MUF) adhesive formulated for particleboard production. At a fixed heating temperature of 110°C, a systematic increase in bond strength was observed for both adhesives with increasing cure time. The absolute bond strength was significantly higher for MUF compared to UF. Nanoindentation experiments with the same specimens used for ABES revealed a very hard, stiff and brittle character of the UF resin, whereas the MUF proved significantly less hard and stiff, and less brit-tle. Wood cell walls in contact with adhesive, i.e., where adhesive penetration into the cell wall was assumed, showed significantly altered mechanical properties. Such cell walls were harder, stiffer and more brittle than unaffected reference cell walls. These effects were slightly more pronounced for UF than for MUF. Comparing UF and MUF, the micro-mechanical properties of cured adhesive and interphase cell walls confirm earlier observations that tougher adhesives can lead to higher macroscopic bond strength. In strong contrast to that, no obvious correlation was found between micromechanical properties and the strong cure time dependence of macroscopic bond strength. Copyright © by Walter de Gruyter. Source


Stockel F.,Kompetenzzentrum Holz GmbH | Stockel F.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna | Konnerth J.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna | Moser J.,Dynea Austria GmbH | And 3 more authors.
Wood Science and Technology | Year: 2012

Micromechanical properties of cured polymeric diphenylmethane diisocyanate (pMDI) and urea formaldehyde (UF) adhesive and wood cell walls (beech) in adhesive contact compared with cell walls without adhesive contact were measured in situ by means of nanoindentation. Using UV-microphotometry obtained absorbance spectra of micromechanical investigated cell wall regions gave a strong indicator for the presence of pMDI compounds in wood cell walls. Nanoindentation results reveal that both pure UF and UF-penetrated cell walls show a very brittle character. In contrast, pMDI adhesive is very tough and soft at the same time, and when diffused in cell walls, it does not mechanically embrittle the cell structure. © Springer-Verlag 2011. Source

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