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Negra M.D.,Institute Infectologia Emilio Ribas | De Carvalho A.P.,Hospital Infantil Joana de Gusmao | De Aquino M.Z.,Instituto da Crianca Do Hospital das Clinicas da FMUSP | Da Silva M.T.N.,University of Campinas | And 8 more authors.
Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal | Year: 2012

Background: There are few data on the safety and antiviral activity of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) in HIV-1 infected adolescents. Methods: A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study was conducted. Ninety adolescents (12 to <18 years) who were viremic while receiving antiretroviral treatment were randomized to receive TDF 300 mg (mean, 216.8 mg/m) or placebo in combination with an optimized background regimen (OBR) for 48 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was time-weighted average change in plasma HIV-1 RNA from baseline at week 24 Results: Eighty-seven subjects (45 TDF, 42 placebo) received the study drug. Through week 24, the median time-weighted average change in plasma HIV-1 RNA was not different between the TDF and placebo groups (-1.6 versus-1.6 log10copies/mL, P = 0.55). The percentages of subjects who achieved HIV-1 RNA <400 copies/mL were similar at week 24 (40.9 versus 41.5%). One fourth of subjects in the TDF and placebo groups (24.4 versus 28.6%) had at least 3 active agents in the OBR. Many subjects in both groups had baseline genotypic resistance to TDF (48.9 versus 33.3%). TDF was generally safe and well tolerated. There were no statistically significant differences in changes of renal function and bone mineral density between the 2 groups. Conclusion: This study of TDF in combination with an OBR in antiretroviral- experienced adolescents did not meet its primary or secondary efficacy endpoints. The effectiveness of the OBR and baseline genotypic resistance to TDF in both groups may have confounded the efficacy findings. No clinically relevant TDF-related renal or bone toxicities were observed in this adolescent population. Copyright © 2012 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Clancy R.M.,New York University | Alvarez D.,New York University | Komissarova E.,New York University | Barrat F.J.,Dynavax Technologies | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Immunology | Year: 2010

Activation of TLR by ssRNA after FcγR-mediated phagocytosis of immune complexes (IC) may be relevant in autoimmune-associated congenital heart block (CHB) where the obligate factor is a maternal anti-SSA/Ro Ab and the fetal factors, protein/RNA on an apoptotic cardiocyte and infiltrating macrophages. This study addressed the hypothesis that Ro60-associated ssRNAs link macrophage activation to fibrosis via TLR engagement. Both macrophage transfection with noncoding ssRNA that bind Ro60 and an IC generated by incubation of Ro60-ssRNA with an IgG fraction from a CHB mother or affinity purified anti-Ro60 significantly increased TNF-α secretion, an effect not observed using control RNAs or normal IgG. Dependence on TLR was supported by the significant inhibition of TNF-α release by IRS661 and chloroquine. The requirement for FcγRIIIa-mediated delivery was provided by inhibition with an anti-CD16a Ab. Fibrosis markers were noticeably increased in fetal cardiac fibroblasts after incubation with supernatants generated from macrophages transfected with ssRNA or incubated with the IC. Supernatants generated from macrophages with ssRNA in the presence of IRS661 or chloroquine did not cause fibrosis. In a CHB heart, but not a healthy heart, TLR7 immunostaining was localized to a region near the atrioventricular groove at a site enriched in mononuclear cells and fibrosis. These data support a novel injury model in CHB, whereby endogenous ligand, Ro60-associated ssRNA, forges a nexus between TLR ligation and fibrosis instigated by binding of anti-Ro Abs to the target protein likely accessible via apoptosis. Copyright © 2010 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

O'Hagan D.T.,Novartis | Ott G.S.,Dynavax Technologies | De Gregorio E.,Novartis | Seubert A.,Novartis
Vaccine | Year: 2012

MF59 is a safe and effective vaccine adjuvant which was originally approved to be included in a licensed influenza vaccine to be used in the elderly in Europe in 1997. The MF59 adjuvanted influenza vaccine (Fluad™) is now licensed in more than 20 countries worldwide and more than 85 million doses have been administered. More recently the vaccine adjuvant has also been shown to be safe and effective in young children and resulted in a significant increase in influenza vaccine efficacy in a controlled clinical trial in Europe. Since the early days of its discovery we have explored the mechanism of action of MF59, using a variety of available techniques. In recent years we have explored more thoroughly the mechanism of action using new and more sophisticated techniques. It is remarkable how consistent the data has been, using a variety of different approaches both in several small animal models and also using human immune cells in vitro. Here we present a summary of all the work performed to date on the mechanism of action of MF59 and we present a unified theory based on the accumulated data of how it exerts its adjuvant effects. A key element of the mechanism of action appears to be the creation of a transient 'immunocompetent' local environment at the injection site, resulting in the recruitment of key immune cells, which are able to take up antigen and adjuvant and transport them to the local lymph nodes, where the immune response is induced. This recruitment appears to be triggered by the induction of a chemokine driven gradient by the impact of MF59 on local cells, which are activated to secrete further chemokines, which are recruitment factors for more immune cells. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Campbell J.D.,Dynavax Technologies | Kell S.A.,Dynavax Technologies | Kozy H.M.,Dynavax Technologies | Lum J.A.,Dynavax Technologies | And 7 more authors.
Thorax | Year: 2014

Background CpG-containing oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODNs) are potent inhibitors of T helper 2 mediated allergic airway disease in sensitised mice challenged with allergen. A single treatment has transient effects but a limited series of treatments has potential to achieve clinically meaningful sustained inhibition of allergic airway disease. Objective To optimise the treatment regimen for sustained efficacy and to determine the mechanisms of action in mice of an inhaled form of CpG-ODN being developed for human asthma treatment. Methods We set up a chronic allergic-asthma model using ragweed-sensitised mice exposed weekly to intranasal ragweed. Using this model, the effects of a limited series of weekly intranasal 1018 ISS (CpG-ODN; B-class) treatments were evaluated during treatment and for several weeks after treatments had stopped but weekly allergen exposures continued. Treatment efficacy was evaluated by measuring effects on lung T helper 2 cytokines and eosinophilia, and lung dendritic cell function and T-cell responses. Results Twelve intranasal 1018 ISS treatments induced significant suppression of bronchoalveolar lavage eosinophilia and interleukin 4, 5 and 13 levels. This suppression of allergic T helper 2 parameters was maintained through 13 weekly ragweed exposures administered after treatment cessation. Subsequent experiments demonstrated that at least five treatments were required for lasting suppression. Although CpGODN induced moderate T helper 1 responses, suppression of allergic airway disease did not require interferon γ but was associated with induction of a regulatory T-cell response. Conclusions A short series of CpG-ODN treatments results in sustained suppression of allergic lung inflammation induced by a clinically relevant allergen.

Hou B.,University of California at San Francisco | Saudan P.,Cytos Biotechnology AG | Ott G.,Dynavax Technologies | Wheeler M.,University of California at San Francisco | And 6 more authors.
Immunity | Year: 2011

The contribution of Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling to T cell-dependent (TD) antibody responses was assessed by using mice lacking the TLR signaling adaptor MyD88 in individual cell types. When a soluble TLR9 ligand was used as adjuvant for a protein antigen, MyD88 was required in dendritic cells but not in B cells to enhance the TD antibody response, regardless of the inherent immunogenicity of the antigen. In contrast, a TLR9 ligand contained within a virus-like particle substantially augmented the TD germinal center IgG antibody response, and this augmentation required B cell MyD88. The ability of B cells to discriminate between antigens based on the physical form of a TLR ligand probably reflects an adaptation to facilitate strong antiviral antibody responses. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

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