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Luerman G.C.,Pfizer | Nguyen C.,Structural Biology and Biophysics | Samaroo H.,Pfizer | Loos P.,Pfizer | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Neurochemistry | Year: 2014

Genetic mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) have been linked to autosomal dominant Parkinson's disease. The most prevalent mutation, G2019S, results in enhanced LRRK2 kinase activity that potentially contributes to the etiology of Parkinson's disease. Consequently, disease progression is potentially mediated by poorly characterized phosphorylation-dependent LRRK2 substrate pathways. To address this gap in knowledge, we transduced SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells with LRRK2 G2019S via adenovirus, then determined quantitative changes in the phosphoproteome upon LRRK2 kinase inhibition (LRRK2-IN-1 treatment) using stable isotope labeling of amino acids in culture combined with phosphopeptide enrichment and LC-MS/MS analysis. We identified 776 phosphorylation sites that were increased or decreased at least 50% in response to LRRK2-IN-1 treatment, including sites on proteins previously known to associate with LRRK2. Bioinformatic analysis of those phosphoproteins suggested a potential role for LRRK2 kinase activity in regulating pro-inflammatory responses and neurite morphology, among other pathways. In follow-up experiments, LRRK2-IN-1 inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and C-X-C motif chemokine 10 (CXCL10) levels in astrocytes and also enhanced multiple neurite characteristics in primary neuronal cultures. However, LRRK2-IN-1 had almost identical effects in primary glial and neuronal cultures from LRRK2 knockout mice. These data suggest LRRK2-IN-1 may inhibit pathways of perceived LRRK2 pathophysiological function independently of LRRK2 highlighting the need to use multiple pharmacological tools and genetic approaches in studies determining LRRK2 function. © 2013 International Society for Neurochemistry.


Kamalian L.,University of Liverpool | Chadwick A.E.,University of Liverpool | Bayliss M.,University of Liverpool | French N.S.,University of Liverpool | And 3 more authors.
Toxicology in Vitro | Year: 2015

Drug-induced mitochondrial dysfunction has been hypothesized to be an important determining factor in the onset of drug-induced liver injury. It is essential to develop robust screens with which to identify drug-induced mitochondrial toxicity and to dissect its role in hepatotoxicity. In this study we have characterised a mechanistically refined HepG2 model, using a panel of selected hepatotoxicants and non-hepatotoxicants. We have demonstrated that acute metabolic modification, via glucose-deprivation over a 4. h period immediately prior to compound addition, is sufficient to allow the identification of drugs which induce mitochondrial dysfunction, in the absence of cell death over a short exposure (2-8. h) using a plate-based screen to measure cellular ATP content and cytotoxicity. These effects were verified by measuring changes in cellular respiration, via oxygen consumption and extracellular acidification rates. Overall, these studies demonstrate the utility of HepG2 cells for the identification of mitochondrial toxins which act directly on the electron transport chain and that the dual assessment of ATP content alongside cytotoxicity provides an enhanced mechanistic understanding of the causes of toxicity. © 2015 The Authors.


PubMed | University of Liverpool and Pharmacokinetics Dynamics and Metabolism
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Toxicology in vitro : an international journal published in association with BIBRA | Year: 2015

Drug-induced mitochondrial dysfunction has been hypothesized to be an important determining factor in the onset of drug-induced liver injury. It is essential to develop robust screens with which to identify drug-induced mitochondrial toxicity and to dissect its role in hepatotoxicity. In this study we have characterised a mechanistically refined HepG2 model, using a panel of selected hepatotoxicants and non-hepatotoxicants. We have demonstrated that acute metabolic modification, via glucose-deprivation over a 4 h period immediately prior to compound addition, is sufficient to allow the identification of drugs which induce mitochondrial dysfunction, in the absence of cell death over a short exposure (2-8 h) using a plate-based screen to measure cellular ATP content and cytotoxicity. These effects were verified by measuring changes in cellular respiration, via oxygen consumption and extracellular acidification rates. Overall, these studies demonstrate the utility of HepG2 cells for the identification of mitochondrial toxins which act directly on the electron transport chain and that the dual assessment of ATP content alongside cytotoxicity provides an enhanced mechanistic understanding of the causes of toxicity.

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