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Sandwich, United Kingdom

Millan D.S.,Worldwide Medicinal Chemistry | Bunnage M.E.,Worldwide Medicinal Chemistry | Burrows J.L.,Sandwich | Butcher K.J.,Worldwide Medicinal Chemistry | And 14 more authors.
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2011

This paper describes the identification and optimization of a novel series of DFG-out binding p38 inhibitors as inhaled agents for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Structure based drug design and "inhalation by design" principles have been applied to the optimization of the lead series exemplied by compound 1a. Analogues have been designed to be potent and selective for p38, with an emphasis on slow enzyme dissociation kinetics to deliver prolonged lung p38 inhibition. Pharmacokinetic properties were tuned with high intrinsic clearance and low oral bioavailability in mind, to minimize systemic exposure and reduce systemically driven adverse events. High CYP mediated clearance and glucuronidation were targeted to achieve high intrinsic clearance coupled with multiple routes of clearance to minimize drug-drug interactions. Furthermore, pharmaceutical properties such as stability, crystallinity, and solubility were considered to ensure compatibility with a dry powder inhaler. 1ab (PF-03715455) was subsequently identified as a clinical candidate from this series with efficacy and safety profiles confirming its potential as an inhaled agent for the treatment of COPD. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

Straub S.V.,Metabolic and Endocrine Diseases Research Unit | Perez S.M.,Metabolic and Endocrine Diseases Research Unit | Tan B.,Dynamics and Metabolism | Coughlan K.A.,Pfizer | And 5 more authors.
American Journal of Physiology - Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2011

Pharmacological inhibition of Kv1.3 fails to modulate insulin sensitivity in diabetic mice or human insulin-sensitive tissues. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 301: E380-E390,+011. First published May 17, 2011; doi:10.1152/ajpendo.00076.2011.-Genetic ablation of the voltagegated potassium channel Kv1.3 improves insulin sensitivity and increases metabolic rate in mice. Inhibition of Kv1.3 in mouse adipose and skeletal muscle is reported to increase glucose uptake through increased GLUT4 translocation. Since Kv1.3 represents a novel target for the treatment of diabetes, the present study investigated whether Kv1.3 is functionally expressed in human adipose and skeletal muscle and whether specific pharmacological inhibition of the channel is capable of modulating insulin sensitivity in diabetic mouse models. Voltage-gated K+ channel currents in human skeletal muscle cells (SkMC) were insensitive to block by the specific Kv1.3 blockers 5-(4-phenoxybutoxy)psoralen (PAP-1) and margatoxin (MgTX). Glucose uptake into SkMC and mouse 3T3-L1 adipocytes was also unaffected by treatment with PAP-1 or MgTX. Kv1.3 protein expression was not observed in human adipose or skeletal muscle from normal and type 2 diabetic donors. To investigate the effect of specific Kv1.3 inhibition on insulin sensitivity in vivo, PAP-1 was administered to hyperglycemic mice either acutely or for 5 days prior to an insulin tolerance test. No effect on insulin sensitivity was observed at free plasma PAP-1 concentrations that are specific for inhibition of Kv1.3. Insulin sensitivity was increased only when plasma concentrations of PAP-1 were sufficient to inhibit other Kv1 channels. Surprisingly, acute inhibition of Kv1.3 in the brain was found to ecrease insulin sensitivity in ob/ob mice. Overall, these findings are not supportive of a role for Kv1.3 in the modulation of peripheral insulin sensitivity. © 2011 the American Physiological Society.

Obach R.S.,Dynamics and Metabolism | Vanase-Frawley M.,Dynamics and Metabolism | Kauffman G.W.,Dynamics and Metabolism | Sawant-Basak A.,Dynamics and Metabolism
Xenobiotica | Year: 2016

1.The first generation 5HT-4 partial agonist, 4-{4-[4-Tetrahydrofuran-3-yloxy)-benzo[d]isoxazol-3-yloxymethyl]-piperidin-1-ylmethyl}-tetrahydropyran-4-ol, PF-4995274 (TBPT), was metabolized to N-dealkylated (M1) and an unusual, cyclized oxazolidine (M2) metabolites. M1 and M2 demonstrated pharmacological activity at 5HT receptor subtypes warranting further investigation into their dispositional properties in humans; M2 was a minor component in vitro but was the pre-dominant metabolite identified in human plasma. 2.To shift metabolism away from the piperidine ring of TBPT, a series of heterocyclic replacements were designed, synthesized, and profiled. Groups including azetidines, pyrrolidines, as well as functionalized piperidines were evaluated with the goal of identifying an alternative group that maintained the desired potency, functional activity, and reduced turnover in human hepatocytes. 3.Activities of 4-substituted piperidines or pyrrolidine analogs at the pharmacological target were not significantly altered, but the same metabolic pathways of N-dealkylation and oxazolidine formation were still observed. Altering these to bridged ring systems lowered oxazolidine metabolite formation, but not N-dealkylation. 4.The effort concluded with identification of azetidines as second-generation 5HT4 partial agonists. These were neither metabolized via N-dealkylation nor converted to cyclized oxazolidine metabolites rather oxidized on the isoxazole ring. The use of azetidine as a replacement for aliphatic aza-heterocyclic rings in drug design to alter drug metabolism and pharmacology is discussed. © 2016 Taylor & Francis.

Rawson D.J.,Worldwide Medicinal Chemistry | Ballard S.,Pfizer | Barber C.,Worldwide Medicinal Chemistry | Barker L.,Pfizer | And 20 more authors.
Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2012

This paper describes our recent efforts to design and synthesise potent and selective PDE5 inhibitors and the use of in vitro predictors of clearance, absorption and permeability to maximise the potential for dose-proportional pharmacokinetics and good oral bioavailability in man. Optimisation of the preclinical profile resulted in the identification of UK-369003 (19a) and its nomination as a clinical candidate. The clinical pharmacokinetic and safety profile has enabled us to progress the compound to test its efficacy in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and a paper describing its efficacy has recently been published. 2,3. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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