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Kendall M.S.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | Poti M.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | Poti M.,Dynamac Inc. | Karnauskas K.B.,University of Colorado at Boulder
Global Change Biology | Year: 2016

Changes in larval import, export, and self-seeding will affect the resilience of coral reef ecosystems. Climate change will alter the ocean currents that transport larvae and also increase sea surface temperatures (SST), hastening development, and shortening larval durations. Here, we use transport simulations to estimate future larval connectivity due to: (1) physical transport of larvae from altered circulation alone, and (2) the combined effects of altered currents plus physiological response to warming. Virtual larvae from islands throughout Micronesia were moved according to present-day and future ocean circulation models. The Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) spanning 2004-2012 represented present-day currents. For future currents, we altered HYCOM using analysis from the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Earth System Model, version 1-Biogeochemistry, Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 experiment. Based on the NCAR model, regional SST is estimated to rise 2.74 °C which corresponds to a ~17% decline in larval duration for some taxa. This reduction was the basis for a separate set of simulations. Results predict an increase in self-seeding in 100 years such that 62-76% of islands experienced increased self-seeding, there was an average domainwide increase of ~1-3% points in self-seeding, and increases of up to 25% points for several individual islands. When changed currents alone were considered, approximately half (i.e., random) of all island pairs experienced decreased connectivity but when reduced PLD was added as an effect, ~65% of connections were weakened. Orientation of archipelagos relative to currents determined the directional bias in connectivity changes. There was no universal relationship between climate change and connectivity applicable to all taxa and settings. Islands that presently export large numbers of larvae but that also maintain or enhance this role into the future should be the focus of conservation measures that promote long-term resilience of larval supply. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Lu J.,Us Epa National Exposure Research Laboratory | Struewing I.,Dynamac Inc. | Yelton S.,Dynamac Inc. | Ashbolt N.,University of Alberta
Journal of Applied Microbiology | Year: 2015

Aims: To examine the occurrence and quantity of potential pathogens and an indicator of microbial contamination in the sediments of municipal drinking water storage tanks (MDWSTs), given the absence of such data across the United States. Methods and Results: Sediment samples (87 MDWST) from eighteen locations across ten states of the United States were collected and assayed by qPCR for a range of potential enteric and opportunistic microbial pathogens and a sewage-associated Bacteroides marker. Potential opportunistic pathogens dominated, with the highest detection of occurrence (per cent positive detection; average cell equivalence (CE)) being Mycobacterium spp. (88·9%; 6·7 ± 8·5 × 104 CE g-1), followed by Legionella spp. (66·7%; 5·2 ± 5·9 × 103 CE g-1), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (22·2%; 250 ± 880 CE g-1) and Acanthamoeba spp. (38·9%; 53 ± 70 CE g-1), with no detected Naegleria fowleri. Most enteric pathogens (Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli 0157:H7, Salmonella enterica, Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia duodenalis) were not detected, except for a trace signal for Campylobacter spp. There was significant correlation between the qPCR signals of Legionella spp. and Acanthamoeba spp. (R2 = 0·61, n = 87, P = 0·0001). Diverse Legionella spp. including Leg. pneumophila, Leg. pneumophila sg1 and Leg. anisa were identified, each of which might cause legionellosis. Conclusions: These results imply that potential opportunistic pathogens are common within MDWST sediments and could act as a source of microbial contamination, but need downstream growth to be of potential concern. Significance and Impact of the Study: The results imply that opportunistic pathogen risks may need to be managed by regular tank cleaning or other management practices. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

Lu J.,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency | Gerke T.L.,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency | Gerke T.L.,University of Cincinnati | Buse H.Y.,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Water and Health | Year: 2014

A quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay (115 bp amplicon) specific to Escherichia coli K12 with an ABI™ internal control was developed based on sequence data encoding the rfb gene cluster. Assay specificity was evaluated using three E. coli K12 strains (ATCC W3110, MG1655 & DH1), 24 non-K12 E. coli and 23 bacterial genera. The biofilm detection limit was 103 colony-forming units (CFU) E. coli K12 mL-1, but required a modified protocol, which included a bio-blocker Pseudomonas aeruginosa with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid buffered to pH 5 prior to cell lysis/DNA extraction. The novel protocol yielded the same sensitivity for drinking water biofilms associated with Fe3O4 (magnetite)-coated SiO2 (quartz) grains and biofilm-surface iron corrosion products from a drinking water distribution system. The novel DNA extraction protocol and specific E. coli K12 assay are sensitive and robust enough for detection and quantification within iron drinking water pipe biofilms, and are particularly well suited for studying enteric bacterial interactions within biofilms. © IWA Publishing 2014.

Dave A.,NASA | Dave A.,Lockheed Martin | Thompson S.J.,NASA | Thompson S.J.,CA Technologies | And 11 more authors.
Astrobiology | Year: 2013

The Mars Icebreaker Life mission will search for subsurface life on Mars. It consists of three payload elements: a drill to retrieve soil samples from approximately 1 m below the surface, a robotic sample handling system to deliver the sample from the drill to the instruments, and the instruments themselves. This paper will discuss the robotic sample handling system. Collecting samples from ice-rich soils on Mars in search of life presents two challenges: protection of that icy soil - considered a "special region" with respect to planetary protection - from contamination from Earth, and delivery of the icy, sticky soil to spacecraft instruments. We present a sampling device that meets these challenges. We built a prototype system and tested it at martian pressure, drilling into ice-cemented soil, collecting cuttings, and transferring them to the inlet port of the SOLID2 life-detection instrument. The tests successfully demonstrated that the Icebreaker drill, sample handling system, and life-detection instrument can collectively operate in these conditions and produce science data that can be delivered via telemetry - from dirt to data. Our results also demonstrate the feasibility of using an air gap to prevent forward contamination. We define a set of six analog soils for testing over a range of soil cohesion, from loose sand to basalt soil, with angles of repose of 27 and 39 , respectively. Particle size is a key determinant of jamming of mechanical parts by soil particles. Jamming occurs when the clearance between moving parts is equal in size to the most common particle size or equal to three of these particles together. Three particles acting together tend to form bridges and lead to clogging. Our experiments show that rotary-hammer action of the Icebreaker drill influences the particle size, typically reducing particle size by ∼100 μm. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

Fisher J.W.,NASA | Hogan J.A.,NASA | Pace G.S.,Lockheed Martin | Pace G.S.,NASA | And 2 more authors.
40th International Conference on Environmental Systems, ICES 2010 | Year: 2010

Future extended lunar surface missions will require extensive recovery of resources to reduce mission costs and enable self-sufficiency. Water is of particular importance due to its potential use for human consumption and hygiene, general cleaning, clothes washing, radiation shielding, cooling for extravehicular activity suits, and oxygen and hydrogen production. Various water sources are inherently present or are generated in lunar surface missions, and subject to recovery. They include: initial water stores, water contained in food, human and other solid wastes, wastewaters and associated brines, ISRU water, and scavenging from residual propellant in landers. This paper presents the results of an analysis of the contribution of water recovery from life support wastes on the overall water balance for lunar surface missions. Water in human wastes, metabolic activity and survival needs are well characterized and dependable data are available. A detailed life support waste model was developed that summarizes the composition of life support wastes and their water content. Waste processing technologies were reviewed for their potential to recover that water. The recoverable water in waste is a significant contribution to the overall water balance. The value of this contribution is discussed in the context of the other major sources and losses of water. Combined with other analyses these results provide guidance for research and technology development and down-selection.

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