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Rodriguez-Capote K.,Dyna Diagnostic Laboratory Services | Rodriguez-Capote K.,University of Alberta | Higgins T.N.,Dyna Diagnostic Laboratory Services | Higgins T.N.,University of Alberta
Clinical Biochemistry | Year: 2015

Objectives: The aims of this study were to identify the incidence of hemoglobinopathies and thalassemias in Northern Alberta and calculate the reference intervals (RI) for hemoglobin (Hb) HbF and HbA2. Methods: A retrospective ad-hoc analysis of the structural Hb variants and thalassemias identified on patients who had a hemoglobinopathy/thalassemia investigation performed between February 1 to December 31, 2013. Results were extracted from the Laboratory Information System. Statistical analysis was performed using MedCalc® version for Windows software. Results: 6616 hemoglobinopathy/thalassemia investigations and HbS screens were physician requested and 602 Hb variants were fortuitously found during HbA1c analysis. 3438 were interpreted as "normal" and 532 were classified as iron deficient. 3306 individuals, with age ranging from 3 to 92years were included in the RI calculation. HbA2 RI was 2.3% to 3.4% and HbF 0.0% to 1.8%. 524 and 423 α and β thalassemia traits respectively were identified. Additionally ten δβ thalassemia traits and twelve cases of HbH disease were identified. Regarding hemoglobinopathies, 7% were classified as α-chain variants and 93% as β-chain variants with HbS (46%), HbE (16%), HbD Punjab (8%) and HbC (7%) traits being the most prevalent. We also documented 20 homozygous hemoglobinopathies and 36 compound/double heterozygous hemoglobinopathies. Conclusion: A wide diversity of hemoglobinopathies is found in the Northern Alberta population, 80% of the hemoglobinopathies were found as a reflex to HbA1c testing. Reference intervals for HbF and HbA2 were established. © 2015 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists.

Rodriguez-Capote K.,Dyna Diagnostic Laboratory Services | Rodriguez-Capote K.,University of Alberta | Estey M.P.,Dyna Diagnostic Laboratory Services | Estey M.P.,University of Alberta | And 7 more authors.
Clinical Biochemistry | Year: 2015

Background: The World Health Organization and the American and Canadian Diabetes Associations approved HbA1c >. 6.5% as diagnostic for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Hb variants and/or their chemically modified species can interfere with HbA1c measurements. We recently described a patient with Hb Wayne trait who was misdiagnosed with T2DM based on falsely elevated HbA1c. Hb Wayne is a clinically silent variant that exists as two isoforms: Hb Wayne I (Asn 139) and Hb Wayne II (Asp 139). Methods: Hemoglobinopathy investigation was performed by HPLC (Bio-Rad VARIANT-II), alkaline and acid electrophoresis (Sebia Hydrasis2), capillary zone electrophoresis (Sebia CAPILLARYS2™) and DNA sequencing. HbA1c was measured by five methods. Results: Hb Wayne eluted as two small fractions with retention times of 1.0 and 1.46. min on the HPLC (Bio-Rad VARIANT-II). Alkaline gel and capillary electrophoresis showed two small bands migrating faster than HbA. Hb Wayne generated spuriously high results on the Bio-Rad VARIANT-II Turbo 2.0, no results on the Tosoh G8, and did not interfere with either the Sebia CAPILLARYS2™ or immunoassays from Roche (tinaquant) and Siemens (Bayer DCA2000. +). Based on the Hb Wayne HPLC profile of 3 patients, an algorithm was developed to facilitate its detection, which identified 9 additional patients with Hb Wayne trait. Conclusions: We characterize Hb Wayne by chromatographic and electrophoretic techniques and show the effect of Hb Wayne on five common HbA1c methodologies. We developed a quality assurance tool to assist in detecting Hb Wayne trait during HbA1c analysis on the Bio-Rad VARIANT-II™ Turbo 2.0. © 2015 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists.

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