Northridge, CA, United States
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Lin Y.,University of California at Irvine | Barber W.C.,DxRay, Inc. | Iwanczyk J.S.,DxRay, Inc. | Roeck W.,University of California at Irvine | And 2 more authors.
Optics Express | Year: 2010

In this work, a first-of-its-kind fully integrated tri-modality system that combines fluorescence, diffuse optical and X-ray tomography (FT/DOT/XCT) into the same setting is presented. The purpose of this system is to perform quantitative fluorescence tomography using multimodality imaging approach. XCT anatomical information is used as structural priori while optical background heterogeneity information obtained by DOT measurements is used as functional priori. The performance of the hybrid system is evaluated using multi-modality phantoms. In particular, we show that a 2.4 mm diameter fluorescence inclusion located in a heterogeneous medium can be localized accurately with the functional a priori information, although the fluorophore concentration is recovered with 70% error. On the other hand, the fluorophore concentration can be accurately recovered within 8% error only when both DOT optical background functional and XCT structural a priori information are utilized to guide and constrain the FT reconstruction algorithm. © 2010 Optical Society of America.


Grant
Agency: Department of Energy | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 1.00M | Year: 2015

High energy (30-90 keV) x-rays are critical for exploring failure modes of lightweight structural materials and for determining the details on atomic bonding in crystalline materials being developed for catalytic and energy storage applications. Detectors for the x-ray diffraction patterns from these high-energy x-rays must have a combination of good efficiency and good spatial resolution. Current technology, based on scintillators or silicon detectors is limited in spatial resolution and efficiency. We have developed processes for growing polycrystalline mercuric iodide films directly onto readout chips, providing a direct-converter semiconductor x-ray detector with good efficiency and excellent spatial resolution, and with reasonable cost for large-area devices. This Small Business Innovation Research Phase II project will produce a commercial imaging system with the characteristics needed for high-energy x-ray diffraction analysis. In Phase I we refined the existing coating technology to improve the spatial resolution, uniformity, and signal to noise ratio and evaluated the coating on both our own integrating-signal small-area chip (2 cm2) and the photon-counting Timepix chip (2 cm2). In Phase II we will fabricate and coat a large integrating chip (13 cm2), design a readout system to meet the frame readout speed requirements, and then test the system at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource (SSRL) in realistic x-ray diffraction studies. We will develop and market this large-area detector system to synchrotron facilities and to medical imaging equipment manufacturers. Commercial Applications and Other Benefits The system we will develop in this Phase II SBIR will meet the specific requirements expressed in the topic description and will be a commercial product available for use at all beam line facilities worldwide that produce x-ray diffraction studies. The device will also compete with current commercially available low-energy x-ray detectors, for example, those used in protein crystallography studies. The detector we develop will also have potential for use in medical imaging applications that require high resolution and real-time imaging capabilities, such as planar x-ray imaging of the beating heart and mammography.


Grant
Agency: Department of Health and Human Services | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 1.65M | Year: 2011

DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): This fast track grant titled, Photon Counting Detectors for Clinical k-edge CT will enable DxRay to bring to market a customer-driven improved version of our CdTe-based photon- counting x-ray computed tomography (CT) detector with energy discrimination. These detectors have enabled significant improvements in CT imaging such as reduced patient dose while maintaining excellent image quality, enhanced tissue contrast, and material decomposition capabilities (tissue type identification). The overall goal is to bring to the CT marketplace a photon-counting energy-dispersive x-ray detector with energy discrimination for use in human x-ray CT imaging. So far we have demonstrated a first generation fast photon- counting x-ray imaging array which has a higher maximum output count rate (by more than an order of magnitude) than all others, and the arrays have been used to generate the first patient images to date. This first-generation system is capable of counting at over 5W 106 counts per second per mm2 (cps/mm2) and has performed clinical scans at up to 300 mA of tube current, demonstrating both reduced dose and improved image quality in neck and abdomen studies. Our x-ray imaging arrays are completely vertically integrated and are compatible with all the existing gantries and x-ray tubes being used clinically. With feedback from our customers we have determined that there are two more performance enhancements required from our detector for the full commercialization of our technology. In the first year we will produce a fully functioning prototype of the second- generation photon-counting CT detector and demonstrate its performance with all the features our customers require. In the second and third year of the projectwe will, with feedback from our customers, produce the first production runs of the final product, with sufficient numbers of detectors to provide samples to our customers for testing in their clinical systems. This will allow for patient studies to be performed in existing gantries. We expect large commercial success with this product. This is due to the significant improvements to and advantages over existing detectors that our technology provides together with the widespread and increasing use of CT.The x-ray exposure in CT scanning has been of major concern for radiologists and physicists as the number of CT examinations has increased. Therefore, a method which reduces the patient dose in CT examinations will have a significant impact on public health. Our product addresses the need to reduce dose in CT. At the same time, improved tissue differentiation and material-specific identification is needed for better diagnosis. Our product addresses these needs by improving image quality by making use of theenergy information contained in the individually counted x-rays at high flux, information that is currently not obtainable with the non photon-counting x-ray imaging arrays currently in use in multi-slice CT systems. PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: The overall goal of this proposal is to develop a photon counting CT detector with energy binning and read-out that is capable of producing energy resolved CT scan which can deliver less radiation dose and differentiate between tissue types. Photon counting detectors with energy binning can improve CT performance by counting and binning each x-ray detected.


Grant
Agency: Department of Health and Human Services | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 150.57K | Year: 2011

DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): This Phase I grant titled, Simultaneous SPECT/CT with a single photon counting camera will enable the development of a fast photon-counting x-ray and gamma-ray imaging array with energy discrimination. The aims of theproject when completed will demonstrate several advances in the technologies used to fabricate vertically integrated dense arrays. Recently, new technological developments in connecting sensors to the reduced size of application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) has been applied to reading out semiconductor detectors These advances, along with improvements to the cost and reliability of the compound semiconductor cadmium telluride (CdTe), allow us to develop a photon counting detector and read-out technology for higher spatial resolution single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and energy resolved single photon counting x-ray computed tomography (CT) at reduced dose. These detectors improve spatial resolution in SPECT imaging with direct conversion CdTe sensors and 0.5 mm pixels which are three times smaller than currently available commercially. These same detectors, which maintain good energy resolution up to 5 W 106 counts per second per pixel (the world's fastest output count rate), enablesignificant improvements in CT imaging such as reduced patient dose while maintaining excellent image quality, enhanced tissue contrast, and material decomposition capabilities (tissue type identification). Photon counting detectors with energy binning canimprove CT performance by counting and binning each x-ray detected. Additionally, the simultaneous acquisition of anatomical and functional data from identical image volumes will reduce coregistration errors which will be extremely important for the accurate anatomical localization of uptake on sub- millimeter length scales. This project produces several important technological innovations. These include the fabrication of single crystal CdTe detectors with an active area extending to the edge of the crystals (no guard rings) which allows tiling with almost no dead space. Additionally, we have developed packaging and encapsulation methods to connect dense multi channel fast application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) to the crystals and formed withinthe active area of the crystal to preserve tiling in two dimensions. And we achieve a rapid signal formation, shorter than the transit time for charge carriers across the CdTe crystal. In this Phase I project we will demonstrate a vertically integrated photon counting SPECT and CT detector with energy binning and read-out that is capable of producing higher spatial resolution SPECT and energy resolved CT which can deliver less radiation dose and differentiate between tissue types. Achieving vertical integration while maintaining performance will allow the tiling of Phase I modules in Phase II to larger fields of view. The innovative methods described in this proposal could have a tremendous significance by developing methods that improve SPECT and CT imaging and could one day be translated to the clinic. There remains however a large risk in the final integration of the vertical readout ASICs to the CdTe detectors. As we are developing the world's fastest x-ray and gamma-ray detector arrays by using the latest and smallest bonding techniques available, this is not a low risk step in the development. Completion of the Phase I milestones in a vertically integrated array will successfully address this risk as well as demonstrate significantly improved performance as compared to the currently available SPECT and CT detectors. PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: We are developing fast photon counting arrays for x-ray and gamma-ray imaging. This new detector technology can potentially reduce dose and improve contrast when applied to x-ray CT. Additionally, the detector can perform simultaneous SPECT and CT. The proposal submitted contains several innovative advancements to the current state of the art technologies employed in both CT and SPECT.


Grant
Agency: Department of Health and Human Services | Branch: National Institutes of Health | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 1.50M | Year: 2015

DESCRIPTION provided by applicant This fast track grant titled andquot Low Dose Rapid Scanning Slit Digital Mammography and Breast Tomosynthesisandquot will enable us to bring to market a clinically driven improved method of breast imaging based on photon counting x ray detector arrays with energy discrimination The detectors will enabled significant improvements in x ray breast imaging such as reduced patient dose while maintaining excellent image quality enhanced tissue contrast material decomposition capabilities tissue type identification and quantitative iodine contrast imaging The overall goal is to bring to the marketplace a photon counting energy dispersive x ray detector with energy discrimination for use in human breast imaging So far we have demonstrated a first generation fast photon counting x ray imaging array prototype which has a higher maximum output count rate by more than an order of magnitude than all others and the array has been used to generate the preliminary data Our technology is capable of counting at over counts per second cps per m pixel which is cps mm and is the highest output count rate OCR measured to date with x rays to our knowledge Our x ray imaging arrays are completely vertically integrated and can be tiled to large field of view We use this technology to develop scanning slit breast imaging with multiple stacked D high flux energy resolved single photon counting detector arrays For scanning slit digital mammography DM we have the advantage of energy information as compared to the currently available systems Whereas for scanning slit digital breast tomosynthesis DBT we would have in addition to energy information scatter rejection from the multi slit scanning Building a system capable of both DM and DBT in a scanning slit mode offers the chance to achieve DM DBT and synthetic DM from DBT data all on one system A gantry design will be used to sweep the detector slits across the FOV always close to and parallel to the compressed breast and always pointing to the focal spot for both DM tube at and DBT tube anywhere between so that the geometry of the projection images is the same as currently used in flat panel DM and BDT The high OCR allows the use of a strong mA x ray tube to produce shorter scan times The proposed photon counting x ray detector based breast imaging will not only improve the quality of the current attenuation based gray scale images but also open a door to completely new applications new procedures and new protocols using the capabilities of tissue type specific x ray images We expect large commercial success with this product This is due to the significant improvements to and advantages over existing detectors that our technology provides together with the widespread and increasing use of breast imaging The x ray exposure in breast cancer screening has been of major concern for radiologists and physicists as the number of examinations has increased Therefore a method which reduces the patient dose in screening examinations will have a significant impact on public health Our product addresses the need to reduce dose in breast imaging At the same time improved tissue differentiation and contrast specific identification is needed for better diagnosis Our product addresses these needs by improving image quality by making use of the energy information contained in the individually counted x rays at high flux information that is currently not obtainable with the non photon counting x ray imaging arrays currently in use in breast imaging systems PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE We are developing fast energy resolved photon counting arrays for x ray imaging This new detector technology can potentially reduce dose and improve contrast when applied to breast imaging The detector can perform rapid scanning slit digital mammography and digital breast tomosynthesis The proposal submitted contains several innovative advancements to the current state of the art technologies employed in x ray imaging


Grant
Agency: Department of Health and Human Services | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 225.00K | Year: 2014

DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): This fast track grant titled, Low Dose Rapid Scanning Slit Digital Mammography and Breast Tomosynthesis will enable us to bring to market a clinically driven improved method of breast imaging based on photon-countingx-ray detector arrays with energy discrimination. The detectors will enabled significant improvements in x-ray breast imaging such as reduced patient dose while maintaining excellent image quality, enhanced tissue contrast, material decomposition capabilities (tissue type identification), and quantitative iodine contrast imaging. The overall goal is to bring to the marketplace a photon-counting energy-dispersive x-ray detector with energy discrimination for use in human breast imaging. So far we have demonstrated a first generation fast photon-counting x-ray imaging array prototype which has a higher maximum output count rate (by more than an order of magnitude) than all others, and the array has been used to generate the preliminary data. Our technolog


Grant
Agency: Department of Health and Human Services | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 1.14M | Year: 2010

DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): We are developing a high-resolution, low-dose, direct-conversion digital x-ray detector for intraoral dental radiography. The detector will improve intraoral dental imaging with reduced dose, high resolution, and low detector cost. It can be incorporated into existing dental radiography equipment, replacing film-based or scintillator-based systems. The dose efficiency of current scintillator-CCD or scintillator-CMOS photodiode array x-ray detectors is compromised by inefficient conversion of x-rays to light, transport of the light to the detector, and conversion of the light to electric signal. We have successfully developed a new direct x-ray converter material, polycrystalline mercuric iodide (HgI2), which is a high-Z large- bandgap compound semiconductor with outstanding charge collection properties. The proposed detector is a thin film of polycrystalline mercuric iodide for direct conversion of incident x-rays into charge, grown directly onto a CMOS readout. Dose reduction will be achieved due to the very high sensitivity of mercuric iodide films. We expect to sell or license our detector technology to existing intraoral dental imaging equipment vendors. In Phase I of the project, we grew polycrystalline HgI2 directly onto our small- area CMOS readout chip, which we specially designed for compatibility with HgI2. We measured the imaging performance of the prototype device. In this Phase II we will scale the CMOS chip up to dental Size 2, place the CMOS readout into a package suitable for intraoral use, further modify the HgI2 deposition to improve spatial resolution, and complete and test a full product prototype. The product we will develop will help dentists detect hairline cracks and other high-resolution features while patients will benefit from a reduced lifetime x-ray dose. PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: We will produce an improved x-ray detector for intraoral dental radiography. The detector will reduce the x-ray dose that dental patients receive during their exam while providing dentists with high resolution images at a low cost. The semiconductor-based detector can be incorporated into existing dental radiography equipment, replacing film-based or scintillator-based systems.


Grant
Agency: Department of Health and Human Services | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 100.00K | Year: 2010

DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): In this Phase I proposal we will develop a cost-effective large-area high-sensitivity x-ray panel detector for digital mammography. This direct-conversion x-ray detector will dramatically improve the capability for cost- effective high-performance mammography. By growing polycrystalline CZT (cadmium zinc telluride) films directly onto custom CMOS readouts, we will create large area panels with high resolution and high sensitivity. These panels will provide cost-effective, high-performance detectors for many other x-ray imaging applications including general radiography, fluoroscopy, and x-ray CT. We will leverage our existing expertise in polycrystalline film growth, solid-state x-ray detector physics, and x-ray readout ASIC design to produce CZT (cadmium zinc telluride) films grown directly onto customized CMOS readouts. Recently, academic research groups in Korea and Japan have investigated the potential for polycrystalline CZT films grown directly onto readouts to create x-ray imaging panel detectors. These studies have shown that relatively low substrate temperatures can be maintained during the film growth, enabling direct growth onto readouts such as thin-film transistor arrays and CMOS devices. The films produced have shown good x-ray detection properties. We propose to extend this work in the U.S., using our own experience in mercuric iodide polycrystalline film growth for x-ray imaging detectors and our experience in designing and producing CMOS-based readouts compatible with direct growth of mercuric iodide films. In this Phase I we will develop the film growth apparatus and processes necessary for successful polycrystalline CZT film growth on ITO-coated glass slides and we will measure the x-ray detection performance. This will substantially reduce the risk for Phase II. In previous work, we have designed, fabricated, and coated large area (10 cm x 10 cm) imaging charge-integrating CMOS readout chips which are chemically compatible with mercuric iodide. In this work, we will adapt them for compatibility with the CZT film growth process. The readouts have 30 5m pixel grids, enabling high-resolution imaging, and 8 parallel outputs which produce an 8 frames per second readout speed for the 10 Mpixel device. In Phase II, the CZT-coated CMOS readouts will be tested for x-ray imaging characteristics. Most digital mammography systems have spatial resolutions limited by their use of indirect detectors - scintillators coupled to photodiode arrays. A few recent systems are based on amorphous selenium, a direct detector. However, even these systems are limited to pixel sizes of about 70-100 5m. The CMOS readouts which will be coated in Phase II incorporate 30 5m pixel grids, giving mammography and other x-ray imaging modalities access to higher spatial resolutions. The devices will also be cost-effective due to the approach of growing CZT films directly onto readout arrays. We will widely market the device as an OEM component to mammography system manufacturers. PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: We will grow a high-sensitivity detector material, cadmium zinc telluride (CZT), directly onto CMOS technology megapixel readouts. This will achieve significant breakthroughs in x-ray imaging panel detector price and performance. Mammography will benefit due to the improved spatial resolution and reduced cost from this unique combination of detector material and readout.


Grant
Agency: Department of Health and Human Services | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 397.70K | Year: 2010

DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): This fast track grant titled, Photon Counting Detectors for Clinical k-edge CT will enable DxRay to bring to market a customer-driven improved version of our CdTe-based photon- counting x-ray computed tomography (CT) detector with energy discrimination. These detectors have enabled significant improvements in CT imaging such as reduced patient dose while maintaining excellent image quality, enhanced tissue contrast, and material decomposition capabilities (tissue type identification). The overall goal is to bring to the CT marketplace a photon-counting energy-dispersive x-ray detector with energy discrimination for use in human x-ray CT imaging. So far we have demonstrated a first generation fast photon- counting x-ray imaging array which has a higher maximum output count rate (by more than an order of magnitude) than all others, and the arrays have been used to generate the first patient images to date. This first-generation system is capable of counting at over 5 W 106 counts per second per mm2 (cps/mm2) and has performed clinical scans at up to 300 mA of tube current, demonstrating both reduced dose and improved image quality in neck and abdomen studies. Our x-ray imaging arrays are completely vertically integrated and are compatible with all the existing gantries and x-ray tubes being used clinically. With feedback from our customers we have determined that there are two more performance enhancements required from our detector for the full commercialization of our technology. In the first year we will produce a fully functioning prototype of the second- generation photon-counting CT detector and demonstrate its performance with all the features our customers require. In the second and third year of the project we will, with feedback from our customers, produce the first production runs of the final product, with sufficient numbers of detectors to provide samples to our customers for testing in their clinical systems. This will allow for patient studies to be performed in existing gantries. We expect large commercial success with this product. This is due to the significant improvements to and advantages over existing detectors that our technology provides together with the widespread and increasing use of CT. The x-ray exposure in CT scanning has been of major concern for radiologists and physicists as the number of CT examinations has increased. Therefore, a method which reduces the patient dose in CT examinations will have a significant impact on public health. Our product addresses the need to reduce dose in CT. At the same time, improved tissue differentiation and material-specific identification is needed for better diagnosis. Our product addresses these needs by improving image quality by making use of the energy information contained in the individually counted x-rays at high flux, information that is currently not obtainable with the non photon-counting x-ray imaging arrays currently in use in multi-slice CT systems. PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: The overall goal of this proposal is to develop a photon counting CT detector with energy binning and read-out that is capable of producing energy resolved CT scan which can deliver less radiation dose and differentiate between tissue types. Photon counting detectors with energy binning can improve CT performance by counting and binning each x-ray detected.


Grant
Agency: National Aeronautics and Space Administration | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 99.98K | Year: 2011

We propose to utilize guard ring electrode structures and a new film growth technique to create improved polycrystalline mercuric iodide detectors for background suppression by active anticoincidence shielding in gamma-ray spectrometers. Two proposed NASA missions will require anticoincidence shielding for x-ray and gamma-ray spectrometers: the High Energy Telescope of the EXIST (Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope) mission, and the Space Science Vision Mission expected to visit Titan, one of Saturn's moons. Shielding improves the performance of x-ray and gamma-ray spectrometers by reducing the effect of charged particle interactions which cannot be distinguished from true x-ray and gamma-ray interactions by the spectrometer. Active shields produce a blanking signal when a charged particle is detected, so that the signal from the spectrometer can be ignored during the spectrometer's charged-particle interaction. While it is well know that this technique produces significant improvement in x-ray and gamma-ray spectrometer performance, the technology to implement it is lacking. The attributes of mercuric iodide make it an excellent candidate for anticoincidence shielding detectors. Because of its detection characteristics, light weight, small size, low cost, robustness, and ease of application to non-planar geometries, this material can replace the costly, heavy, and bulky scintillator/photomultiplier tube (PMT) systems currently in use.

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