Entity

Time filter

Source Type

Northridge, CA, United States

Grant
Agency: Department of Health and Human Services | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 150.57K | Year: 2011

DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): This Phase I grant titled, Simultaneous SPECT/CT with a single photon counting camera will enable the development of a fast photon-counting x-ray and gamma-ray imaging array with energy discrimination. The aims of theproject when completed will demonstrate several advances in the technologies used to fabricate vertically integrated dense arrays. Recently, new technological developments in connecting sensors to the reduced size of application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) has been applied to reading out semiconductor detectors These advances, along with improvements to the cost and reliability of the compound semiconductor cadmium telluride (CdTe), allow us to develop a photon counting detector and read-out technology for higher spatial resolution single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and energy resolved single photon counting x-ray computed tomography (CT) at reduced dose. These detectors improve spatial resolution in SPECT imaging with direct conversion CdTe sensors and 0.5 mm pixels which are three times smaller than currently available commercially. These same detectors, which maintain good energy resolution up to 5 W 106 counts per second per pixel (the world's fastest output count rate), enablesignificant improvements in CT imaging such as reduced patient dose while maintaining excellent image quality, enhanced tissue contrast, and material decomposition capabilities (tissue type identification). Photon counting detectors with energy binning canimprove CT performance by counting and binning each x-ray detected. Additionally, the simultaneous acquisition of anatomical and functional data from identical image volumes will reduce coregistration errors which will be extremely important for the accurate anatomical localization of uptake on sub- millimeter length scales. This project produces several important technological innovations. These include the fabrication of single crystal CdTe detectors with an active area extending to the edge of the crystals (no guard rings) which allows tiling with almost no dead space. Additionally, we have developed packaging and encapsulation methods to connect dense multi channel fast application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) to the crystals and formed withinthe active area of the crystal to preserve tiling in two dimensions. And we achieve a rapid signal formation, shorter than the transit time for charge carriers across the CdTe crystal. In this Phase I project we will demonstrate a vertically integrated photon counting SPECT and CT detector with energy binning and read-out that is capable of producing higher spatial resolution SPECT and energy resolved CT which can deliver less radiation dose and differentiate between tissue types. Achieving vertical integration while maintaining performance will allow the tiling of Phase I modules in Phase II to larger fields of view. The innovative methods described in this proposal could have a tremendous significance by developing methods that improve SPECT and CT imaging and could one day be translated to the clinic. There remains however a large risk in the final integration of the vertical readout ASICs to the CdTe detectors. As we are developing the world's fastest x-ray and gamma-ray detector arrays by using the latest and smallest bonding techniques available, this is not a low risk step in the development. Completion of the Phase I milestones in a vertically integrated array will successfully address this risk as well as demonstrate significantly improved performance as compared to the currently available SPECT and CT detectors. PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: We are developing fast photon counting arrays for x-ray and gamma-ray imaging. This new detector technology can potentially reduce dose and improve contrast when applied to x-ray CT. Additionally, the detector can perform simultaneous SPECT and CT. The proposal submitted contains several innovative advancements to the current state of the art technologies employed in both CT and SPECT.


Grant
Agency: Department of Energy | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 150.00K | Year: 2014

High energy (30-90 keV) x-rays are critical for exploring failure modes of lightweight structural materials and for determining the details on atomic bonding in crystalline materials being developed for catalytic and energy storage applications. Detectors for the x-ray diffraction patterns from these high-energy x-rays must have a combination of good efficiency and good spatial resolution. Current technology, based on scintillators or silicon detectors is limited in spatial resolution and efficiency. We have developed processes for growing polycrystalline mercuric iodide films directly onto readout chips, providing a direct-converter semiconductor x-ray detector with good efficiency and excellent spatial resolution, and with reasonable cost for large-area devices. This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will continue the development of x-ray detector technology that has the attributes necessary for high- energy x-ray diffraction analysis. In Phase I we will refine the existing coating technology to improve the spatial resolution, uniformity, and signal to noise ratio and evaluate the coating on both our own integrating-signal small-area chip (2 cm2) and the photon-counting Timepix chip (2 cm2) and choose the best performing device. In Phase II we will test the system at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource (SSRL) in realistic x-ray diffraction studies and develop and market a large-area detector system. Commercial Applications and Other Benefits: The technology we will develop in this Phase I SBIR will meet the specific requirements expressed in the topic description and will be a commercial product available for use at all beam line facilities worldwide that produce x-ray diffraction studies. The device would also compete with current commercially available low-energy x-ray detectors used in for example protein crystallography studies. The detector we develop will also have potential for use in medical imaging applications that require high resolution and real-time imaging capabilities, such as planar x-ray imaging of the beating heart and mammography.


Grant
Agency: Department of Health and Human Services | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 750.00K | Year: 2009

Not Available


Grant
Agency: Department of Energy | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 1.00M | Year: 2015

High energy (30-90 keV) x-rays are critical for exploring failure modes of lightweight structural materials and for determining the details on atomic bonding in crystalline materials being developed for catalytic and energy storage applications. Detectors for the x-ray diffraction patterns from these high-energy x-rays must have a combination of good efficiency and good spatial resolution. Current technology, based on scintillators or silicon detectors is limited in spatial resolution and efficiency. We have developed processes for growing polycrystalline mercuric iodide films directly onto readout chips, providing a direct-converter semiconductor x-ray detector with good efficiency and excellent spatial resolution, and with reasonable cost for large-area devices. This Small Business Innovation Research Phase II project will produce a commercial imaging system with the characteristics needed for high-energy x-ray diffraction analysis. In Phase I we refined the existing coating technology to improve the spatial resolution, uniformity, and signal to noise ratio and evaluated the coating on both our own integrating-signal small-area chip (2 cm2) and the photon-counting Timepix chip (2 cm2). In Phase II we will fabricate and coat a large integrating chip (13 cm2), design a readout system to meet the frame readout speed requirements, and then test the system at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource (SSRL) in realistic x-ray diffraction studies. We will develop and market this large-area detector system to synchrotron facilities and to medical imaging equipment manufacturers. Commercial Applications and Other Benefits The system we will develop in this Phase II SBIR will meet the specific requirements expressed in the topic description and will be a commercial product available for use at all beam line facilities worldwide that produce x-ray diffraction studies. The device will also compete with current commercially available low-energy x-ray detectors, for example, those used in protein crystallography studies. The detector we develop will also have potential for use in medical imaging applications that require high resolution and real-time imaging capabilities, such as planar x-ray imaging of the beating heart and mammography.


Grant
Agency: Department of Health and Human Services | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 397.70K | Year: 2010

DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): This fast track grant titled, Photon Counting Detectors for Clinical k-edge CT will enable DxRay to bring to market a customer-driven improved version of our CdTe-based photon- counting x-ray computed tomography (CT) detector with energy discrimination. These detectors have enabled significant improvements in CT imaging such as reduced patient dose while maintaining excellent image quality, enhanced tissue contrast, and material decomposition capabilities (tissue type identification). The overall goal is to bring to the CT marketplace a photon-counting energy-dispersive x-ray detector with energy discrimination for use in human x-ray CT imaging. So far we have demonstrated a first generation fast photon- counting x-ray imaging array which has a higher maximum output count rate (by more than an order of magnitude) than all others, and the arrays have been used to generate the first patient images to date. This first-generation system is capable of counting at over 5 W 106 counts per second per mm2 (cps/mm2) and has performed clinical scans at up to 300 mA of tube current, demonstrating both reduced dose and improved image quality in neck and abdomen studies. Our x-ray imaging arrays are completely vertically integrated and are compatible with all the existing gantries and x-ray tubes being used clinically. With feedback from our customers we have determined that there are two more performance enhancements required from our detector for the full commercialization of our technology. In the first year we will produce a fully functioning prototype of the second- generation photon-counting CT detector and demonstrate its performance with all the features our customers require. In the second and third year of the project we will, with feedback from our customers, produce the first production runs of the final product, with sufficient numbers of detectors to provide samples to our customers for testing in their clinical systems. This will allow for patient studies to be performed in existing gantries. We expect large commercial success with this product. This is due to the significant improvements to and advantages over existing detectors that our technology provides together with the widespread and increasing use of CT. The x-ray exposure in CT scanning has been of major concern for radiologists and physicists as the number of CT examinations has increased. Therefore, a method which reduces the patient dose in CT examinations will have a significant impact on public health. Our product addresses the need to reduce dose in CT. At the same time, improved tissue differentiation and material-specific identification is needed for better diagnosis. Our product addresses these needs by improving image quality by making use of the energy information contained in the individually counted x-rays at high flux, information that is currently not obtainable with the non photon-counting x-ray imaging arrays currently in use in multi-slice CT systems. PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: The overall goal of this proposal is to develop a photon counting CT detector with energy binning and read-out that is capable of producing energy resolved CT scan which can deliver less radiation dose and differentiate between tissue types. Photon counting detectors with energy binning can improve CT performance by counting and binning each x-ray detected.

Discover hidden collaborations