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Dvůr Králové nad Labem, Czech Republic

Cernohorska H.,Veterinary Research Institute | Kubickova S.,Veterinary Research Institute | Vahala J.,Zoo Dvur Kralove | Robinson T.J.,Stellenbosch University | Rubes J.,Veterinary Research Institute
Cytogenetic and Genome Research | Year: 2011

Madoqua kirkii, a miniature African antelope, is noted for extensive chromosomal variation that has been categorized in four distinct cytotypes (A-D). In this investigation, we analyzed the A cytotype (2n = 46, FN = 48) using a suite of molecular cytogenetic approaches that entailed (i) whole chromosome and subchromosomal painting by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), (ii) the study of Madoqua centromeric-specific DNA derived from pooled DNA obtained from the centromeric regions of the acrocentric chromosomes, and (iii) DNA from the telomere:centromere junctions of tandemly fused chromosomes. DNA from these sources was used to probe for the persistence of interstitial satellite DNA and residual centromeric sequences in the tandem and centric fusion junctions by PCR and FISH. The analyses show centromeric sequences at two of the six tandem fusion junctions. These data, and those of hybrid specimens (A × B cytotypes) in conjunction with published information permitted an interpretation of the probable sequence of chromosomal rearrangements among the M. kirkii cytotypes. We discuss the findings in the context of chromosomal evolution in these antelopes, and the implications that these hold for ex-situ breeding programs of the species. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel. Source


Kopecna O.,Veterinary Research Institute | Kubickova S.,Veterinary Research Institute | Cernohorska H.,Veterinary Research Institute | Cabelova K.,Veterinary Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Applied Genetics | Year: 2012

A taxonomic division of the family Bovidae (Artiodactyla) is difficult and the evolutionary relationships among most bovid subfamilies remain uncertain. In this study, we isolated the cattle satellite I clone BTREP15 (1.715 satellite DNA family) and autosomal centromeric DNAs of members of ten bovid tribes. We wished to determine whether the analysis of fluorescence in situ hybridization patterns of the cattle satellite I clone (BTREP15) and tribe-specific centromeric repeats isolated by laser microdissection would help to reveal some of the ambiguities occurring in the systematic classification of the family Bovidae. The FISH study of the presence and distribution of the cattle satellite I clone BTREP15 (1.715 satellite DNA family) within members of ten bovid tribes was not informative. FISH analysis of autosomal centromeric DNA probes in several species within one tribe revealed similar hybridization patterns in autosomes confirming tribal homogeneity of these probes. Sex chromosomes showed considerable variation in sequence composition and arrangement not only between tribes but also between species of one tribe. According to our findings it seems that Oreotragus oreotragus developed its own specific satellite DNA which does not hybridize to any other bovid species analysed. Our results suggest O. oreotragus as well as Aepyceros melampus may be unique species not particularly closely related to any of the recognized bovid tribes. This study indicates the isolation of tribe-specific centromeric DNAs by laser microdissection and cloning the sequence representing the main motif of these repetitive DNAs could offer the perspectives for comparative phylogenetic studies. © 2012 Institute of Plant Genetics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Poznan. Source


Vozdova M.,Veterinary Research Institute | Sebestova H.,Veterinary Research Institute | Kubickova S.,Veterinary Research Institute | Cernohorska H.,Veterinary Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Applied Genetics | Year: 2014

The captive bred animal populations showing centric fusion polymorphism can serve as a model for analysis of the impact of the rearrangement on meiosis and reproduction. The synapsis of homologous chromosomes and the frequency and distribution of meiotic recombination events were studied in pachytene spermatocytes of captive bred male impalas (Aepyceros melampus) polymorphic for der(14;20) by immunofluorescent analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization. The chromosomes 14 and 20 involved in the centric fusion were significantly shorter due to the loss of sat I repeats indicating ancient origin of the rearrangement. The fused chromosome and the normal acrocentric chromosomes 14 and 20 formed trivalent in pachynema which showed either protruding proximal ends of the acrocentric chromosomes or single axis with synaptic adjustment in the pericentromeric region. There was no significant difference in the number of recombination events per cell between the group of translocation heterozygotes and the animals with normal karyotype. A significant reduction in the number of recombination events was observed in the trivalent chromosomes compared to the normal chromosomes 14 and 20. The level of the recombination reduction was related to the trivalent configuration. The centric fusion der(14;20) was not apparently demonstrated by any spermatogenic defects or reproductive impairment in heterozygous impalas. However, the high incidence of the chromosomal polymorphism within the captive bred population shows the importance of cytogenetic examinations in captive breeding and wildlife conservation programs, especially in the case of reintroduction of the endangered species. © 2014 Institute of Plant Genetics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Poznan. Source


Pagacova E.,Veterinary Research Institute | Cernohorska H.,Veterinary Research Institute | Kubickova S.,Veterinary Research Institute | Vahala J.,Zoo Dvur Kralove | Rubes J.,Veterinary Research Institute
Conservation Genetics | Year: 2011

Chromosomes of 228 captive specimens of the family Bovidae have been investigated. The examined animals were classified into the subfamilies Aepycerotinae, Reduncinae, Antilopinae, Alcelaphinae, Hippotraginae and Bovinae. Polymorphism for one fusion was identified in the species: Aepyceros melampus, 2n = 59-60; Redunca fulvorufula, 2n = 56-57; Kobus e. ellipsiprymnus, 2n = 50-52; Kobus e. defassa, 2n = 52-54 and Syncerus c. nanus, 2n = 54-55. This is the first study to reveal fusion 7;29 in Kobus e. defassa and simultaneously the respective polymorphism. Variation in the diploid number of chromosomes is also known in species: Oryx g. dammah and Oryx g. leucoryx but in this study only fusion 1;25 was identified in both karyotyped species. Our study showed that 13% of investigated individuals were polymorphic for the centric fusion and demonstrated the important role of cytogenetic screening in captive animals at zoological gardens. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source


Cernohorska H.,Veterinary Research Institute | Kubickova S.,Veterinary Research Institute | Vahala J.,Zoo Dvur Kralove | Rubes J.,Veterinary Research Institute
Cytogenetic and Genome Research | Year: 2012

For a clade that includes Antilope, Gazella,Nanger and Eudorcas (Antilopinae), X;BTA5 translocation is a synapomorphy. Using a combination of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) probes and polymerase chain reaction techniques, we provide (i) the first insight into the X;BTA5 architecture which differs in the species under study: Antilope cervicapra (genus Antilope), Gazella leptoceros (genus Gazella) and Nanger dama ruficollis (genus Nanger), (ii) determination of interstitial satellite DNA at the X;BTA5 junctions, and (iii) determination of repetitive sequences occupying constitutive heterochromatin of Xp arms in the studied species. The distribution of 2 repetitive DNA families in the centromeric regions of all chromosomes has been investigated by FISH with probes representing satellite I and satellite II DNA in all studied species. In this context, we discuss a markedly smaller centromere in the BTA5 (Y2) unfused chromosomes in males in the XY1Y2 determining system in comparison with other acrocentrics. An analysis of karyotypic data described in current published studies revealed a disparity with the data determined by FISH. In this report, we document chromosomal fusions in the 3 species mentioned resulting from FISH with painting probes prepared from cattle (Bos taurus). The number and chromosomal location of nucleolus organizer regions were determined by FISH. In the present study, we emphasize the importance of chromosomal rearrangement verification, particularly, if they are used for phylogenetic analysis. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG. Source

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