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Verma A.K.,DUVASU | Dhama K.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Chakraborty S.,Pt. Nehru Complex | Singh S.V.,Central Institute for Research on Goats
Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances | Year: 2014

Since, last several years, efforts are going on to eradicate or eliminate a number of infectious diseases of animals, with mixed success. Basically for eradicating, eliminating or controlling any infectious disease isolation and quarantine of sick animals as well as animals suspected for disease; strengthening disease monitoring and surveillance, effective vaccines and vaccination strategies along with other control measures including of treatment are of utmost importance. Most importantly a significant knowledge is required for countering infectious diseases and assessing the criteria for selection of disease to be eradicated next. The role of environmental factors in the process of disease dynamics need to be understood which further plays a contributory role in the process of combating and elimination of diseases. Despite continuous efforts against animal diseases like Rinderpest, Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) and Foot-and-mouth disease, Rinderpest (cattle plague) is the only one that is successfully eradicated till date in India. However, control programmes on CBPP also brought a significant reduction in the incidence of the disease but eradication status is yet to be declared. While the other disease control programmes viz., Foot-and-Mouth Disease Control Programme (FMDCP), National Control Programme on Brucellosis (NCPB), National Control Programme of Peste des Petits Ruminants (NCPPPR) and Avian Influenza: Preparedness, Control and Containment could not achieve the desired success. Nowadays, with the achievement of the global eradication status on rinderpest there is again a renewed interest in disease eradication and control of infectious diseases of animals and alleviating their public health concerns. The focus is also being given in the 12th five year plan of the country on monitoring and control of certain animal diseases of economic importance. In view of above facts, this is right time to discuss the strategies for combating and eradicating important infectious diseases of animals with particular reference to India, achievements of global rinderpest eradication programme and reasons thereof and possibly apply lessons while planning for the future activities. This article describes various prevention and control strategies for controlling the infectious diseases of animals that have been or should be targeted for eradication or elimination, direct and indirect benefits from control programmes, issues and opportunities for the future. © 2014 Academic Journals Inc.

Tiwari R.,Uttar Pradesh Pandit Deen Dayal Upadhayay | Dhama K.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Chakraborty S.,Pt. Nehru Complex | Kumar A.,Uttar Pradesh Pandit Deen Dayal Upadhayay | And 2 more authors.
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences | Year: 2014

Since the discovery of bacteriophages at the beginning of the 19th century their contribution to bacterial evolution and ecology and use in a variety of applications in biotechnology and medicine has been recognized and understood. Bacteriophages are natural bacterial killers, proven as best biocontrol agents due to their ability to lyse host bacterial cells specifically thereby helping in disease prevention and control. The requirement of such therapeutic approach is straight away required in view of the global emergence of Multidrug Resistant (MDR) strains of bacteria and rapidly developing resistance to antibiotics in both animals and humans along with increasing food safety concerns incuding of residual antibiotic toxicities. Phage typing is a popular tool to differentiate bacterial isolates and to identify and characterize outbreak-associated strains of Salmonella, Campylobacter, Escherichia and Listeria. Numerous methods viz. plaque morphology, ultracentrifugation in the density gradient of CsCl2, and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) have been found to be effective in detection of various phages. Bacteriophages have been isolated and recovered from samples of animal waste products of different livestock farms. High titer cocktails of broad spectrum lytic bacteriophages are usually used for clinical trial for assessing their therapeutic efficacy against antibiotic unresponsive infections in different animals. Bacteriophage therapy also helps to fight various bacterial infections of poultry viz. colibacillosis, salmonellosis and listeriosis. Moreover, the utility of phages concerning biosafety has raised the importance to explore and popularize the therapeutic dimension of this promising novel therapy which forms the topic of discussion of the present review. © 2014 Asian Network for Scientific Information.

Kumar R.,DUVASU | Verma A.K.,DUVASU | Kumar A.,DUVASU | Srivastava M.,DUVASU | Lai H.P.,DUVASU
Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances | Year: 2012

Campylobacteriosis is one of the leading causes of gastroenteritis in humans and various researches suggested that owning a pet is a risk factor for the disease. To determine the prevalence and risk indicators for Campylobacter sp. infecting dogs attending veterinary practice at TVCC, DUVASU, Mathura, 100 dogs with and without the clinical symptoms of diarrhoea were examined and the prevalence of Campylobacter sp. was 51.0%. Breed wise prevalence showed that nondescript (73.68%) dogs were more likely to carry Campylobacter sp. A significant difference in isolation rates was observed between younger and older dogs: 56.58% of the younger dogs (< 1 year) were positive, compared with 33.33% of adult dogs (> 1 year) (p<0.01) as seen at the veterinary University, Mathura, India. Dogs sharing a household with another dog, dogs that had not received antibiotic treatment in the previous months and the age of the dog were significant indicators of Campylobacter carriage. Recent diarrhoea or vomiting in dogs with Campylobacter, breed, sex or vaccination status were not statistically significant. The high prevalence of Campylobacter in puppies supports the hypothesis that dogs, particularly young ones shed Campylobacter spp., which can be of impact for public health. © 2012 Academic Journals Inc.

Bhat Z.F.,Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology | Pathak V.,DUVASU | Fayaz H.,University Of Kashmir
Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2013

Storage quality of chicken seekh kababs extended with different legumes at optimum level viz. 15% cowpea, 15% green gram and 10% black bean were assessed in terms of physico-chemical, proximate, microbiological and sensory properties under aerobic packaging conditions at refrigeration temperature (4 ± 1 C). The chicken seekh kababs were prepared from spent hens meat by low power microwave method and extended with optimum level of different legume (hydrated 1:1 w/w) pastes replacing lean meat in the formulation. The chicken seekh kababs formulated without any extender served as control and were compared with extended chicken seekh kababs. The kababs were aerobically packaged in low density polyethylene (LDPE) pouches and were analyzed at a regular interval of 0, 7, 14 and 21 days during refrigerated storage at 4 ± 1 C. The results indicated a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in moisture content of the kababs whereas the fat and ash content increased significantly (p < 0.05) over the period of storage. Protein percentage showed a non-significant (p > 0.05) increase and almost all the sensory attributes showed a declining trend with advancement of storage. Total plate count and psychrophillic count also increased significantly (p < 0.05) whereas coliforms were not detected throughout the period of storage. The products were acceptable throughout the storage period. © 2011 Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India).

Bhat Z.F.,Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology | Pathak V.,DUVASU
Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2012

Harrisa is a popular indigenous meat based product of Jammu and Kashmir. An attempt was made to standardize the basic formulation and processing conditions for the preparation of the Harrisa using mutton meat. The product so developed was packed in low density polyethylene pouches (LDPE) and evaluated for a shelf life of 1 week at refrigeration (4±1°C) temperature for various physicochemical, microbiological and sensory attributes. The mean values of pH, protein percent, fat percent and ash percent of the product increased significantly (P<0.05) whereas the mean moisture percent showed a significantly (P<0.05) decreasing trend during refrigerated storage. The mean scores of all the sensory parameters decreased significantly (P<0.05) with storage. Total plate count and psychrophilic count increased significantly (P<0.05) whereas the coliforms were not detected throughout the period of storage. Thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS) and free fatty acid (% oleic acid) values also increased significantly (P<0.05) with storage period. Although storage resulted in significant decrease in almost all the quality attributes and sensory scores but the changes were within the limits of acceptability. The product was acceptable for a period of one week under refrigerated conditions. © Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2010.

Mahima,DUVASU | Rahal A.,DUVASU | Deb R.,Indian Council of Agricultural Research | Latheef S.K.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | And 5 more authors.
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences | Year: 2012

Herbs/Botanical plants are considered as God's gift to human beings in the form of natural medicines, like the one well known "Sanjeevani booti" described in Hindu Mythology. The traditional and ethno-veterinary practices have been in use for centuries, transferring the knowledge from generation to generation and they are accessible, easy to prepare and administer, with little or no cost at all. Even though the modem developments in therapeutic field brought about a rapid decline in traditional medicine, the plant-based remedies are still having a crucial role as potential source of therapeutic aids in health systems all over the world for both humans and animals. Among the 21,000 medicinal plants listed by the World Health Organization (WHO), 2500 species are native to India, which stands first in the production of medicinal herbs. This innumerable treasure of medicinal herbs brings India the distinction of 'the botanical garden of the world'. Nowadays immune-based therapies are gaining more importance than monovalent approaches which are having limited benefits. Apart from the actions like treating diseases, control of ecto- and endo-parasites, fertility enhancement, bone setting and poor mothering management, an array of herbal medicines have been reported which are having immunomodulatory effects like modulation of cytokine secretion, histamine release, immunoglobulin secretion, class switching, cellular co-receptor expression, lymphocyte expression, phagocytosis and so on. The present article describes in brief few of these important ones viz., ashwagandha, amla, tulsi, arjuna, aloe vera, garlic, turmeric, ginger, shatavari, neem, guduchi, kiwifruit, tut, kamala, palashlata, kokilaksha etc. being used for human and animal health benefits. © 2012 Asian Network for Scientific Information.

Ahmad S.R.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Pathak V.,DUVASU | Bhat Z.F.,H+ Technology | Bukhari S.A.A.,Sagri foods P Ltd
Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2014

The present study was conducted to determine the effect of three different levels of sorbic acid (0.1 %, 0.2 % and 0.3 %) on the shelf life and storage quality of Kaladhi. Kaladhi was prepared from pasteurized buffalo milk standardized to 6 % fat and 9 % SNF with coagulation at 40 °C using 5 % lactic acid as a coagulant. Kaladhi prepared without sorbic acid served as control and was compared with the products treated with different levels of sorbic acid for a storage period of 35 days at ambient temperature. The results showed a significant (P < 0.05) effect of sorbic acid on most of the physicochemical parameters i.e. titratable acidity, free fatty acid content (% oleic acid) and thiobarbituric acid value which showed a decreasing trend with increasing concentration of sorbic acid. However, a non-significant (P > 0.05) effect of sorbic acid was observed on pH and proximate parameters of the product. Kaladhi treated with 0.3 % sorbic acid retained most desirable physicochemical and sensory properties throughout the storage period hence, was considered the best. © 2013, Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India).

Mahima,DUVASU | Verma A.K.,DUVASU | Kumar A.,DUVASU | Rahal A.,DUVASU | And 2 more authors.
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences | Year: 2012

Selenium is an essential trace element in the diets which is required for maintenance of health, growth and biochemical-physiological functions. The area covered in this review has been rapidly unfolding in recent years and has already acquired a vast spread. This study presents a concise introductory overview of the effect of organic and inorganic selenium on growth performance, carcass traits, daily egg production, egg quality, Se uptake in various tissues and plasma and plasma glutathione peroxidase activity in animals. © 2012 Asian Network for Scientific Information.

PubMed | Indian Veterinary Research Institute, DUVASU, b National Institute of Veterinary Epidemiology and Disease Informatics and GADVASU
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Critical reviews in food science and nutrition | Year: 2015

Campylobacter is an emerging zoonotic bacterial threat in the poultry industry. Most of the human cases of campylobacteriosis recorded have revealed their poultry origins. Various control measures have been employed both at the farm and processing levels to combat with it. The antibiotic treatment, phage therapy, competitive exclusion, and vaccination have been adapted at the farm level to reduce colonization of Campylobacter in poultry gut. While prevention of intestinal spillage, scheduled slaughter, logistic slaughter, chemical decontamination of carcasses are recommended to reduce contamination during processing. The postharvest interventions such as heat treatment, freezing, irradiation of contaminated carcass can effectively reduce Campylobacter contamination. Thus, integrated approaches are required to tackle infection of Campylobacter in humans.

PubMed | Indian Veterinary Research Institute, b Veterinary College and Research Institute, DUVASU, Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University and g Avian Viral Diseases Programme Compton Laboratory
Type: | Journal: The Veterinary quarterly | Year: 2016

Haemorrhagic enteritis virus (HEV), an adenovirus associated with acute hemorrhagic gastro-intestinal disease of 6-11 weeks old turkeys predominantly hampers both humoral and cellular immunity. Affected birds are more prone to secondary complications (like colibacillosis and clostridiosis) and failure to mount an effective vaccine-induced immune response. HEV belongs to the new genus Siadenovirus. Feco-oral transmission is the main route of entry of the virus and it mainly colonizes bursa, intestine and spleen. Both naturally occurring virulent and avirulent strains of HEVs are serologically indistinguishable. Recent findings revealed that ORF1, E3 and fib genes are the key factors affecting virulence. The adoption of suitable diagnostic tools, proper vaccination and biosecurity measures have restrained the occurrence of disease epidemics. For diagnostic purposes, the best source of HEV is either intestinal contents or samples from spleen. For rapid detection highly sensitive and specific tests such as quantitative real time PCR based on Taq man probe has been designed. Avirulent strains of HEV or MSDV can be effectively used as live vaccines. Novel vaccines include recombinant hexon protein-based subunit vaccines or recombinant virus-vectored vaccines using fowl poxvirus (FPV) expressing the native hexon of HEV. Notably, subunit vaccines and recombinant virus vectored vaccines altogether offer high protection against challenge or field viruses. Herein, we converse a comprehensive analysis of the HEV genetics, disease pathobiology, advancements in diagnosis and vaccination along with appropriate prevention and control strategies.

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