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Mathura, India

Tiwari R.,Uttar Pradesh Pandit Deen Dayal Upadhayay | Dhama K.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Chakraborty S.,Pt. Nehru Complex | Kumar A.,Uttar Pradesh Pandit Deen Dayal Upadhayay | And 2 more authors.
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences

Since the discovery of bacteriophages at the beginning of the 19th century their contribution to bacterial evolution and ecology and use in a variety of applications in biotechnology and medicine has been recognized and understood. Bacteriophages are natural bacterial killers, proven as best biocontrol agents due to their ability to lyse host bacterial cells specifically thereby helping in disease prevention and control. The requirement of such therapeutic approach is straight away required in view of the global emergence of Multidrug Resistant (MDR) strains of bacteria and rapidly developing resistance to antibiotics in both animals and humans along with increasing food safety concerns incuding of residual antibiotic toxicities. Phage typing is a popular tool to differentiate bacterial isolates and to identify and characterize outbreak-associated strains of Salmonella, Campylobacter, Escherichia and Listeria. Numerous methods viz. plaque morphology, ultracentrifugation in the density gradient of CsCl2, and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) have been found to be effective in detection of various phages. Bacteriophages have been isolated and recovered from samples of animal waste products of different livestock farms. High titer cocktails of broad spectrum lytic bacteriophages are usually used for clinical trial for assessing their therapeutic efficacy against antibiotic unresponsive infections in different animals. Bacteriophage therapy also helps to fight various bacterial infections of poultry viz. colibacillosis, salmonellosis and listeriosis. Moreover, the utility of phages concerning biosafety has raised the importance to explore and popularize the therapeutic dimension of this promising novel therapy which forms the topic of discussion of the present review. © 2014 Asian Network for Scientific Information. Source

Bhat Z.F.,Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology | Pathak V.,DUVASU | Fayaz H.,University Of Kashmir
Journal of Food Science and Technology

Storage quality of chicken seekh kababs extended with different legumes at optimum level viz. 15% cowpea, 15% green gram and 10% black bean were assessed in terms of physico-chemical, proximate, microbiological and sensory properties under aerobic packaging conditions at refrigeration temperature (4 ± 1 C). The chicken seekh kababs were prepared from spent hens meat by low power microwave method and extended with optimum level of different legume (hydrated 1:1 w/w) pastes replacing lean meat in the formulation. The chicken seekh kababs formulated without any extender served as control and were compared with extended chicken seekh kababs. The kababs were aerobically packaged in low density polyethylene (LDPE) pouches and were analyzed at a regular interval of 0, 7, 14 and 21 days during refrigerated storage at 4 ± 1 C. The results indicated a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in moisture content of the kababs whereas the fat and ash content increased significantly (p < 0.05) over the period of storage. Protein percentage showed a non-significant (p > 0.05) increase and almost all the sensory attributes showed a declining trend with advancement of storage. Total plate count and psychrophillic count also increased significantly (p < 0.05) whereas coliforms were not detected throughout the period of storage. The products were acceptable throughout the storage period. © 2011 Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India). Source

Verma A.K.,DUVASU | Dhama K.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Chakraborty S.,Pt. Nehru Complex | Singh S.V.,Central Institute for Research on Goats
Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances

Since, last several years, efforts are going on to eradicate or eliminate a number of infectious diseases of animals, with mixed success. Basically for eradicating, eliminating or controlling any infectious disease isolation and quarantine of sick animals as well as animals suspected for disease; strengthening disease monitoring and surveillance, effective vaccines and vaccination strategies along with other control measures including of treatment are of utmost importance. Most importantly a significant knowledge is required for countering infectious diseases and assessing the criteria for selection of disease to be eradicated next. The role of environmental factors in the process of disease dynamics need to be understood which further plays a contributory role in the process of combating and elimination of diseases. Despite continuous efforts against animal diseases like Rinderpest, Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) and Foot-and-mouth disease, Rinderpest (cattle plague) is the only one that is successfully eradicated till date in India. However, control programmes on CBPP also brought a significant reduction in the incidence of the disease but eradication status is yet to be declared. While the other disease control programmes viz., Foot-and-Mouth Disease Control Programme (FMDCP), National Control Programme on Brucellosis (NCPB), National Control Programme of Peste des Petits Ruminants (NCPPPR) and Avian Influenza: Preparedness, Control and Containment could not achieve the desired success. Nowadays, with the achievement of the global eradication status on rinderpest there is again a renewed interest in disease eradication and control of infectious diseases of animals and alleviating their public health concerns. The focus is also being given in the 12th five year plan of the country on monitoring and control of certain animal diseases of economic importance. In view of above facts, this is right time to discuss the strategies for combating and eradicating important infectious diseases of animals with particular reference to India, achievements of global rinderpest eradication programme and reasons thereof and possibly apply lessons while planning for the future activities. This article describes various prevention and control strategies for controlling the infectious diseases of animals that have been or should be targeted for eradication or elimination, direct and indirect benefits from control programmes, issues and opportunities for the future. © 2014 Academic Journals Inc. Source

Bhat Z.F.,Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology | Pathak V.,DUVASU
Journal of Food Science and Technology

Harrisa is a popular indigenous meat based product of Jammu and Kashmir. An attempt was made to standardize the basic formulation and processing conditions for the preparation of the Harrisa using mutton meat. The product so developed was packed in low density polyethylene pouches (LDPE) and evaluated for a shelf life of 1 week at refrigeration (4±1°C) temperature for various physicochemical, microbiological and sensory attributes. The mean values of pH, protein percent, fat percent and ash percent of the product increased significantly (P<0.05) whereas the mean moisture percent showed a significantly (P<0.05) decreasing trend during refrigerated storage. The mean scores of all the sensory parameters decreased significantly (P<0.05) with storage. Total plate count and psychrophilic count increased significantly (P<0.05) whereas the coliforms were not detected throughout the period of storage. Thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS) and free fatty acid (% oleic acid) values also increased significantly (P<0.05) with storage period. Although storage resulted in significant decrease in almost all the quality attributes and sensory scores but the changes were within the limits of acceptability. The product was acceptable for a period of one week under refrigerated conditions. © Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2010. Source

Chandra G.,SVBPUAT | Kumar M.,DUVASU
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences

The study was conducted to elucidate the changes in circulatory plasma levels of hepatic enzymes in vitamin E and zinc supplemented periparturient Sahiwal cows. Sahiwal cows (18) were selected from the institute herd, apparently healthy and in advanced state of pregnancy. The cows were randomly divided into 3 groups 6 cows in each, viz. control, treatment 1 (T1) and treatment 2 (T2). Control group was fed a control diet as practiced for pregnant cows in NDRI dairy farm. The treatment 1 (T1) group was supplemented with zinc@60 ppm/day/cow and treatment 2 (T2) group was supplemented a mixture of vitamin E@1000 IU/day/animal and zinc@60 ppm/ day/cow with control diet during day 60 prepartum to day 90 postpartum. Plasma was analyzed for alkalline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). ALP levels were differing significantly in all 3 groups. ALT level was significantly lower in treatment 2 as comparison to its level of both control and treatment 1 animals. AST level was also significantly lower in treatment 2 as comparison to its level of both control and treatment 1 animals. The study indicated that vitamin E and zinc supplementation lowers these hepatic enzymes in blood plasma, prevents oxidative damage of liver and improves the health condition of liver. Source

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