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Apeldoorn, Netherlands

Melchior M.B.,University Utrecht | Melchior M.B.,Central Veterinary Institute of Wageningen UR | van Osch M.H.J.,University Utrecht | Lam T.J.G.M.,GD Animal Health Service | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2011

Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most prevalent causes of bovine mastitis. The antimicrobial treatment of this disease is currently based on antimicrobial susceptibility tests according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute standards. However, various authors have shown a discrepancy between the results of this standard susceptibility test and the actual cure rate of the applied antimicrobial treatment. Increasing evidence suggests that in vivo biofilm formation by Staph. aureus, which is not assessed in the antimicrobial susceptibility tests, is associated with this problem, resulting in disappointing cure rates, especially for infections of longer duration. Previous data obtained with a limited number of strains showed that the extended biofilm antimicrobial susceptibility (EBS) assay reveals differences between strains, which cannot be derived from a standard susceptibility test or from a 24-h biofilm susceptibility test. The objective of this study was to test a collection of Staph. aureus bovine mastitis strains in the EBS assay and to model the effect of antimicrobial exposure, duration of antimicrobial exposure, and genotype profile of the strains on antimicrobial susceptibility. With the results from a previous study with the same collection of strains, the effect of genotype represented by accessory gene regulator gene (agr-type), the presence of insertional sequence 257 (IS257), intercellular adhesion (ica), and the β-lactamase (blaZ) gene were entered as explanatory factors in a logistic regression model. The agr locus of Staph. aureus controls the expression of most of the virulence factors, represses the transcription of several cell wall-associated proteins, and activates several exoproteins during the post-exponential phase. The IS257 gene has been related to biofilm formation in vitro and was found earlier in 50% of the agr-type 2 strains. The ica gene cluster encodes for the production of an extracellular polysaccharide adhesin, termed polysaccharide intercellular adhesin, which appears to have an important role in pathogenic Staph. aureus infections. The blaZ gene encodes the presence of the penicillin resistance in the strain. The EBS assay together with the logistic regression model revealed that the duration of therapy is the most important factor of therapy outcome in this in vitro model. Furthermore, the effect of genotypic differences seems to be more important for therapy outcome than the antimicrobial used in this model. © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Source

Sampimon O.,GD Animal Health Service | Van Den Borne B.H.,University Utrecht | Santman-Berends I.,GD Animal Health Service | Barkema H.W.,University of Calgary | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Research | Year: 2010

The effect was quantified of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) intramammary infections on quarter- and cow-level somatic cell count (SCC) and on bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) in different BMSCC cohorts in Dutch dairy herds. Two datasets were used for this purpose. In the first dataset, on 49 randomly selected dairy farms a total of 4220 quarter milk samples of 1072 cows were collected of all cows and heifers with a test-day SCC ≥ 250 000 and ≥ 150 000 cells/ml, respectively, and of 25% of cows and heifers below these thresholds. In the second dataset, on 39 selected dairy farms a total of 8329 quarter milk samples of 2115 cows were collected of all cows with a test-day SCC ≥ 250 000 cells/ml following two consecutive SCC <250 000 cells/ml, and of heifers using the same SCC criteria but with a threshold of 150 000 cells/ml. These cows and heifers were defined as new high SCC. In both datasets, CNS was the most frequently isolated pathogen, 11% in the first dataset and 12% in the second dataset. In both datasets, quarters with CNS IMI had a lower SCC than quarters infected with major pathogens, and a higher SCC than culture-negative quarters. The same was found for SCC at cow level. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were more often found in quarters with SCC ≥ 200 000 cells/ml in dairy farms with a BMSCC <150 000 cells/ml compared with dairy farms with a higher BMSCC. Prevalence of CNS in cows and heifers with a high SCC was higher in dairy farms with a BMSCC <150 000 cells/ml compared with dairy farms with a medium or high BMSCC: 30, 19 and 18%, respectively. This indicates that CNS IMI as a cause of subclinical mastitis is relatively more important in dairy farms with a low BMSCC and may become a point of attention in udder health management on that type of farm. © 2010 Proprietors of Journal of Dairy Research. Source

Jansen J.,Wageningen University | van Schaik G.,GD Animal Health Service Ltd. | Renes R.J.,Wageningen University | Lam T.J.G.M.,GD Animal Health Service Ltd. | Lam T.J.G.M.,Dutch Udder Health Center
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2010

Over the years, much effort has been put into implementing mastitis control programs in herds. To further improve utilization of such programs, there needs to be an understanding of the attitudes, knowledge, and behavior of farmers regarding udder health, and the way this can be influenced by mastitis control programs. This study aimed to explore the effect of a national mastitis control program on Dutch farmers' attitudes, knowledge, and behavior regarding mastitis. A total of 378 dairy farmers completed a survey on attitudes, knowledge, and behavior regarding mastitis before the start of a national mastitis control program in 2004, and 204 completed a similar survey in the final year of the program (2009). Although the average annual bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) remained the same, the farmers' self-reported attitudes, knowledge, and behavior changed significantly. The problem level of BMSCC decreased from 285,000 cells/mL in 2004 to 271,000 cells/mL in 2009. More farmers perceived that they had sufficient knowledge about the prevention of mastitis (34% in 2004 vs. 53% in 2009) and they more often perceived that they knew the cause of a mastitis problem (25% in 2004 vs. 37% in 2009). The use of gloves for milking increased from 15 to 46%, the use of a standardized mastitis treatment protocol increased from 7 to 34%, and freestalls were cleaned more often (2.28 vs. 2.51 times/d) in 2009 compared with 2004. Most changes in attitudes, knowledge, and behavior did not differ between groups of dairy farmers whose herds had an initially low (≤162,000 cells/mL), medium (163,000 to 205,000 cells/mL), or high (>206,000 cells/mL) BMSCC. The high BMSCC group significantly decreased their annual BMSCC level by 15,000 cells/mL. Regression analysis showed that the decrease in BMSCC was associated with a change in farmers' perceptions (e.g., increased perceived knowledge about the effect of the milking machine on mastitis) and with a change in certain management practices (e.g., disinfecting all teats after milking). The results showed that a national mastitis control program affected the attitudes, knowledge, and behavior of farmers regarding mastitis and could contribute to udder health improvement in the long term. © 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Source

van den Borne B.H.P.,University Utrecht | Nielen M.,University Utrecht | van Schaik G.,GD Animal Health Service | Melchior M.B.,Central Veterinary Institute CVI | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2010

Staphylococcus aureus causes a wide range of diseases in multiple species. Some sequence types (ST) are observed in a variety of hosts, whereas other strains are mainly associated with bovine mastitis, suggesting host adaptation. We propose that host adaptation of Staph. aureus may influence bacteriological cure of bovine subclinical mastitis after antimicrobial treatment. To test this hypothesis, multilocus sequence typing was performed on Staph. aureus isolates from 60 treated and 79 untreated control quarters that were obtained from well-defined cohorts of dairy cows from a recently conducted randomized field trial on early treatment of subclinical mastitis. Bovine-associated ST were distinguished from non-bovine-associated ST based on the literature and public databases. The association between host adaptation and bacteriological cure was investigated using population-averaged logistic regression models. Thirteen ST were identified, with approximately 80% of isolates belonging to bovine-associated ST. The odds for cure were around 2.5 times as high for non-bovine-associated ST as for bovine ST in treated quarters, whereas no difference in spontaneous cure was observed in untreated control quarters. In addition, host adaptation was related to known predictors of cure, such as penicillin susceptibility and somatic cell count. All isolates belonging to non-bovine-associated ST were resistant to penicillin, whereas the majority of isolates belonging to bovine-associated ST were penicillin susceptible. Penicillin-resistant bovine-associated strains were associated with high somatic cell counts compared with other strains. The correlation between penicillin resistance, cell counts, and host adaptation may affect the association between host adaptation and cure. For diagnostic purposes, a simple and fast alternative to multilocus sequence typing of Staph. aureus to determine host adaptation may be valuable. © 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Source

van den Borne B.H.P.,University Utrecht | van Schaik G.,GD Animal Health Service | Lam T.J.G.M.,GD Animal Health Service | Lam T.J.G.M.,Dutch Udder Health Center | Nielen M.,University Utrecht
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2010

Composite somatic cell count data from the national test day recording and reported cases of farmer diagnosed clinical mastitis were used to estimate the occurrence of mastitis from July 2004 to June 2005 in primi- and multiparae in the Netherlands. Herds had to participate in the test day recording and had to have at least 50 cows. A random selection of 396 of these dairy herds provided composite somatic cell count data, while 205 dairy herds additionally reported on clinical mastitis cases. Prevalence of subclinical mastitis was calculated per herd as the proportion of cows with somatic cell count >200,000. cells/ml. The incidence rate to clinical mastitis was calculated as the number of clinical mastitis cases divided by the number of cow days at risk per herd. Negative binomial models were used to correct for overdispersion. Mean herd level subclinical mastitis prevalence was 12.8% (95% CI: 12.2-13.5%) in primi- and 27.1% (95% CI: 26.2-28.1%) in multiparae. Mean herd level clinical mastitis cases were observed 20.2 (95% CI: 18.3-22.4) and 39.6 (95% CI: 37.1-42.3) times per 100 cow-years at risk, respectively. Some herds had a high mastitis occurrence in one parity group, while it was low in the other. Parity-specific monitoring is needed to identify such herds. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source

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