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Medici A.,Centro Agricoltura Ambiente Giorgio Nicoli | Carrieri M.,Centro Agricoltura Ambiente Giorgio Nicoli | Scholte E.-J.,Dutch National Center for Monitoring of Vectors | Maccagnani B.,Centro Agricoltura Ambiente Giorgio Nicoli | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Economic Entomology | Year: 2011

To set up a sterile male technique program to control Aedes albopictus (Skuse) in areas in northern Italy, a pilot mass-rearing facility is under development. For this purpose, experiments were carried out to find the optimal larval density for the optimization of the rearing parameters, i.e., to obtain the fastest larval development, the highest larval and pupal survival rate, and large-sized pupae. Several different larval densities, from 40 to 2,874 larvae per liter, were tested. For densities from 40 to 600 larvae per liter significant size differences were found among pupae obtained under different larval densities. The larvae raised at the lowest density tended to be smaller and to develop most slowly, i.e., longer pupation time. Also, increasing water volume and depth seemed to negatively affect the pupation success. Compared with the other larval densities tested, the larvae reared at a density of 2,874 larvae per liter developed slightly faster and showed higher survival rates, indicating this density as appropriate for the development of a mass rearing, at least using the current larval diet. © 2011 Entomological Society of America.

Scholte E.J.,Dutch National Center for Monitoring of Vectors | Mars M.H.,Animal Health Service GD | Braks M.,National Institute for Public Health and the Environment RIVM | Den Hartog W.,Dutch National Center for Monitoring of Vectors | And 5 more authors.
Medical and Veterinary Entomology | Year: 2014

In 2011, Schmallenberg virus (SBV), a novel member of the Simbu serogroup, genus Orthobunyavirus, was identified as the causative agent of a disease in ruminants in Europe. Based on the current knowledge on arthropods involved in the transmission of Simbu group viruses, a role of both midges and mosquitoes in the SBV transmission cycle cannot be excluded beforehand. The persistence of SBV in mosquitoes overwintering at SBV-affected farms in the Netherlands was investigated. No evidence for the presence of SBV in 868 hibernating mosquitoes (Culex, Anopheles, and Culiseta spp., collected from January to March 2012) was found. This suggests that mosquitoes do not play an important role, if any, in the persistence of SBV during the winter months in northwestern Europe. © 2013 The Royal Entomological Society.

Hesson J.C.,Uppsala University | Rettich F.,National Institute of Public Health | Merdic E.,Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek | Vignjevic G.,Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek | And 10 more authors.
Medical and Veterinary Entomology | Year: 2014

Two species of arbovirus vector, Culex torrentium and Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae), occur in several European countries, but difficulties in their accurate identification and discrimination have hampered both detailed and large-scale distribution and abundance studies. Using a molecular identification method, we identified to species 2559 larvae of Cx. pipiens/torrentium collected from 138 sites in 13 European countries ranging from Scandinavia to the Mediterranean coast. In addition, samples of 1712 males of Cx. pipiens/torrentium collected at several sites in the Czech Republic were identified to species based on the morphology of their hypopygia. We found that the two species occur together in large areas of Europe, and that Cx. torrentium dominates in northern Europe and Cx. pipiens dominates south of the Alps. The transition in dominance occurs in central Europe, where both species are roughly equally common. There was a strong correlation between the length of the growing season at different sites and occurrences of the two species. As the growing season increases, the proportion and detection of Cx. torrentium decrease, whereas those of Cx. pipiens increase. The present findings have important consequences for the interpretation of the results of studies on major enzootic and link-vectors of mosquito-borne bird-associated viruses (i.e. Sindbis, West Nile and Usutu viruses), especially in central Europe and Scandinavia. © 2013 The Royal Entomological Society.

Brown J.E.,Yale University | Scholte E.-J.,Dutch National Center for Monitoring of Vectors | Dik M.,Dutch National Center for Monitoring of Vectors | den Hartog W.,Dutch National Center for Monitoring of Vectors | And 2 more authors.
Emerging Infectious Diseases | Year: 2011

During summer 2010, Aedes aegypti mosquitoes were discovered in the Netherlands. Using genetic markers, we tracked the origin of these mosquitoes to a tire shipment from Miami, Florida, USA. Surveillance of tire exports from the United States should be included as part of a comprehensive surveillance system.

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