Entity

Time filter

Source Type

Wageningen, Netherlands

Van Strien A.J.,Statistics Netherlands | Van Strien A.J.,University of Amsterdam | Van Swaay C.A.M.,Dutch Butterfly Conservation | Kery M.,Swiss Ornithological Institute
Ecological Applications | Year: 2011

The survival of many species in human-dominated, fragmented landscapes depends on metapopulation dynamics, i.e., on a dynamic equilibrium of extinctions and colonizations in patches of suitable habitat. To understand and predict distributional changes, knowledge of these dynamics can be essential, and for this, metapopulation studies are preferably based on long-time-series data from many sites. Alas, such data are very scarce. An alternative is to use opportunistic data (i.e., collected without applying standardized field methods), but these data suffer from large variations in field methods and search intensity between sites and years. Dynamic site-occupancy models offer a general approach to adjust for variable survey effort. These models extend classical metapopulation models to account for imperfect detection of species and yield estimates of the probabilities of occupancy, colonization, and survival of species at sites. By accounting for detection, they fully correct for among-year variability in search effort. As an illustration, we fitted a dynamic site-occupancy model to 60 years of presence-absence data (more precisely, detection-nondetection) of the heathland butterfly Hipparchia semele in The Netherlands. Detection records were obtained from a database containing volunteer-based data from 1950-2009, and nondetection records were deduced from database records of other butterfly species. Our model revealed that metapopulation dynamics of Hipparchia had changed decades before the species' distribution began to contract. Colonization probability had already started to decline from 1950 onward, but this was counterbalanced by an increase in the survival of existing populations, the result of which was a stable distribution. Only from 1990 onward was survival not sufficient to compensate for the further decrease of colonization, and occupancy started to decline. Hence, it appears that factors acting many decades ago triggered a change in the metapopulation dynamics of this species, which ultimately led to a severe decline in occupancy that only became apparent much later. Our study emphasizes the importance of knowledge of changes in survival and colonization of species in modern landscapes over a very long time scale. It also demonstrates the power of site-occupancy modeling to obtain important population dynamics information from databases containing opportunistic sighting records. © 2011 by the Ecological Society of America. Source


Xu J.,Guangdong Academy of Forestry | Huigens M.E.,Dutch Butterfly Conservation | Orr D.,North Carolina State University | Groot A.T.,University of Amsterdam | Groot A.T.,Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology
Ecological Entomology | Year: 2014

1. Chemical espionage in nature may occur when predators or parasitoids home in on animal or plant communication signals. Parasitoid wasps are known to use pheromones emitted by adults hosts to locate host eggs, larvae or pupae. The response of Trichogramma egg parasitoids to a synthetic sex pheromone blend of moths has been shown in a number of studies over the past 40 years. 2. Trichogramma pretiosum (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae) is a tiny parasitic wasp, attacking the eggs of the noctuid moth Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae). This study investigated whether T. pretiosum homes in on the sex pheromone of H. virescens at close range. The arrestment response of the wasps to sex pheromone gland extracts of two types of female moths, so-called high and low females, was also tested, referring to two selected extreme pheromone types of H. virescens. The study also investigated whether the wasps would mount females, possibly to hitchhike with them. 3. The wasps were arrested by the common, 'low' pheromone, but not by the rare, 'high' pheromone or by extracts from male hairpencils. The wasps did not show a preference for separate sex pheromone compounds, but when pre-exposed to the major sex pheromone component of H. virescens before the tests together with H. virescens eggs, they did show a preference, indicating learning behaviour. In the mounting experiments, mated females were mounted significantly more than virgin females or males, suggesting that hitchhiking is a strategy used by these wasps to locate moth eggs. 4. This represents the first study to show a differential response of parasitoid wasps to two different sex pheromone types in a single host species. The results warrant further investigations into the potential role of parasitic wasps in the evolution of sexual communication in moths. © 2014 The Royal Entomological Society. Source


Termaat T.,Dutch Butterfly Conservation | Van Grunsven R.H.A.,Wageningen University | Plate C.L.,Statistics Netherlands | Van Strien A.J.,Statistics Netherlands
Freshwater Science | Year: 2015

Many dragonfly species in The Netherlands declined in the 20th century because of acidification, eutrophication, and desiccation of lotic and lentic habitats and canalization of streams and rivers. These pressures peaked in the 1970s, when 26 of 65 native species had an unfavorable conservation status on the 1997 Dutch Red List. Since the 1980s, environmental regulations have led to improved water quality, and many habitat restoration projects have been carried out. We used standardized monitoring data (1999-2013) and unstandardized observations (1991-2013) to investigate how dragonflies have changed in the last 20 y on a national scale. We compared trends of dragonfly species from different habitat types and with southern vs northern distribution in Europe. Dragonflies recovered strongly in The Netherlands in a period of 20 y, probably because of recent habitat improvements. Lotic species have benefitted more than lentic species, and southern species have more positive trends than northern species, suggesting that climate change has contributed to the recovery. Dragonflies were resilient and able to quickly recover when their habitats were restored. Recovery has led to a better conservation status for many species. Unstandardized data delivered results consistent with those from monitoring data and had greater statistical power to detect trends because many more unstandardized data than standardized data were available. Thus, when the goal is to provide a general overview of changes in dragonflies, unstandardized data can outperform standardized abundance data. However, abundance data may deliver complementary information for individual species. Our results support the suitability of dragonflies as indicators of freshwater habitat condition, but they recover more strongly in The Netherlands than many other insects, possibly because of their higher dispersal abilities or different habitat requirements. © 2015 by The Society for Freshwater Science. Source


Devictor V.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Van Swaay C.,Dutch Butterfly Conservation | Brereton T.,Butterfly Conservation | Brotons L.,Catalan Ornithological Institute | And 20 more authors.
Nature Climate Change | Year: 2012

Climate changes have profound effects on the distribution of numerous plant and animal species. However, whether and how different taxonomic groups are able to track climate changes at large spatial scales is still unclear. Here, we measure and compare the climatic debt accumulated by bird and butterfly communities at a European scale over two decades (1990-2008). We quantified the yearly change in community composition in response to climate change for 9,490 bird and 2,130 butterfly communities distributed across Europe. We show that changes in community composition are rapid but different between birds and butterflies and equivalent to a 37 and 114ĝ€‰km northward shift in bird and butterfly communities, respectively. We further found that, during the same period, the northward shift in temperature in Europe was even faster, so that the climatic debts of birds and butterflies correspond to a 212 and 135ĝ€‰km lag behind climate. Our results indicate both that birds and butterflies do not keep up with temperature increase and the accumulation of different climatic debts for these groups at national and continental scales. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source


Van Strien A.J.,Statistics Netherlands | Van Strien A.J.,University of Amsterdam | Van Swaay C.A.M.,Dutch Butterfly Conservation | Termaat T.,Dutch Butterfly Conservation
Journal of Applied Ecology | Year: 2013

Summary: Many publications documenting large-scale trends in the distribution of species make use of opportunistic citizen data, that is, observations of species collected without standardized field protocol and without explicit sampling design. It is a challenge to achieve reliable estimates of distribution trends from them, because opportunistic citizen science data may suffer from changes in field efforts over time (observation bias), from incomplete and selective recording by observers (reporting bias) and from geographical bias. These, in addition to detection bias, may lead to spurious trends. We investigated whether occupancy models can correct for the observation, reporting and detection biases in opportunistic data. Occupancy models use detection/nondetection data and yield estimates of the percentage of occupied sites (occupancy) per year. These models take the imperfect detection of species into account. By correcting for detection bias, they may simultaneously correct for observation and reporting bias as well. We compared trends in occupancy (or distribution) of butterfly and dragonfly species derived from opportunistic data with those derived from standardized monitoring data. All data came from the same grid squares and years, in order to avoid any geographical bias in this comparison. Distribution trends in opportunistic and monitoring data were well-matched. Strong trends observed in monitoring data were rarely missed in opportunistic data. Synthesis and applications. Opportunistic data can be used for monitoring purposes if occupancy models are used for analysis. Occupancy models are able to control for the common biases encountered with opportunistic data, enabling species trends to be monitored for species groups and regions where it is not feasible to collect standardized data on a large scale. Opportunistic data may thus become an important source of information to track distribution trends in many groups of species. Opportunistic data can be used for monitoring purposes if occupancy models are used for analysis. Occupancy models are able to control for the common biases encountered with opportunistic data, enabling species trends to be monitored for species groups and regions where it is not feasible to collect standardized data on a large scale. Opportunistic data may thus become an important source of information to track distribution trends in many groups of species. © 2013 British Ecological Society. Source

Discover hidden collaborations