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van Hoof J.,Fontys University of Applied Sciences | van Hoof J.,Dutch Building Services Research Institute | Rutten P.G.S.,TU Eindhoven | Struck C.,Lucerne University of Applied Sciences | And 3 more authors.
Architectural Engineering and Design Management | Year: 2015

The design of healthcare facilities is a complex and dynamic process, which can be supported by design support models. This process involves a large number of stakeholders, of whom some have specific health-related needs. Evidence-based design is an emerging approach for the design of healthcare facilities, basing design choices on scientific data. Apart from the problems accompanying the limited access to, and limited availability of, scientific evidence, the design of a building itself is characterised by dimensional, technological and stakeholder complexities that are derived from technology philosophy. This article deals with the derivation of performance indicators and design solutions for healthcare facilities and links this search to the foundations of evidence-based building. The In2Health design model is elaborated as a framework to steer this process and support architects, programmers and process managers. The applicability of the model in the evaluation and design processes of buildings is illustrated by two case studies concerning (i) the evaluation of the indoor environment for older people with dementia and (ii) the design process of the redevelopment of an existing hospital. © 2014 Taylor & Francis. Source


Halawa E.,Charles Darwin University | Van Hoof J.,Fontys University of Applied Sciences | Van Hoof J.,Dutch Building Services Research Institute | Soebarto V.,University of Adelaide
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2014

Thermal comfort is determined by the combined effect of the six thermal comfort parameters: temperature, air moisture content, thermal radiation, air relative velocity, personal activity and clothing level as formulated by Fanger through his double heat balance equations. In conventional air conditioning systems, air temperature is the parameter that is normally controlled whilst others are assumed to have values within the specified ranges at the design stage. In Fanger's double heat balance equation, thermal radiation factor appears as the mean radiant temperature (MRT), however, its impact on thermal comfort is often ignored. This paper discusses the impacts of the thermal radiation field which takes the forms of mean radiant temperature and radiation asymmetry on thermal comfort, building energy consumption and air-conditioning control. Several conditions and applications in which the effects of mean radiant temperature and radiation asymmetry cannot be ignored are discussed. Several misinterpretations that arise from the formula relating mean radiant temperature and the operative temperature are highlighted, coupled with a discussion on the lack of reliable and affordable devices that measure this parameter. The usefulness of the concept of the operative temperature as a measure of combined effect of mean radiant and air temperatures on occupant's thermal comfort is critically questioned, especially in relation to the control strategy based on this derived parameter. Examples of systems which deliver comfort using thermal radiation are presented. Finally, the paper presents various options that need to be considered in the efforts to mitigate the impacts of the thermal radiant field on the occupants' thermal comfort and building energy consumption. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Halawa E.,Petronas University of Technology | Van Hoof J.,Fontys University of Applied Sciences | Van Hoof J.,Dutch Building Services Research Institute
Energy and Buildings | Year: 2012

The adaptive approach to thermal comfort has gained unprecedented exposure and rising status recently among the thermal comfort community at the apparent expense of the heat balance approach for the evaluation of naturally ventilated buildings. The main appeal of this adaptive approach lies in its simplicity whereby the comfort temperature is expressed as a function of the outdoor air temperature only. The main responsibility for attaining thermal comfort is given to the individual, who is supposed to have some degree of control over the personal thermal environment. The adjustment of expectation enables a wider comfort temperature range in which occupants feel comfortable. Arguments in favor of the adaptive approach have been based on the results from a large number of field studies conducted across the globe involving the occupants of various types of buildings. It is not surprising, therefore, to watch proliferation of papers on the adaptive approach in the scientific domain and the incorporation of adaptive findings into standards and guidelines. However, there are a number of issues in the advancement of this approach, which have had little exposure in the literature. This paper looks critically at the foundation and underlying assumptions of the adaptive model approach and its findings. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source


Balvers J.R.,BBA Indoor Environmental Consultancy | Boerstra A.C.,BBA Indoor Environmental Consultancy | Hofman M.,Dutch Building Services Research Institute | Hogeling J.,Dutch Building Services Research Institute | Weterings M.,Municipality of The Hague
12th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate 2011 | Year: 2011

An Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) label (or 'IEQ profile' as it is called in the Netherlands) has been developed in the Netherlands specifically for homes. The label is meant to be used in conjunction with the standard energy label and the graphic design is set up accordingly. The IEQ label expresses the 'risk level' for eight distinct IEQ aspects: thermal comfort in winter, overheating in summer, air exchange (ventilation), moisture & mould, combustion gasses (from heating appliances), daylight penetration, noise from installations and noise insulation. The method for the IEQ label has been recently published in the Netherlands and a pilot project has been carried out in which the first 11 homes in the Netherlands have been provided with this new IEQ label. Most people do not consider IEQ when e.g. buying or renovating a house. The IEQ label visualizes information about comfort and health quality of a home to (future) inhabitants. It thereby assists them in making informed decisions about comfort and health related issues when improving the energy performance. Source


Van Hoof J.,Dutch Building Services Research Institute | Hornstra L.M.,KWR Watercycle Research Institute | Van Der Blom E.,UNETO VNI | Nuijten O.W.,Dutch Building Services Research Institute | Van Der Wielen P.W.,KWR Watercycle Research Institute
Building Services Engineering Research and Technology | Year: 2014

Legislation in the Netherlands requires routine analysis of drinking water samples for cultivable Legionella species from high-priority installations. A field study was conducted to investigate the presence of Legionella species in thermostatic shower mixer taps. Water samples and the interior of ten thermostatic shower mixer taps were investigated for cultivable Legionella species. In seven cases, Legionella species was found in at least one of the samples. In four cases, Legionella species was detected in the biofilm on the thermostatic shower mixer taps interior, with the highest values on rubber parts, and in five cases in the cold supply water. These results show that thermostatic shower mixer taps can play a role in exceeding the threshold limit for cultivable Legionella species, but the cold supply water can also be responsible.Practical implications: This study showed that contamination of thermostatic shower mixer taps (TSMTs) with Legionella spp. was frequently observed in combination with contamination of the water system. Consequently, a combined focus is necessary to prevent the proliferation of cultivable Legionella spp. in TSMTs. In addition, the results also demonstrated that biofilms on rubbers inside the TSMT had high numbers of Legionella spp., probably because rubber contains relatively high concentrations of biodegradable substrates. Therefore, improvement of the rubber materials is necessary to reduce the proliferation of cultivable Legionella spp. in TSMTs. © 2014 The Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers. Source

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